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The materials used in the school since its establishment to June, 1910, cost $2,000.

The Columbus Trades School has been in existence too short a time to have established any definite status with respect to the trades in its curriculum. It is the plan of the school, however, to so equip its pupils that they may enter upon their trades immediately on the completion of their course, without further trade apprenticeship. The executive ability of the pupils, as well as their mechanical ability, is borne in mind with the idea that some graduates after a short period in the shop will gradually prove themselves capable of assuming responsibility for the successful completion of work and for the direction of other workmen who are engaged upon it.

The evening classes of this school are described briefly on page 237. ARMSTRONG MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, WASHINGTON, D. C.

The Armstrong Manual Training School of Washington, D. C., is an institution for colored pupils. While it is one of the high schools established for the purpose of providing manual training in the city public-school system, the work is more intensive and more nearly approaches real trade training than does that of the usual school of this type. It is said that graduates from the trade courses of this school are able to hold their own in their respective trades as finished workmen.

The school is under the direction of the Board of Education of the District of Columbia. This board is made up of nine persons, three of whom are women, representing the professional and commercial interests of Washington, and is appointed by the Supreme Court of the District for a term of three years.

In determining in what trades instruction shall be given in the school due regard has been had for the local opportunities that exist for the employment of colored persons in the District.

The school is open to two classes of pupils: First, those who have finished the eighth grade in the grammar school or its equivalent; second, any colored persons 16 years of age or over who desire special trade instruction.

The trade subjects taught are joinery and cabinetmaking, pattern making and wood turning, forging, machine-shop work, steam engineering, electrical work, automobile mechanicians' work, sewing, dressmaking, millinery work, and laundry work.

Cooking is taken by many girls in addition to their other trade work. On account of the fact that many pupils were pursuing concurrent courses in several trades on the date this school was visited, the enrollment by trades is not given. The total school enrollinent on February 1, 1910, was 634.

The pupils in the regular courses are required to enter at the beginThose designated as "special trade

ning of the school half year.

pupils" may enter at any time.

Four groups of pupils are found in the school:

1. Those pursuing the "general scientific course" of four years, during the last two of which at least 60 per cent, according to the principal, select a specific trade and devote the most of their time thereto.

2. Pupils in the four-year "technical preparatory course" in which about 60 per cent of the pupils give the most of their time to a selected trade during the third and fourth years.

3. Those taking the "special technical course" covering two years, in which practically all of the pupils' time, except six hours per week in English and drawing, is given to trade work.

4. Special trade pupils who do only shop work, receiving a certain amount of theoretical instruction from trade teachers along with shop practice.

In the first and second years of the "general scientific course" all pupils have practically the same instruction, the boys uniformly doing woodwork (joinery, wood turning, and pattern making) in the first year and forging in the second year. The girls do plain sewing and dressmaking in the first year and dressmaking only in the second year. This work is elementary in character.

The foregoing statement concerning the work of the first and second years of the "general scientific course" applies equally to the corresponding years of the "technical preparatory course," but in the third year pupils may elect a trade and pursue that to the exclusion of all other subjects except English and drawing in the general scientific course, and English, chemistry, and drawing in the "technical preparatory course," .to each of which subjects three hours per week are given. In the fourth year of each course, pupils may give practically all of their time to a selected trade, except three hours per week to English and an equal time to drawing.

In the two-year "special technical course" pupils may select a trade and devote all of their time to it, except three hours per week required for English and three hours for drawing.

The number of years that a pupil may devote to a specific trade depends upon the course followed in the school. For special trade pupils the course in any trade is indeterminate and certificates may be had at any time on pupils showing themselves fully able to do the required work. In the "special technical course" of two years, the pupils may have one or two years of trade training, as they desire. In the four-year courses, owing to the wide range of electives, the time in a trade varies. In some trades a pupil has from one to four years, depending largely on the pupil's election in the matter. Some trades,

as machine-shop work and electrical work, are limited to two years. In all occupations taught to girls the time is limited to two years.

In the electrical course the purpose is to give the pupils a knowledge of the problems that occur in the various lines of practical electrical work. To this end the practice work is made to conform as closely as possible to actual trade conditions. Special attention is given to the operation and care of electrical plants and the wiring regulations of the District of Columbia.

A course in machine-shop practice is provided for young men who are chauffeurs and who want to learn how to make minor repairs to their machines, and also for young men who are desirous of becoming chauffeurs. In this course, before a certificate is given, the pupils must have a chauffeur's license from the District government.

In steam engineering pupils have practice in the actual operation and care of the steam engines and machinery with which the school is equipped. Graduates from this course are said to be fully prepared to earn a living as practical steam engineers, and before a certificate is issued they must pass the license examination before the District board. For an account of the practice work performed by pupils in these and other courses offered by the school the reader is referred to page 240 of this report.

