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the boys are in most cases given their tools and a bonus varying from $50 to $150. The rate of pay is standardized in each shop, according to the trade, and increased frequently enough (in most cases every six months) to make the boy feel that he is getting ahead.

In the greater number of instances school is in session five or six days of the week, but each boy attends two days only. This arrangement prevents the serious interference with shop organization resulting from the taking of a large number of boys from any one department at the same time. Instruction is given mainly from lesson sheets prepared by the instructor and correlating with the work in the shops. All the apprentices in the same shop generally follow the same general course of instruction irrespective of trades. Instruction usually is individual, and the needs of each individual apprentice are noted, and the teaching he receives is made to conform as nearly as possible to the requirement of his case. In the drawing classes the aim is to develop ability to use drawings rather than to train draftsmen.

In addition to the school instructor some firms, especially railroads, employ one or more shop instructors, who give their entire time to instructing the boys in the performance of the operations in the shop or supervising their rotation at various machines, etc. School and shop instructors are expected to encourage clean personal habits, inculcate right ideals of work, and in general exert a wholesome influence over the boys.

Ordinarily these schools are situated in the employer's works. Attendance is obligatory, and the time spent in school is paid for at the same rate as the other working hours. The school work bears closely upon what the pupil is doing in the workrooms, every subject being taught in its relation to the trades. The instructor is usually taken from the working force, men being selected who are not only thoroughly familiar with the company's methods and processes, but who are good leaders, able to inspire as well as to teach. Since nothing is taught which does not bear upon the trade, and since the school work is as much required as the shop work, the pupils are apt to take it earnestly and make good progress.

The discussion in the present chapter is confined to schools maintained by two classes of employers: (1) Those maintained by the motive power departments of railway systems, and (2) those maintained by manufacturing corporations. No attempt has been made to describe all such schools, but it is believed that illustrations of all the different types of railway and corporation apprentice schools have been given. The railroad and manufacturing concerns are not the only agencies furnishing apprentice education. In some localities there is cooperation with the public schools, whereby the public school furnishes the schoolroom instruction and the manufacturer furnishes the shop

instruction. Such schools are discussed under the head of Cooperative Industrial Schools, Chapter V.

Some labor organizations, such as the carpenters in Chicago, require apprentices in their trade to attend school during certain months of the year and have a special arrangement with the public schools for that purpose. (See p. 206.)

RAILWAY APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL SYSTEMS.

A decrease in the efficiency of the shop workmen and a general dearth of skilled labor in the motive-power shops was for some years a cause of considerable worry on the part of the officials of many of the railway systems of this country. A school was established by the Grand Trunk at Battle Creek, Mich., in 1902. Very little serious thought, however, was given to the solution of the problem by any other roads until 1905 when, in a paper before the Railway Mechanics' Association, a note of warning was sounded and a plan outlined for apprentice instruction to meet the needs of the case. As soon as possible after this the New York Central lines put into operation a system of instruction based upon the plan outlined. The Santa Fe; Delaware & Hudson; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; Erie; and others followed with systems more or less modified to fit the needs of their particular roads.

Though the methods followed are different in details, the purposes of these schools are essentially the same "to produce many well-trained and educated workmen, some foremen, and a few superintendents.” In every case the school work is under the direct supervision of the motive-power department, and usually the superintendent of motive power has final decision in all matters pertaining to the school.

In all these schools the emphasis is placed on mechanical drawing and shop mathematics. Some teachers give instruction in additional subjects, such as spelling, writing, physics, or civics; other teachers hold that they are called upon only to develop good machinists and that their responsibility need not go beyond that point.

The instructors in both shop and school are men of practical experience who are able to demonstrate any problem that will arise. Usually they are men who can win the confidence of the boys, and whose influence is beneficial. The whole work of the apprentice school is calculated to raise the moral character as well as the standard of efficiency of the boys; how much is accomplished in this way depends largely upon the personality of the instructors. In any case, however, it makes the boys think, which is considered the first step in the right direction.

In the time spent in the schoolroom, varying from one to five hours per week, the boy is taught the "language of the trade." Here there is no attempt to teach the trade or to make a product. In the shop, in most cases under the direction of a shop instructor, he learns the trade itself as he works on the regular shop product. No practice work is given in the school and there is no "construction for instruction" in the railway shop; it is all instruction for construction, commercial work from the start. Shop discipline is maintained throughout. Any infraction is reported to a shop official, usually the master mechanic, and the case is dealt with in the same manner as though the infraction had occurred in the shop.

