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ing is not entirely satisfactory, as the classes are hampered by lack of The equipment is valued at $10,000. The appropriation received in 1909-10 from the board of public education for all expenses was $16,205. During the same period, of this sum, $1,473 was expended on materials for trade instruction.

Pupils are under no expense except for drawing materials. The classes make a marketable product such as benches, platforms, or other equipment for schoolrooms; printed matter for schools, announcements, catalogues, etc., electrical appliances, and patterns. None of this is sold, however, but is used in the building or in other schools. The pupils receive no financial return from the work done by them.

The principal believes that the fundamental principles of a trade can be taught in this school, but that subsequent experience in the shop is necessary to make a finished workman. The school work is not accepted by employers as the equivalent of any part of the usual term of apprenticeship, but the preparation of the school enables the boy to advance more rapidly after he has entered his chosen trade. The graduate is rated by the school as an advanced apprentice and in most shops shortly obtains that grade.

In the catalogue the aim of the day school is thus stated: "The aim of the school is the education of artisans rather than the mere teaching of trades. It is not expected that a graduate of a trades school at the age of 18 will be a finished tradesman, but experience has proven that the training received in a good trades school forms a foundation upon which can be built a growing knowledge which has no limit. The trades school does not attempt to develop skilled mechanics, but offers instruction planned to strengthen the reasoning faculties, to teach both theory and practice, and to prepare its students for more advanced positions in their chosen lines. Nothing that is produced in the shops will be offered for sale."

Various representatives of employers' associations stated that there is a decided need for trades schools, and that they take an active interest in the work of the three public trades schools of Philadelphia. One reported that the graduates of the day classes in electrical construction have proved satisfactory workmen and that he would be willing to place others in employment in order to give them an opportunity to prove their ability. Committees from the plumbers', pipe fitters', sheet metal workers', bricklayers', and electricians' associations of employers visit the schools and report upon the work. Some of these associations offer prizes for successful work by the pupils. Individual employers, in some instances, also visit the schools and from the evening classes employ men on recommendation of their teachers.

On the other hand, the attitude of employees' associations is said to be, in general, unfavorable to the trades schools. This attitude

may be to some extent the result of misapprehension of the claims made by these schools, which are still too young to demonstrate what they may be able to accomplish. However, the movement to teach trades outside the shop is regarded by many labor men as antagonistic to the best interests of the skilled workmen in the trades. The course in printing has met with serious opposition, it is said. Some employers assert that the organized printers have quietly discouraged boys from taking up the course. No boy has been graduated from the printing classes, although a number have started the course.

The Philadelphia Trades School has been regarded as offering an opportunity for the higher education of boys equal to that provided by the high or manual training schools, which give boys no direct preparation for their future work. This school not only gives them instruction in a trade as a means of livelihood, but also some related cultural work as well, which the apprentice in the trade can only obtain by attending an evening school. The parents of such boys are willing to permit them to remain longer in school on the assumption that their time will be well spent. This, it is held, would not be the case in schools offering preparation for business or professional careers, neither of which appeals to most parents in the industrial world as practicable in the consideration of the education of their children. The Philadelphia Evening Trades Schools, Nos. 1 and 2, are described on pages 233 to 235.


In the Altoona (Pa.) High School an industrial course was opened in September, 1905, which aims primarily to prepare boys for entrance into the local mechanical industries, particularly the shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. The high school in which this course has been organized is an integral part of the public-school system of Altoona, and its affairs are directed by the board of education of six members elected by popular vote of citizens of the school district. The director of industrial training for the district has general supervision over the work of the industrial course in the high school.

The plan of instruction contemplates four years of training for boys in the fundamentals of certain trades, all pupils being required to pursue the same general course. During the first year pupils have cabinetmaking and machine-shop practice, equal time being given to each. In the second year pattern making and foundry practice are studied in the same manner, while third year boys have only blacksmithing. Pupils in the fourth year receive instruction in advanced machine-shop practice, particularly in tool making. The average attendance in 1909-10 was as follows: First year pupils, 23; second year, 12; third year, 10; fourth year, 6; total, 51. .

The high school accepts as pupils those who have completed the eighth-grade work of the public school, or its equivalent. There is no age limit on school entrance. Persons other than graduates of grammar schools of the city are admitted at any time during the school year on furnishing proper credentials. Pupils from the city schools may enter only at the beginning of the year. Any boy in the high school is at liberty to enroll in the industrial course.

There is no direct correlation between the academic and the industrial work of the school. The academic subjects which pupils pursuing the industrial course in 1909-10 were required to take are as follows:

First year.-English, algebra, German (or ancient history), and mechanical drawing. Second year.-English, algebra, physical geography, and botany, German (or medieval history), and mechanical drawing.

Third year.-English, plane geometry (or English history), chemistry, German (optional), and mechanical drawing.

Fourth year.-English, physics, solid geometry and trigonometry (or U.S. history), and mechanical drawing.

