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story unintentionally suggests. The Jewish influence in Khazaria was due to the encouragement given by the Chagans to Hebrew merchants."

Of the Jewish port of Tamatarkha more will be said presently; and we may notice the Jewish population at Jundār, a town in the Caucasus, which was governed in the ninth century by a relation of the Chagan, who is said to have prayed impartially with the Moslems on Friday, with the Jews on Saturday, and with the Christians on Sunday.

Somewhat later in the eighth century a princess of the Khazars married the Saracen governor of Armenia, and there was peace on the southern frontier till the reign of Harun alRashid. In A.D. 798 another marriage alliance was arranged between a daughter of the Chagan and one of the powerful family of the Barmecides. The lady died in Albania on the way to her bridal, and the officers who were in charge of her reported to her father their suspicion that she had been poisoned. The suggestion infuriated the Chagan, and in the following year the Khazars invaded Armenia, by the Gates of Derbend, and returned with an immense booty in captives.” Then Harun's son, Mamun, carried his arms victoriously into the land of the Khazars.

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§ 2. The Subjects and Neighbours of the Khazars

The Khazars had never succeeded in extending their lordship over their neighbours the ALANS, whose territory extended from the Caucasus to the banks of the river Kuban and was bounded on the west by the Euxine. The Alans, who

1 The Jewish rabbi who disputes is 4 Baladhuri (Marquart, op. cit. 37). already on the spot. The Letter of

Marquart, ib. 5. Joseph gives the date as about 340 years before his own time (c. A.D. 960). 6 The authority is Mukaddasi, who 340 is clearly corrupt, and if we read says that Mamun required the Chagan 240 with Westberg (op. cit. ii. 34), to embrace Islam (Marquart, ib. 3). we get c. A.D. 720 as the date.

Mamun governed Khurasan, under his 2 In the ninth century, Ibn Khur- father, from A.D. 799. He was also in dadhbah mentions that Jewish Khurasan, as Caliph, between A.D. merchants from Spain used to come 813 and 818. Marquart does not regularly overland, through the coun. decide the date of the campaign in try of the Slavs, to the capital of Khazaria. It is natural to suppose the Khazars (Chamlich). Marquart, that it was the reply to the Khazar

invasion of A.D. 799, and to assign it 3 Ibn Rusta and Gurdizi, 190 ; to the earlier period ; but cp. MarMarquart, op. cit. 20.

quart, 476,

op. cit. 24.

have survived to the present day under the name of the Ossetians, were a mainly pastoral people; their army consisted in cavalry; and they had a fortress, which was virtually impregnable, at the so-called Alan-gate of the Caucasus or Pass of Dariel.' We are told that the habitations of the people were so close together that when a cock crowed in one place he was answered by all the cocks in the rest of the kingdom. At some time before the tenth century the king adopted Christianity, but the mass of his subjects remained heathen.” He received his Christianity from Constantinople, and the Emperors appropriated to him the special title of exusiastes.3 Between the Alans and the Khazars were the habitations of the SARIRS, a heathen people whose name does not come into the annals of Byzantium."

North of the Alans, between the rivers Kuban and Don, the territory of the Khazars extended to the shores of the Maeotic lake," and at the mouth of that water they possessed the important town of Tamatarkha, the modern Taman, which had arisen close to the ancient Phanagoria, over against the city of Bosporos on the other side of the straits.

The commercial importance of Tamatarkha, which had a large Jewish population, will claim our attention presently. Bosporos itself, the ancient Pantikapaion, was under the control of the Khazars, and the Tetraxite Goths, who occupied the greater part of the Crimea, were subject to their sway. The Gothic capital, Doras, had been taken by the Khazars before A.D. 787, and in the following years the Goths, under the leadership of their bishop, had made an attempt to throw off the yoke of their powerful neighbours.

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i For descriptions of the Alans, see Gurdizi and Ibn Rusta, 193-194, and Masudi (Sprenger), 434 sqq. Cp. Marquart, op. cit. 164 sqq.

The King's title was baghāyar (Ibn R.) or karkundāj (Mas.). Arabic writers call the Alans Nandar, or Tūlash (?), with the second part of which Marquart connects the Georgian name Owsi (=Old Russian Yasi), whence the modern Ossetian.

2 That the Alans were still pagans in the ninth century is shown by Kulakovski, Viz. Vrem. v. 1 sqq. (1898).

3 Constantine, Cer. 688. a spiritual son of the Emperors (πνευματικών ημών τέκνον).

4 Of the Sarirs an account is preserved by Ibn Rusta and Gurdizi (187 sqq.), derived from their common ninthcentury source.