On all of the lines it is intended that the apprentice school shall train men competent to fill the positions of bosses, foremen, inspectors, instructors, and master mechanics as vacancies occur. Not many, however, advance to these positions because of their limited number; the majority remain in the shops as skilled workmen.

By the various systems of apprentice instruction the railroads have disproved the theory that the American boy will not go into the trades, and have proved conclusively that if the trade be made attractive the American boy will go into it. Where formerly it was difficult to keep a full quota of apprentices at most shops, there is now a waiting list in several trades. With this increasing disposition on the part of boys to enter apprenticeships there has been a tendency on some roads to increase the ratio of the number of apprentices to the number of journeymen employed. In some shops the apprentices outnumber the journeymen. In many instances high school boys have enrolled as apprentices. About 90 per cent of the apprentices on the New York Central lines and the Santa Fe system are American born, and a large per cent are of American parentage. A description is here given of the schools of the following-named railroad systems: New York Central; Santa Fe; Grand Trunk; Erie; Pennsylvania; Union Pacific; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; Delaware & Hudson; Central Railroad of New Jersey; Chicago Great Western; Pere Marquette; St. Louis & San Francisco; Southern; Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton; and Alabama Great Southern.

NEW YORK CENTRAL.

The New York Central system now has schools established in 9 of its 20 motive power shops in the United States and one school in Canada.

For nearly 40 years there has been some form of educational classes in the motive power shops, but it was of a desultory nature. Classes met after shop hours and attendance was not compulsory, the work was unorganized and dependent upon the interest and initiative of of each local master mechanic.

Actuated by the decrease in the efficiency of workmen in the shops and the impossibility of finding men in the shops to put into positions of responsibility, the superintendent of motive power determined to put into operation a system of apprentice education based upon a plan outlined at the 1905 meeting of the Master Mechanics' Associa tion. Headquarters are maintained in New York City where a supervisor of apprentices (a former master mechanic) and his assistant, a technical school graduate with practical experience, determine the educational policy of the school, prepare courses of blue prints for mechanical drawing and lesson sheets for shop arithmetic. Boys are apprenticed to all trades of the shops, but the trades vary in the local shops according to the work done in them. Apprentices are required to attend school throughout the period of their apprenticeship, which is three or four years. If any time is lost in any year it must be made up before a new year can be entered upon.

Boys between the ages of 17 and 21 only are apprenticed, preference being given to sons of employees. Every boy must pass a physical examination, and while no formal entrance examination is required, he must be able to satisfy the school instructor of his ability to do the school work. No examinations are ever given. The instructors are expected to know just what each boy is capable of, and promotions are made on the basis of work actually done and not upon the result of examinations.

Following is a list of the schools in the system and the number of pupils in each by trades:

NUMBER OF APPRENTICES IN SCHOOLS OF THE NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES, BY TRADES AND BY LOCATION OF SCHOOL.

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NUMBER OF APPRENTICES IN SCHOOLS BY THE NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES, BY TRADES AND BY LOCATION OF SCHOOL-Concluded.

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School is in session 48 weeks per year, and instruction is given Monday to Saturday from 7 to 9 a. m. Each apprentice is required to attend two days per week, and is paid for the time spent in school at the same rate he is paid for his shop work. The remainder of the day he is in the shop at his trade and under the direction of a shop supervisor. Three hours per week are given to mechanical drawing, and one hour to shop arithmetic. Mechanical drawing is done from blue prints and from models. The course in mechanical drawing is not aimed to turn out draftsmen but to equip the boy to read any blue print, to lay out work from blue prints, and to make any ordinary blue print.

The mathematical instruction is very informal. The work in every case is supplemented by models and actual parts of machines. The common practice is reversed, the boy first studies the mechanism itself and later draws its parts and calculates its strength, power, and efficiency. Stress is laid upon the practical and commercial side of the mathematical instruction. Every example is clothed in the language of the shop, illustrated by actual practice in the daily work, and is based upon shop practice and company standards. No matter how simple the problems, they refer to something with which the boy is familiar in connection with his work. For example, the boy learns ratio and proportion by figuring the change gears for cutting different screws in his lathe, and the principles of leverage are demonstrated by the throttle and reverse lever on the locomotive and brake rigging on the car. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, physics, and practical mechanics are fused so completely that the student knows no study by any name but arithmetic.

After about two years of general study applicable to all apprentices in all trades, each boy specializes in his school work along a course

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