During 1909-10 pupils in the first and fourth years of the course had 14 hours of academic instruction and 4 hours of shop practice each week. The remainder of the time, amounting to 33 hours per week, was devoted to study. Second and third year pupils during the same time had 18 hours of academic work and 4 hours of shop work per week. The school is in session 5 days a week from 9 a. m. to 12 m. and from 12.30 to 2 p. m. Pupils may remain after school hours for practice in the shops. The school year embraces 36 weeks, from the 1st of September to the 1st of June. One week of vacation is given at Christmas and another at Easter. A diploma is awarded pupils who complete the industrial course, while those who are unable to take the full course are given a certificate by the school principal, showing the amount of work done. About 50 per cent of the pupils are reported as leaving school before the completion of the four-year course. The withdrawals are said to be caused mainly by the desire of the boys to obtain remunerative employment outside the school, the opportunities for which are exceptionally good at Altoona.

Four instructors were employed in the industrial course in 1909–10. Of these, three taught practice work in the shops, as well as the theory of certain trades. One teacher taught only mechanical drawing. Two teachers had attended other than common schools and three had had actual experience in the trade taught.

The school shops are located in the basement of the high-school building and are exceptionally commodious and well arranged. The equipment for trade instruction, valued at $25,000, was presented to the school by the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. It was installed under the direction of a master mechanic of the railroad, and it is modern

and up to date in every respect. There is no belting or overhead shafting in any of the shops, every machine being driven by its own motor. In most cases these motors are directly connected or built as a part of the machine itself. There are in all 39 motors ranging fromto 15 horsepower. The motive power is received from the school's own generating plant. A more detailed statement of the school's equipment will be found in Table V.

Tuition is free to residents of the Altoona school district who are of school age. Nonresidents and persons over 21 years of age are charged a fee of $5.50 per month. The cost of shop materials used in 1909-10 was $410, a small part of which amount was expended for lumber used in the seventh and eighth grades of the city schools. No product is marketed by the school. Pupils are allowed to purchase raw materials and take home the finished product, such as articles of furniture, forge work, and hand tools. The sale of such articles by pupils is not encouraged.

It is said that employers generally give preference to pupils of the school in taking on new workmen. This is particularly true of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., in whose local shops large numbers of the graduates find employment. While they are not credited with any part of the required four-year apprenticeship term, boys who have completed the industrial course are usually placed by the company in its higher class of apprentices and are often given work of special importance. Few graduates, it is said, remain long as journeymen after finishing the period of apprenticeship, but soon advance to higher positions requiring special ability.


This institution is a public trades school, which has both day and evening classes. Only the day school is here described. It was established November 1, 1909, by the city board of education. The chief purpose of the school is to place within reach of boys practical trade instruction in which both hand and mind may be trained, thus leading them into the way of earning a livelihood. The director of the school decides what subjects shall be taught. In this he is guided by local demands of the trades that open up the best field for the employment of the pupils. The city has large printing establishments and many woodworking factories, which industries to a considerable extent determined the nature of the school. As an integral part of the regular public school system it is under the supervision of the superintendent of the public schools of the city. The affairs of the school are administered by a board of directors of 15 members, who are elected by the people. On account of its recent establishment, no definite statement can be made as yet as to what relation the school

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bears to trade apprenticeship, but it is stated that it is the aim of the school to take the place of the apprenticeship in all the trades in which instruction is given. The trade courses offered are printing and woodworking, the latter embracing wood turning, pattern making, joinery, carpentry, cabinetmaking, and millwork. The number of pupils in the printing class on November 1, 1909, was 15; in woodworking there were 60 pupils.

Boys 14 years of age or over who have finished the sixth grade of the city schools and whose deportment record is good may be admitted to the school, preference being given to boys older than 14 years and to those who need to learn a trade as soon as possible as a means of livelihood. Pupils may enter at any time during the school


The full course for each trade is two years. All pupils take the following academic subjects: Language, spelling, history, reading, civil government, mathematics, and mechanical drawing. For the pupils in printing the course in language, which includes composition, is intended to aid in detecting and correcting bad copy; reading includes the different kinds of copy, headings, and difficult spacing, as well as purely cultural reading; history includes the history of printing. The pupils in woodworking study the history of the woodworking trades, of architecture, etc. In general, in the history class, stress is laid on a study of industrial conditions, with their causes and development.

The total number of hours per week devoted to instruction in the trades, including theory and practice work, is 25. Pupils in the printing course have 13 hours of cultural work and 12 of shop practice, while woodworkers have 9 hours of cultural work and 15 of shop practice. The daily hours, from Monday to Friday, inclusive, are from 8.15 to 11.30 a. m. and from 1 to 3.30 p. m. The school is open

40 weeks during the year. The usual legal holidays are observed. The school grants a certificate for the fractional part of a course, and it is the purpose to confer diplomas on the completion of the full


Five teachers were employed in 1909-10, three of whom taught the theory as well as the practice of the trade. The teachers of theory were secured from technical schools, while those who taught only practice included men from technical schools who had had practical experience, as well as men directly from the trades.

The school is located in a building formerly occupied by one of the grade schools. The trade equipment cost $30,000. There remains on hand a sum amounting to $1,200 yet to be spent for further equipment. The cost of equipment is defrayed by the board of education, out of the general school funds. Tuition is free and the pupils are at no expense whatever in connection with their school attendance.

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