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adapted to his particular trade, and the problems and drawings become more specifically practical. In several shops incidental instruction is given in spelling and in business letter writing; in some shops home study is required. This instruction is made incidental to the other work. In addition to the classroom work, the boys from time to time hear lectures upon shop management, air brakes, chemistry, first aid, etc., delivered by the company's officers. No attempt has been made to grade classes according to the progress made by the pupils except at Oswego. Care is exercised that not so many boys are taken from any department at any one time as to interfere with shop work.

The boys "ring in" at the shops, and proceed directly to the schoolroom. The shop schedules are so arranged that the boys rotate on the machines, thereby the work is hampered very slightly by the boy's absence. In the shop the boys are under the supervision of the shop instructor, who gives the necessary instruction as to the performance of the "job" and directs the rotation of the pupils on the various machines and in the different departments of the shop. It is one of the aims to counteract the tendency to turn out machine specialists, and to turn out all-round machinists.

Shop schedules have been arranged for the different trades which, while followed as closely as possible, are sufficiently flexible to meet the needs of the boys in the various grades and of varying aptitude. Machinist, boiler maker, tin and copper smith, and painter apprentices are assigned to the roundhouse for a short period during their apprenticeship. Those who show special aptitude for drawing are assigned to the drawing room to assist the shop draftsman for periods of from 60 to 90 days. The shop schedule for the principal trades, which is flexible, is as follows:

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Tool room (sharpening tools, etc.).

Balance of time setting up and running more complex machines,

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including cabinet machinery.

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12 to 15

3 to 6

6 to 12

6 to 12

18 to 24

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The time above the minimum allotted to each division of shop work is divided among the kinds of work on which the apprentice shows the most adaptability.

Upon completing their apprenticeship the boys receive the New York Central lines diploma, which entitles them to preference in employment anywhere on the system.

The boys leave the school only by leaving the shop. The majority of the machinist apprentices remain with the company. It is more difficult to hold the boiler makers and blacksmiths.

There are two teachers at each point, a school instructor, usually the chief draftsman of the shop, who conducts the schoolroom work, and a shop supervisor, a practical shop workman, who devotes his entire time to supervision of the apprentices in the shops. The shop supervisor must also pass upon all applications for apprenticeship, as the official representative of the apprentice department, and make recommendations as to apprentices who are unsatisfactory. In addition to these two, in the larger shops there is a senior apprentice appointed to act as assistant in the school.

Wherever possible the school instructor is a technical graduate; that, however, is not considered so important as the practical experience; the policy is to supply both school and shop instructors from the ranks of graduated apprentices as rapidly as graduates who can qualify are turned out. Much emphasis is placed upon the personal equation of the teachers. They must be men qualified not only to teach the trade, but also men who understand boys and who have the qualifications of leadership. Unfortunately, the salaries paid the instructors frequently are not sufficient to hold men of initiative, and to the best qualified men the instructorship becomes a stepping stone to better positions.

A comprehensive system of reports is made by the school and shop instructors. These reports show, first, the apprentice's ability at the trade; second, the disposition and mental ability of the apprentice; and third, the standing in class work. Instructors are required at all times to know the standing of each apprentice, thus making examinations unnecessary. Special emphasis is placed on the personal touch maintained between the instructor and the apprentice, so as to ascertain the type of work or branch of the service for which each. boy is best fitted.

At some shops separate schoolrooms have been built; in others, rooms in shop buildings have been fitted out for instruction purposes. Each school is equipped with leverage models for problems in all classes of levers, gears and lathes for studying the properties of gearing, wheel and axle models, pulley blocks, inclined planes, screw jacks, etc., and a small upright engine for teaching valve setting; models of valve gears and small scale engine wheels and frames are furnished for teaching the boys the practical way of laying out keyways for axles and eccentrics and for setting the shoes and wedges which are used in the main driving-wheel journals of locomotives. A small tension and compression machine is used for instruction in strength of materials.

No textbooks are used in these classes; the lessons, prepared on lesson sheets in the New York office, take up problems bearing on shop work. The lessons must be arranged to meet the conditions found in a railroad shop. The local instructors keep in close touch with the central office and cooperate in getting together material for the draw

ing and problem courses. In addition to this the school instructor collaborates with the shop instructor and shop foremen and utilizes practical problems of the shop upon which the boys are working. The lessons are arranged in a series, and each boy must complete the series, to do which requires some additional work at home.

While no textbooks are used, each boy is furnished with a copy of a machine-shop arithmetic and a book on link motion for reference purposes. At one or two points a manufacturing company furnishes each boy with a pamphlet known as the "Young Machinist's Practical Guide." At West Albany there is a series of charts furnished by an air-brake company showing the different parts of their apparatus. Catalogues of interest to pupils are kept on file at each point. In several instances publications of special interest are given to each pupil; for example, a publication on the cross-compound locomotive, published by the American Locomotive Co., was given to all apprentices of the Michigan Central, on which road this type of locomotive is used very largely.

The boys must purchase their own drawing sets. The company furnishes these at half price, amounting to about $5.

In the shop the pupils are working on a regular product; in no case do they "make chips for the sake of making chips."

The school system is yet too young for many of the graduates to have risen to executive positions. However, at the 1909 meeting of apprentice instructors there were reported 15 boys who that year had been promoted to positions of responsibility, such as shop instructors, material inspectors, assistant foremen in various departments, and draftsmen. It is the policy of the company to fill vacancies as they occur with graduates of the apprentice school who have demonstrated their efficiency.

The railroad officials, from the gang boss to the superintendent of motive power, are in favor of the system; the workmen in the shops. have shown much interest and appreciation; they are glad to have an opening for their sons by which they can be assured of thorough training which will make them first-class mechanics, and which, if properly followed up, may fit them for positions of authority and responsibility.

In addition to the regular apprentice instruction, night classes are conducted for men at several points. These classes are open to all employees. At one shop nearly all of the night-school pupils were apprentices receiving regular instruction in the day school. At points where there is a full quota of apprentices and a waiting list, the boys take places as helpers and enroll in the night school until there is an opening for them. Many boys who have finished their apprenticeship continue their studies in the night class. These night classes give the more ambitious men a chance to become more proficient and to fit them for better positions.

SANTA FE SYSTEM.

The Santa Fe system of apprenticeship schools was established in 1907. Schools are now in operation at 24 localities or shops. Headquarters are maintained at Topeka, Kans., where the largest shops. are operated. An ex-master mechanic is supervisor of apprentices, and his assistant was principal of the Topeka High School at the time of his appointment. The courses are planned here, and lesson sheets made up and sent out to the various schools. Monthly reports are sent to headquarters from each school.

Every apprentice in shops where schools are in operation is required to attend school throughout the period of his apprenticeship, which is four years. The Santa Fe has not confined its efforts to the largest shops. Even in small shops where there are but three or four apprentices arrangements are made to give them systematic instruction. In order to be accepted as an apprentice the candidate must be from 16 to 22 years of age, except in California, where the State law makes the minimum age 18. The preference is usually given to the younger boy. He must pass an examination which requires schooling to at least the fifth grade, and must pass a physical examination. The candidate must be approved by both school and shop instructors before he can be employed. The number of apprentices by localities and trades are shown in the following table:

NUMBER OF APPRENTICES IN SCHOOLS OF THE SANTA FE SYSTEM, BY TRADES AND BY LOCATION OF SCHOOLS.

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