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the aid of their instructors. Instruction is for the most part individual, so that pupils may enter at any time of the year. Boys work in groups, but there are no regular classes. As stated in the school announcement, "Each boy is a unit and progresses as rapidly as his ability will permit."

The present course covers two years, but provision for a longer course is made for boys who wish to take more training, and the matter of prolonging the regular course to three or even four years is under consideration. The school is in regular session daily from Monday to Friday, inclusive, for 46 weeks, beginning in September and closing at the end of July. Sessions are held from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., with a lunch period from 12 to 1. The regular school holidays are observed.

Academic work is individual and is outlined by the principal. The subjects taken include trade mathematics, English, industrial history and civics, geography (industrial and commercial), science, including physics and chemistry, bookkeeping, and commercial law. In general, the pupils spend an average of 15 hours in the schoolroom and 20 hours in the shop per week. No textbooks on industrial subjects are used. The textbooks on academic subjects are furnished free of charge.

For a satisfactory completion of the course a diploma will be awarded. This will state the trade studied and the length of time spent in the school.

There are 15 teachers employed, all of whom teach the practice of their trades and some of whom teach the theory also. The requirement for such teachers includes a record of at least 5 years' experience as a journeyman. The present force, however, has had from 12 to 20 years' experience. All trade teachers must first be employed as substitute teachers until they have demonstrated their ability to successfully teach their respective trades. It is hoped through this method to save the time of both the school and of the pupils by making possible the prompt dismissal of incompetent teachers.

The pupils make a marketable product, particularly in the printing, cabinetmaking, and bookbinding courses. The board of education disposes of these products and credits the school with their value less the cost of supplies which the department furnishes.

No attempt will be made to cover the whole period of the shop apprenticeship. The statement is made by the school that "graduates will need experience, practice, and maturity before they can claim to be journeymen." It is believed that with the training received boys will advance steadily and be able to assume positions of responsibility.

CHAPTER IV.

APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOLS.

CHAPTER IV.

APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOLS.

INTRODUCTION.

These are for the most part schools maintained by large corporations to give the academic training needed by the apprentices who are receiving their trade training in the employer's works. They form part of a movement to restore the apprenticeship system to its old status, with such modifications as modern conditions make necessary. The old-time apprenticeship system was never formally given up, but as a matter of fact it almost disappeared during the latter part of the last century. In many cases apprentices were not taken, and even where the name was still used there was a strong tendency in the interest of a large output to keep the so-called apprentice at one operation or on one machine long after he was thoroughly familiar with it and should have been advanced to something else. Consequently when he had finished his term he might know one or two parts of his trade thoroughly, but he was but little better qualified as an all-round skilled worker than when he began.

As a result of this condition employers have found themselves confronted with such a scarcity of well-trained skilled workers as to seriously hamper their industrial enterprises. Within the last decade they have begun to realize that the situation is grave, that they can secure a sufficiency neither of foremen to supervise nor of skilled workmen to execute, and that they must modify the policy of extreme specialization or give up their industrial supremacy.

A number of employers have sought to remedy this situation by so remodeling their apprenticeship systems that the boy indentured to them should receive a complete trade training and also the instruction in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and elementary physics necessary for his advance in his trade. For older men this latter training may well be obtained in evening continuation classes, but boys still in their teens who have put in 8 or 10 hours of manual work through the day sometimes will not and sometimes can not undertake school work at night. Hence the apprenticeship school.

In many cases the term of indenture is four years, and boys are required to attend school for a few hours per week throughout the period of indenture. A few require school attendance during the first two years only. At the satisfactory completion of the apprenticeship

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