5 This country had been the habitation of the Utigurs — the malaià Βουλγαρία of Theophanes and Nicephorus. Cp. Marquart, op. cit. 503. After the sixth century we hear nothing more of this people, but their descendants may have still been there, nough of no political importance.

6 Shestakov, Pamiatniki, 35 sq. Vit. Joann. ep. Gotthiae, 191. The bishop John was taken prisoner, but succeeded in escaping to Amastris.

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North of the Don and extending to the banks of the Dnieper were the tents and hunting-grounds of the MAGYARS or Hungarians. The continuous history of this Finnish people, who lived by hunting and fishing, begins in the ninth century, and if we think we can recognise it under other names in the days of Attila and the early migrations, our conclusions are more or less speculative. It is, however, highly probable that the Magyars had lived or wandered for centuries in the regions of the Volga, had bowed to the sway of the great Hun, and had been affected by the manners of their Turkish neigh ) bours. They spoke a tongue closely akin to those of the Finns, the Ostyaks, the Voguls, and the Samoyeds, but it is likely that even before the ninth century it had been modified, in its vocabulary, by Turkish influence. A branch of the people penetrated in the eighth century south of the Caucasus, and settled on the river Cyrus, east of Tiflis and west of Partav, where they were known to the Armenians by the name of Sevordik or “Black children." These Black Hungarians, in the ninth century, destroyed the town of Shamkor, and the governor of Armenia repeopled it with Khazars who had been converted to Islam (A.D. 854-855).

On the northern shore of the Sea of Azov, and extending towards the Dnieper, was the land of the Inner or BLACK BULGARIANS," which thus lay between the Magyars and the

1 For criticism of the Arabic sources but it was profoundly modified by (Gurdizi, etc.) see Westberg, op. cit. Turkish. The well-known able attempt 20 sqq., Beitr. i. 24 sqq. Marquart, of Vámbéry to prove that it was (op. cit. 30-31, 516) places the Hun- originally a Turkish tongue (in his A garians between the Don and the magyarok eredete) has not convinced Kuban, but his interpretation has me, nor has it persuaded Marquart, been refuted by Westberg.

who has pertinent observations on the 2 Regino, s.a. 889, p. 132, ed. Kurze. subject (49). This is an insertion of Regino in his 5 Constantine, Cer. 687 eis tous y generaldescription which is transcribed άρχοντας των Σερβατιών (leg. Σεβορτίων, from Justinus, ii. 1-3.

Marquart) των λεγομένων μαύρα παιδία. Marquart finds their ancestors in Hence Marquart explains Eaßáptol the Akatzirs (cp. Priscus, fr. 8 in do paloi, said in De adm. imp. 169 to F.H.G. iv. 89; Jordanes, Get. c. 5) be the old name of the Hungarians, as and the Unigurs (op. cit. 40 sqq.); but "the lower Sevordik” (op. cit. 39-40); see the important work of K. Némäti, -ordik, children, he considers only an Nagy - Magyarország ismeretlen törté- Armenian transformation by popular nelmi okmánya (1911), where the etymology of Orgik=Ugrians. See passage in the Origines of Isidore of also W. Pécz in B.Z. vii. 201-202, Seville (ix. 2, § 66, in Migne, P.L. 82, 618-619. 334) is fully discussed. He likewise 6 For this we have the good authority identifies them with the Unigurs. of Baladhuri, who calls the Sevordik

Cp. Marquart, 53. The basis of Sāvardī. Marquart, ib. 36. the Hungarian language was Ugrian, ? See above, p. 337.

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Goths. The lower Dnieper seems to have formed the western boundary of the Khazar Empire, but their influence extended up that river, over some of the Eastern Slavs. The Slavs round Kiev paid at one time tribute to the Chagan, who perhaps ensured them against the depredations of the Magyars.

On the central Volga was the extensive territory of the BURDĀS, who were subject to the Khazars, and formed a barrier against the Outer Bulgarians, their northern neighbours, whose dominion lay on the Volga and its tributary the Kama, including the modern province of Kasan.3

If the Burdās served the Khazars as a barrier against the northern Bulgarians, they were also useful in helping to hold the PATZINAKS in check. This savage people possessed a wide dominion between the Volga and the Ural; their neighbours were, to the north-west the Burdās, to the north the Kipchaks, to the east the Uzes, to the south-west the Khazars. It would seem that some of their hordes pressed early in the ninth century, west of the Volga, into the basin of the Don, and became the formidable neighbours of the most easterly Slavonic tribes.4

§ 3. The Russians and their Commerce Such, in the early part of the ninth century, was the general chart of the Turkish Empire of the Khazars, their clients, and their neighbourş. Before we consider the import of this primitive world for the foreign policy of the Roman Empire, it is necessary to glance at yet another people, which was destined in the future to form the dominant state in the region of the Euxine and which, though its home still lay beyond

