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heresy. The virtue of the saint proved efficacious; the young man recovered; but the repentance was hollow, he returned to his error; then retribution followed and he died. This is one of the numerous stories invented to glorify the abbot of Studion, the bulwark of image-worship.

One of the gravest offences of Theodore in the Emperor's eyes was doubtless his attempt to excite the Pope to intervene in the controversy. We have two letters which he, in conjunction with other image-worshippers, addressed to Pope Paschal I. from Bonita.? His secret couriers maintained communications with Rome, where some important members of the party had found a refuge, and Paschal was induced to send to Leo an argumentative letter in defence of images.

The rigour of the treatment dealt out to Theodore was exceptional. Many of the orthodox ecclesiastics who attended the Synod of April A.D. 815 submitted to the resolutions of that assembly. Those who held out were left at large till the end of the year, but early in A.D. 816 they were conducted to distant places of exile. This hardship, however, was intended only to render them more amenable to the gentler method of persuasion. After a few days, they were recalled to Constantinople, kept in mild confinement, and after Easter (April 20), they were handed over to John the Grammarian, who presided over the monastery of Saints Sergius and Bacchus. He undertook to convince the abbots of their theological error, and his efforts were crowned with success in the case of at least seven. Others resisted the arguments of the seducer, and among them were Hilarion, the Exarch of the Patriarchal monasteries, and Theophanes the Chronographer. 1 These details about Theodore's

nople (Ep. 277, Cozza-Luzi). banishment are derived from Theo. Methodius, abbot of Chênolakkos dore's Letters, from Michael's Vita (afterwards Patriarch of ConstantiTheodori, and a few from the Vita nople); John, Bishop of Monembasia Nicolai.

(Ep. 193, Cozza-Luzi) 2 Theodore, Epp. ii. 12 and 13. Part of this epistle is preserved in Paschal was elected in Jan. 817, and a Greek version and has been edited by the letters belong probably to 817 and G. Mercati, Note di letteratura biblica 818 respectively. John of Eukairia, a e cristiana antica = Studi i T'esti, 5), signatory of the first letter, did not 227 sqq., 1901.

It contains some argusign the second ; he had in the mean- ments which appear to be new, time joined the iconoclasts (ib. ii. 35). 6 Our chief source here is Theo

3 Dionysios who was in Rome at steriktos, Vit. Nic. xxx. sq. Nicetas, the beginning of 817 ; Euphemian (ib. abbot of Medikion, was taken to ii. 12); and Epiphanes, who was Masalaion (possibly in Lycaonia, cp. caught and imprisoned at Constanti- Ramsay, Asia Minor, 356), where he were true, the other biographer would 1 Sigriane has been located in the not have failed to mention it. environs of Kurchunlu, at the foot of 4 Ignatius, Vit. Nic. 206. The best Karadagh, between the mouth of the evidence for the severity of the perseRhyndakos and Cyzicus. See T. E. cution is in Theodore Stud.'s letters Euangelides, Η Μονή της Σιγριανής ή to Pope Paschal and the Patriarch of του Μεγάλου Αγρού (Athens, 1895) 11 Alexandria (Epp. ii. 12, 14). He 899. ; Pargoire, op. cit. 112 sqq. The mentions deaths from scourging and island of Kalonymos (ancient Besbikos, drownings in sacks (eioi de o kai modern Emir Ali Adasse), mentioned σακκισθέντες έθαλασσεύθησαν άωρία, ως in the biographies of Theophanes, who σαφές γέγονεν εκ των τούτους θεασαμένων, founded a monastery on it, lies due p. 1156).

