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As the value of a pattern maker to his employer depends largely on his ability to interpret correctly blue prints and working drawings the pupils in this trade are given special practice in that line.

School is in session from 8 a. m. to 12 m. and from 1 to 5 p. m., Monday to Friday, and 8 a. m. to 12 m., on Saturday, for 50 weeks of the year. There is no school from July 15 to August 1.

No printed textbooks are used. The shop mathematics, notes on mechanical drawing, and notes on special subjects are written by the instructors and are designed especially to satisfy the wants and requirements of the shop workman. All the theory presented is directly tested by practical application and examples. The subject matter is presented to the pupil in the form of loose printed sheets and blue prints, which are laced in a loose-leaf-cover book.

About 80 per cent of the pupils are not graduated. Of this number approximately 50 per cent remain for one-half of the course. The number of pupils who remain until the completion of their courses is said to be increasing.

The school employs three teachers for theory and five teachers for practice work. The teachers of theory were secured from technical and engineering colleges and those for practice work from among foremen of manufacturing plants who are capable of imparting their knowledge to others. Teachers of theory do not give instruction in the trades.

At present rented buildings are used by the school and shops. Approximately $45,000 has been spent for equipment for trade instruction. Seven thousand five hundred dollars of this amount came mostly from private subscriptions of manufacturers, the balance being furnished by the city of Milwaukee.

Tuition is free to pupils residing in Milwaukee who are between the ages of 16 and 20 years. Resident pupils over 20 years of age are charged $5 per month tuition fee, while nonresidents must pay a tuition fee of $15 a month. There is no charge for materials used by pupils paying tuition fees, but those having free tuition are charged $1 per month for materials used. No other fees are charged. School books are furnished without charge.

The cost of materials used during the school year 1909-10 was approximately $3,400. Materials are purchased in the open market and paid for from the trade-school fund.

To date the school has not made products for sale, but expects to do so hereafter. On November 2, 1909, the board of school directors passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That in accordance with chapter 122, section 026-027, Laws of 1907, State of Wisconsin, the product of the Milwaukee School of Trades may be sold in open market at prevailing market prices.

Tools, parts of machinery, tables, and cabinet work are made, all of which are at present used by the school. During the year the building containing the machine shops and the woodworking shops was destroyed by fire. The carpenter work necessary in fitting up a newly rented building was done by the pupils, and several machines were rebuilt by them from the remnants of those destroyed.

In addition to the school described, there is a trades school for girls (see p. 282) and an evening school. The evening school is described on page 242.


The specific purpose of the Wisconsin State Mining Trade School is "to meet the need for well-trained, practical men to operate the mines of the State successfully and economically." The initial steps for establishing this school were taken by the mining men of the Wisconsin lead and zinc district, under authority of an act of the State legislature passed in 1907. Actual work began January 27, 1908. The school receives its support from funds appropriated by the State legislature and from fees paid by nonresident students. The subjects to be taught are regulated by the act establishing the school, of which the following is a part:

SECTION 392q. The course of instruction shall be two years in length and shall embrace geology, mineralogy, chemistry, assaying, mining and mining surveying, and such other branches of practical and theoretical knowledge as will, in the opinion of the school board, conduce to the end of enabling such students of said school to obtain a knowledge of the science, art, and practice of mining and the application of machinery thereto. The dean of the college of engineering of the University of Wisconsin shall be consulted concerning the course of study, and the same and all modifications thereof shall be approved by him.

This school bears no relation to any other school. It is under the control and management of a board of three members, one of whom is the State superintendent of education and the remaining two are residents of the Wisconsin lead district, appointed by the governor of the State. In June, 1910, there were 23 students enrolled in the mining classes. Graduates from the eighth grade of a city school or pupils who have a diploma from a country school are admitted without examination. Other candidates for entrance must pass an examination in arithmetic and English. There is no regulation as to age limit, and pupils may enter the school at any time during the school year. There is no arrangement with the local mining companies for giving employment to the pupils while attending school, but students frequently work Saturdays and Sundays in the lead and zinc mines.

The subjects taught during the two years' course are: Physics, advanced arithmetic, plane geometry, solid geometry, algebra, plane trigonometry, chemistry, mining machinery, mining methods,

mining economics, elementary mechanics, surveying, mechanics of materials, metallurgy, general geology, mining geology, hygiene, and first aid.

The school year is divided into two terms of about 18 weeks each. In the first year of the course a total of 24 hours per week on an average is devoted to theory, including time spent in study in school, and 16 hours per week to practice work. In the second year 23 hours per week are devoted to schoolroom work and 17 hours per week to practice work. During each winter a course of evening lectures covering 20 hours is given on mining metallurgy and allied subjects. All students are required to attend these lectures and take notes.

Instruction is given from 8 a. m. to 12 m. and 1 to 5 p. m. daily, from Monday to Friday, inclusive. The length of the school year is 38 weeks, the school opening Septemper 7 and closing June 10. There is no summer term, but the pupils are expected to spend the summer vacation between the first and second school year working in some branch of the mining industry.

The practice work is of a practical nature and is carried on in the basement of the school building, which is fitted up as a miniature mine, having all the machines, tools, and appurtenances of a mine in operation. For shop equipment and practice work see Table V.