1 The Poliane ; see below, p. 412. tributary (ib. 19, and i. 385). Cp. Constantine, De adm. imp. 75, men- Masudi (Sprenger) 412, and see Mar. tions that Kiev was called Sambatas quart, xxxiii. and 336. (which has not been satisfactorily ex

3 From their chief town, Bulgar, plained; cp. Westberg, K. anal. ii. 12; Marquart, 198). The capital of the ,

the Bulgarians could sail down the Slavs, called Jirbab or Hruab by Ibn

Volga to Itil in less than three weeks Rusta (179), Jiraut by Gurdizi (178),

(Ibn Fadhlan, 202). is probably Kiev, and Westberg (ib. 4 For the boundaries of the Patzinaks 24) would read in the texts Chuyab. according to the early Arabic source

3 Ibn Rusta and Gurdizi, 158 sqq. of the ninth century, see Westberg, For the orthography see Westberg, K. anal. ii. 16 sqq., Beitr. i.:212-213. K. anal. ii. 14. He distinguishes the The Patzinaks or Pechenegs were Burdās from the Mordvins, and shows known to the Slavs as the Polovtsi, that the river Burdās means the the name they bear in the Chronicle central course of the Volga, not a of Pseudo-Nestor.

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the horizon of Constantinople and Itil, was already known to those cities by the ways of commerce. The RUSSIANS or Rūs were Scandinavians of Eastern Sweden...who, crossing the Baltic and sailing into the Gulf of Finland, had settled on Lake Ilmen, where they founded the island town, known as Novgorod, the Holmgard of Icelandic Saga, at the point where the river Volkhov issues from the northern waters of the lake. They were active traders, and they monopolized all the traffic of north-eastern Europe with the great capitals of the south, Constantinople, Baghdad, and Itil. Their chief wares were the skins of the castor and the black fox, swords, and men. The Slavs were their natural prey; 2 they used to plunder them in river expeditions, and often carry them off, to be transported and sold in southern lands. Many of the Slavs used to purchase immunity by entering into their service. The Russians did not till the soil, and consequently had no property in land; when a son was born, his father, with a drawn sword in his hand, addressed the infant: “I

“ leave thee no inheritance; thou shalt have only what thou winnest by this sword.” They were, in fact, a settlement of

1 The following account of the De adm. imp. 79), south of Novgorod, Russians and their commerce is derived towards Smolensk ; the Viatichi, on from the early Arabic source and from the river Oka, south of Moscow ; the the somewhat later book of Ibn Radimishchi, on the river Sozh', east Khurdadhbah, as elucidated by West- of the Dnieper; the Siever, on the berg, K. anal. ii. 23 sqq. and i. 372 sqq. river Desna, which joins the Dnieper As for the Scandinavian (Swedish) north of Kiev ; the Poliane (“ plainorigin of the Russians (Rūs 'Pus), the men"), probably west of Kiev; the evidence is overwhelming, and it is Drievliane (“men of the woods" ; now admitted by all competent in- Aepßlevīvoi, Const. op. cit. 166), pervestigators. The theory that they haps north of the Poliane; the were Slavs-of which Ilovaiski was Dregovichi (Apocyoußitat, ib. 79), the ablest exponent—was crushingly between the rivers Pripet and Düna; refuted by Pogodin, Kunik, and also the Tiver'tsi, on the Dniester Thomsen. The “ Norman

or “ Var

(whom Schafarik, ii. 133, finds in Conangian” question which raged in stantine, ib., reading των Τεβερβιάνων Russia at one time is no longer sub for Tô te B.); their neighbours the iudice. For a full examination of the Uglichi (identified by Schafarik with data, the English reader should con- Constantine's OÚltivoi, ib. 166); the sult Thomsen's Ancient Russia (see Bujani, so called from their habitation Bibliography, ii. 5). The theory pro- on the river Bug. Schafarik (ii. 113) pounded by Vasil’evski, in his old age, explains Constantine's Aevšavīvol (loc. that the Russians were (Crimean) cit.) as Luchane, whom he considers a Goths, and that 'Pús is a corruption of portion.of the Krivitsi. The localities ταυ-ροσ-κύθαι, may be mentioned as a of these tribes are mainly determined curiosity.

by the data in Pseudo-Nestor. See 2 The general disposition of the further Schafarik, ii. sect. 28, and cp. Slavonic tribes, as the Russians found the relevant articles in Leger's Index them, seems to have been as follows: to his Chronique de Nestor. the Krivichi (Kpißitcai, Constantine,

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