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Theophanes, whose chronicle was almost our only guide) for the first twelve years of the ninth century, had lived a life unusually ascetic even in his own day, in the monastery of Agros, at Sigriane near Cyzicus. He had not been present at the Synod nor sent into exile, but in the spring of A.D. 816 the Emperor sent him a flattering message, couched in soft words, requesting him to come “to pray for us who are about to march against the Barbarians." Theophanes, who was suffering from an acute attack of kidney disease, obeyed the command, and was afterwards consigned to the custody of John. Proving obstinate he was confined in a cell in the Palace of Eleutherios for nearly two years, and when he was mortally ill of his malady, he was removed to the island of Samothrace where he expired (March 12, A.D. 818) about three weeks after his arrival.3

When we find that Leo's oppressions have been exaggerated in particular cases, we shall be all the more inclined to allow for exaggeration in general descriptions of his persecutions. We read that "some were put to death by the sword, others tied in sacks and sunk like stones in water, and women were stripped naked in the presence of men and scourged. If remained for only 5 days. He suc- north of the estuary of the Rhyndakos. cumbed to the arguments of John, Sigriane is to be carefully distinguished but afterwards repented, and was from Sigrene near the river Granikos, banished to the island of St. Glyceria with which Ramsay (Asia Minor, 162) “in the Gulf,” which Büttner-Wobst and others have identified it (Pargoire, (B.Z. vi. 98 sq.) identifies (unconvinc- ib. 45-47). ingly) with Niandro. See also Theo- 2 Nicephorus Blach. Vit. Theoph. dore, Ep. 79, Cozza-Luzi, and Epp. ii. Theophanes had stone in the 9; Sabas, Vit. Macar. 154 (Makarios bladder. of Pelekete was one of those who did 3 For the day see Anon. B. Vit. not yield); and the Vitae of Theo- Theoph. 397 (and Anon. C. 293). For phanes. John was assisted in his the year see Pargoire, op. cit. 73 sqq., work by Joseph, famous as the subject who fixes 818 by a process of exclusion. of the Moechian controversy. Theo- Note that Anon. A. (p. 12) and Theod. dore Stud. wrote to Theophanes Prot. Enkomion 616, say that Theo(while he was in SS. Sergius and phanes received 300 strokes before his Bacchus), congratulating him on his removal from Constantinople ; if this firmness (Ep. 140, Cozza-Luzi).

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such atrocities had been frequent, we should have heard much more about them. The severer punishments were probably inflicted for some display of fanatical insolence towards the Emperor personally. His chief object was to remove from the capital those men, whose influence would conflict with the

1 accomplishment of his policy. But there may have been fanatical monks, who, stirred with an ambition to outstrip the boldness of Theodore of Studion, bearded the Emperor to his face, and to them may have been meted out extreme

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1 The statements about the suffer- been thrown into prison. (Theod. ings of individuals in hagiographical Stud., writing to him in A.D. 824, literature (in which the principle that Epp. ii. 213, p. 1641, asks hin, suffering for orthodoxy enhanced merit "Why, when you had intended to guided the writers) cannot be accepted go elsewhere, were you compelled to without more ado. It is said that fall into the snares of those who Leo scourged Euthymios of Sardis and govern here ?”) It is not clear why banished him to Thasos (Acta Davidis, he did not return to Jerusalem under 229). George the bishop of Mytilene Michael II. ; he is said to have lived was sent to Cherson, and replaced by then in a convent near Brusa. Theo. Leo an iconoclast; he excited the dore and Theophanes were confined Emperor against the holy Simeon of by Leo in a fortress near the mouth of Lesbos, who, imitating his namesake the Bosphorus (see Vailhe's study, the Stylite, lived on a pillar at Molos, Saint Michel le Syncelle). For the a harbour in the south of the island, persecution of Makarios, abbot of Pelehaving fastened his calves to his kêtê (near Ephesus) see Vit. Macarii thighs with chains. The inhabitants 157 - 159, sq.