The school has a mineralogical museum, which is primarily a working collection of all the common varieties of minerals and rocks for student use. In addition, many fine exhibition specimens have been secured and special attention will be devoted to making a collection of the various crystals found in southwestern Wisconsin. The collection of lead and zinc ores from Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, belonging to the Tri-State Mining Association, has recently been secured for the use of the school.

Graduates are given a diploma which certifies that the student "has satisfactorily completed the two years' course of study."

Approximately 50 per cent of the students are reported as leaving the school at the end of the first year. As a rule this is owing to a lack of funds. Some return later and finish the course.

The school has seven teachers, secured either from scientific schools. or from the mining industry. These teachers are responsible to the Wisconsin Mining Trade School board. There has been no difficulty in retaining teachers qualified to teach mining.

No tuition fee is charged to residents of the State of Wisconsin. Nonresidents must pay $50 per year tuition fees. All students are required to pay $20 per year for materials and also to deposit $5 on entrance to cover cost of breakage or damage to apparatus. The students are required to furnish their own text and note books,

drafting instruments, etc., and a charge of $2 for a diploma is made on graduation. The cost of materials used in shop practice during 1909-10 was approximately $500. No marketable product is made by the school.

There is said to be a demand for pupils from this school. Graduates have no difficulty in obtaining immediate employment in the mines. Great appreciation of the school has been shown by mine owners and by general managers of mines.


This is one of the two State schools of Pennsylvania which provide for the support and education of orphans of soldiers, sailors, or marines and the children of honorably disabled soldiers, sailors, or marines who had served in Pennsylvania regiments during the Civil War or who had resided in the State for five years. These children are indentured to the institution until the age of 18, but they may be withdrawn at the age of 16 if the family need their financial assistance, Through an act of the State legislature the school was opened in 1895. It is governed by a board of commissioners consisting of 11 members. These members are the governor of the State, two State senators, three members of the legislature, and five members of the Grand Army of the Republic. The administration of the school is under the direct charge of a superintendent.

As a part of the soldiers' orphans' system of schools it receives the more advanced pupils who are transferred from the primary grades of the other school, in which the industrial training is limited to a few elementary forms of work. The industrial training given in the school is planned to furnish a means of livelihood for the pupils. This training enables them in some instances to shorten the period of shop apprenticeship after entering a trade. Such trades as are usually found in placed in the curriculum of the school. enrolled in them for 1909-10 are as machinist, 54; printing, 33; tailoring, 92; baking, 23; engineering (stationary engines), 11; cobbling, 7; sewing and dressmaking, 75. In addition there are other pupils who take no industrial training.

every community have been These trades and the pupils follows: Woodworking, 48;

The length of a course in trade instruction varies according to the time of entrance and the length of stay in the institution. Some pupils begin their trade instruction earlier than others. The minimum age for admission to the trade classes is 12 years and the maximum 14. The majority of pupils remain until 18 years of age. On leaving they are given a diploma on which is stated the trade studied and the grades attained in both academic and industrial work.

Instruction is divided between the classroom and shop, giving 15 hours per week to each. One week the pupils spend from 8.30 to

11.30 a. m. in the classroom and from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. in the shop. The next week the order is reversed. Sessions are held from Monday to Friday, inclusive, during 43 weeks of the year, extending from September to June. Academic subjects are taken by pupils from the second to the eighth grades and include the following: Spelling, reading, language, arithmetic, geography, physiology, United States history, civil government, physics, rhetoric, algebra, and geometry. School and shop work are independent of each other and there is no correlation between the two. No theory of the trades is taught except as it is incidental to the shop practice.

Eleven teachers give instruction in the trades. All of these teachers reported shop experience varying from 4 to 18 years before going to the school.

The institution property is valued at $42,000 and the shop equipment at $17,700. The product of the trade classes is used by the institution. This product includes clothing, uniforms, repair of clothes and shoes, furniture, equipment for the shops, and bread, cake, pastry, and other supplies from the bakery. The pupils are not paid for their labor, but are expected to execute whatever work is needed in their respective trades.


This institution is a day school established in 1909 by the department of education of the city of New York. Its purpose is to prepare boys to enter the trades as apprentices, and in some cases to become advanced apprentices. Combined with the industrial training, general education is provided along lines best suited to the needs of the individual pupil. The need for such a school was felt, not through local industrial conditions, but through the failure of the present schools to prepare boys for other than the already overcrowded positions for unskilled labor in shops or offices. As a part of the city public school system, the vocational school receives boys who are graduates of elementary schools or those who have not graduated but are at least 14 years of age. Admission depends on the approval of the principal.

The school, which is housed in a new building, is under the charge of a special committee on vocational schools and industrial education, composed of three members. A principal directs the industrial and academic work.

The following trades and the boys enrolled in each were reported for 1909–10: Composition and press work, 34; carpentry, 37; plumbing, 15; electrical wiring, 117; forging and machine-shop practice, 66; pattern making, 15; bookbinding, 18. Boys who select a trade begin work on it when they enter school, while those who have made no decision take a general course until a selection is made with

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