In plain sewing and dressmaking the girls do a good deal of actual work, furnishing the materials themselves and keeping the product, or disposing of it as they desire. Also, they may do their home laundry work at school. Frequently the school gets requests from families for girls to go into their homes and sew, either as seamstresses to do plain sewing-making childrens' wear, etc.—or to do dressmaking. In response to these requests girls sometimes spend several weeks at a time away from school, sewing in private families. For such time they are credited on their school year and are considered technically "present" in school. The millinery course aims to fit girls for positions as helpers and preparers in millinery shops. They do all the work of making, trimming, and renovating hats.

The laundry department prepares the girls to do scientific laundry work, while the course in domestic science fits them for domestic service as well as for home duties. It is said that a number of the girls go into domestic service upon graduation. They have instruction in all phases of cooking, from preparing the simplest dishes to planning and serving a full course dinner. They serve noon lunches daily to teachers and pupils of the school. Several times a year a "company dinner" is served. The girls do not only the preparing of these meals but also the planning and marketing for them. They also receive instruction in all details of caring for a kitchen.

Upon completion of the four years' course pupils are given a highschool diploma. A certificate is awarded on completion of the two

years' course. The special trade pupils are given, at whatever time they leave school, a certificate stating the work done.

There were eight teachers of practice work in trades falling within the scope of this report in the school in 1909-10. Of these all taught trade theory in connection with the practice work. Two others taught trade theory exclusively. In addition to these there were two teachers of domestic science. The majority of these trade teachers were college graduates. All who were teaching trade practice had had experience in trade work.

The school has experienced no difficulty in retaining teachers after they have been obtained. It has been very difficult, however, to secure teachers possessing the proper trade qualifications. The prescribed teachers' examination in the District is very exacting with regard to academic subjects, and it is said that insufficient credit is allowed for actual trade experience, which makes it difficult to get efficient teachers.

All financial support for the Armstrong school is from Congressional appropriation. The original appropriation of $50,000 for building site, plans, etc., was made in 1899. In 1900 an additional $100,000 was appropriated to complete the work begun, and school was opened in the present building in 1902. In 1908 an additional amount of $4,000 was appropriated to purchase an adjoining lot, followed in 1910 by $65,000 with which to construct an addition to the building. Work on the addition has not yet begun. The equipment for trade instruction is valued at approximately $50,000.

For residents (colored) of the District of Columbia all instruction is free. Nonresident pupils pay a tuition fee based on the per capita cost of instruction.

No textbooks on purely industrial subjects are used in the trade courses, but reference books are available from the school library. Pupils are required to pay for all breakage of laboratory apparatus, tools, etc.

The value of materials used for trade instruction during 1909-10 is estimated at $2,000, which sum was paid from the Congressional appropriation for manual training.

The Armstrong Manual Training Evening School is described on page 240.


The Milwaukee School of Trades was established as a private school in 1906 through the activity of interested members of the Merchants and Manufacturers' Association of the city. On July 1, 1907, through authorization of the State legislature, it was taken into

the public school system of Milwaukee. Its purpose is to instruct young men in the fundamental principles of the machinery and building trades, in which there is great need for skilled workers.

The school is a part of and articulates with the regular public school system. It is under the control of the board of school directors, consisting of 15 members, who are elected by the voters at the city election. There is also an advisory committee, consisting of 5 members, appointed by the president of the board of school directors, with the approval of a majority of the board, which has immediate supervision over the school. This advisory committee has authority, subject to the approval of the board of school directors, to prepare courses of study, employ or dismiss instructors, purchase machinery, tools, and supplies, and purchase or rent suitable grounds or buildings for the use of the school.

Ability to read and write English and to do simple problems in arithmetic constitute the entrance requirement. Graduates of the Milwaukee grammar school are admitted without examination. Applicants must be at least 16 years of age. They may enter at any time during the school year.

Following is the enrollment by trades on March 31, 1910: Patternmaking, 26; machinist and tool making, 24; carpentry and woodworking, 12; plumbing and gas fitting, 14.

The school offers two years' instruction in all trades except plumbing and gas fitting, which is a one-year course.

An average of 8 hours per week is devoted to theoretical instruction and 36 hours to actual practice work by all pupils.

The theoretical instruction covers shop mathematics mechanical drawing simple mechanics and trips through commercial shops. After these trips the boys are required to "write up" the trip and to make sketches.

For shop equipment and shop practice see Table V of this report. A thorough course in mechanical drawing based on the special needs of each trade is given to each pupil. The school furnishes each pupil with a drawing board and a T square. Pupils must supply their drawing instruments.

Instruction is given by lectures by means of specification sheets prepared in blue-print form and by notes prepared by the drawing instructors and printed by neostyle. Most of the instruction is individual. Pupils are urged to do as much home work as possible, such as making tracings and inking in their drawings which have passed inspection.

The course in each trade leads up to practical problems in original designs peculiar to that trade.

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