(Cp. Theodore Stud. were ordered to bring wood to the Ep. 38, ed. Cozza-L., p. 31.) John, foot of the column; when the fire was abbot of the Katharoi monastery (E. of kindled, Simeon allowed himself to be the Harbour of Eleutherios), is said to taken down, and was banished to have suffered stripes and been banished Lagusae, an island off the Troad (ib. first to a fort near Lampe (Phrygia) 227 sqq). Theophylactus of Nico- and then to another in the Bukellarian media is said to have been struck in Theme (A.S. April 27, t. iii. 495). the face by the Emperor and banished to Hilarion, abbot of the convent of Strobilos in the Kibyrrhaeot Theme (see Dalmatos (or Dalmatoi ; n. of the Synax. Ecc. Cpl. 519-520, cp. Loparev, Forum Arcadii), was tortured by hunger Viz. Vrem, iv. 355). Michael, the Syn- by the Patriarch Theodotos, and then kellos of Jerusalem (born c. 761, made confined in various prisons (A.S. June Synkellos 811), his friend Job, and 6, t. i. 759). Others who were malthe two Palestinian brothers Theodore treated, exiled, etc., were Aemilian, and Theophanes (see below, p. 136), bishop of Cyzicus (Synax. Ecc. Cp. 875, were persecuted by Leo. But the Vita cp. 519), Eudoxios of Amorion (ib. Mich. Sync. is full of errors and must 519), and Michael of Synnada (ib. 703, be used with great caution. Theodore cp. Pargoire, Échos d'orient, iv. 347 and Theophanes seem to have been $99., 1903). The last-named died in among those monks who fled in the

A.D. 826. Joannes, abbot of Psichâ reign of Michael I. (on account of (at Cple.), suffered according to his Mohammadan persecution : A.D. 812 biographer (Vit. Joann. Psich. 114 monasteries and churches in Palestine 899.) particularly harsh treatment. were plundered) to Constantinople, He was flogged, confined in various where the monastery of Chora was prisons, and then tortured by one placed at their disposal. Micha

utdid Jaunes.” This must seems to have been sent by the Patri- mean not, as the editor thinks, John arch of Jerusalem on a mission to the Grammarian, but Theodotos. Ср. Rome in Leo's reign, and, tarrying on the story of the treatment of Hilarion. his way in Constantinople, to have

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penalties. Again, it is quite possible that during the destruction of pictures in the city, which ensued on their condemnation by the Synod, serious riots occurred in the streets, and death penalties may have been awarded to persons who attempted to frustrate the execution of the imperial commands. We are told that “the sacred representations”) were at the mercy of anyone who chose to work his wicked will upon them. Holy vestments, embroidered with sacred figures, were torn into shreds and cast ignominiously upon the ground; pictures and illuminated missals were cut up with axes and burnt in the public squares. Some of the baser sort insulted the icons by smearing them with cow-dung and foul-smelling ointments.

Ignatius, Vit. Nic. ÉKTUTÁMata.
2 Ιο. βολβίτοις και αλοιφαίς και οδμαϊς αηδιζούσαις κατέχραινον.

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CHAPTER III

MICHAEL II., THE AMORIAN

(A.D. 820-829)

1. The Accession of Michael (A.D. 820). The Coronation

and Marriage of Theophilus (A.D. 821) WHILE his accomplices were assassinating the Emperor, Michael lay in his cell, awaiting the issue of the enterprise which meant for him death or empire, according as it failed or prospered. The conspirators, as we have seen, did not bungle in their work, and when it was accomplished, they hastened to greet Michael as their new master, and to bear him in triumph to the Imperial throne. With his legs still encased in the iron fetters he sat on his august seat, and all the servants and officers of the palace congregated to fall at his feet. Time, perhaps, seemed to fly quickly in the surprise of his new position, and it was not till midday that the gyves which so vividly reminded him of the sudden change of his fortunes were struck off his limbs. The historians tell of a difficulty in finding the key of the fetters, and it was John Hexabulios, Logothete of the Course, who remembered that Leo had hidden it in his dress.

About noon, without washing his hands or making any other seemly preparation, Michael, attended by his supporters, proceeded to the Great Church, there to receive the Imperial crown from the hands of the Patriarch, and to obtain recognition from the people. No hint is given as to the attitude of the Patriarch Theodotos to the conspiracy, but he seems

According to Cont. Th. (41), broken with a hammer (uális however, the key was not forthcom- θλασθέντων). ing, and the fetters were loosened 2 At the seventh hour, Gen. 30.

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