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a. m. to 12 m., 1 to 3 p. m., and 3.30 to 5.30 p. m. Each apprentice attends school four hours per week. All apprentices follow the same general course regardless of their trades.
The course is somewhat more elaborate than that of other railroad schools. Apprentices are divided into two groups. The first group consists of apprentices of lower educational qualifications; the second of those of higher educational qualifications. In addition there is a preparatory class in which apprentices are placed until the instructor is able to ascertain their educational qualifications. If any apprentices are very deficient in education they remain in this class until able to enter the first group.
The first group receives instruction in mechanical drawing, algebra, arithmetic, English, physics, geometry, mechanism, mechanics, chemistry, machine design, steam practice, and strength of materials. The second group receives instruction in mechanical drawing, algebra, geometry, physics, mechanics, mechanism, strength of materials, chemistry, experimental tests, machine design, shop management, and steam practice. The object of the instruction is to make better artisans rather than to develop foremen and superintendents.
The railroad company cooperates with the extension department of the Pennsylvania State College. The State college acts in an advisory capacity and the teachers are State college professors. These men are, however, carried on the company's roll, and the school is entirely independent of the college. Officials of the road state that as soon as the work has passed its experimental stage and the company feels able to do so, all connection with the State college will be severed and the school will be managed independently.
Practical training is obtained by apprentices while engaged on actual productive work in the shops. No shop instructors are employed, but it is the duty of the shop foremen to give such practical instruction as may be needed. The rotation of boys on machines and in the various divisions of the shop is in the hands of the supervisor of apprentices, who is responsible for the thorough training of the apprentices.
The Union Pacific has a very extensive educational system which is described under Correspondence Schools on page 357. This system is for all classes of employees and not especially for apprentices. In addition, there is an evening school for apprentices which was established at the Omaha (Nebr.) shops in 1906. Persons 16 years of age and over are accepted as apprentices, and are required to attend school three years. There were 84 pupils in September, 1910. The following trades are taught: Blacksmithing, boiler making, cabinet
making, carpentry, coach carpentry, electrical work, machinist, painting, pattern making, silver plating, steam fitting, tinsmithing, and upholstering. School is in session 26 weeks per year, and instruction is given Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday. First-year apprentices take arithmetic from 7.30 to 8.30 p. m. two evenings per week. If they have completed the eighth grade in the public school, they are not required to take arithmetic, but enter the class for secondyear apprentices. Second-year apprentices take elementary mechanics from 5.10 to 6.10 p. m. two evenings per week. Third-year apprentices take mechanical drawing from 7.30 to 9.30 p. m. two evenings per week. The chief draftsman is the superintendent and two other draftsmen do some teaching. There is a special shop instructor, whose only other duties are those of general repairman of the shop. The only textbook used is in the arithmetic class; the boy must provide himself with the textbook on arithmetic used by the Omaha public schools, and with a set of drawing instruments. Men from the shops are allowed to attend this school upon payment of 50 cents per month.
In connection with the evening school work a reading room has been established for the apprentices and other shopmen, in which the leading railway magazines are kept for the use of men and boys during the noon hour. A branch of the Omaha Public Library has been established at the shops, in which the best books dealing with the various branches of work in the shop are kept, and the men are allowed to draw these books from the library for their personal use.
In the Cheyenne (Wyo.) shops there is a class in which instruction is confined to one year of mechanical drawing. This class was established in 1907.
DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA & WESTERN.
Since January, 1910, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has cooperated with the Young Men's Christian Association to furnish instruction to its apprentices in the shops at Scranton, Pa., Kingsland, N. J., and East Buffalo, N. Y. Persons 16 to 21 years of age who pass the required mental and physical examination and serve satisfactorily a three months' trial period are accepted as apprentices and are required to attend school four years.
The number of pupils by trades and localities is shown in the following table:
The work is under the direction of a supervisor and one instructor. Both of these men spend Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday from 9 a. m. to 12 m. and from 1 to 4 p. m. at Scranton, Pa., where the largest shop is located; one man spends Thursday and Friday from 9 a. m. to 12 m. and from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. at East Buffalo, N. Y.; and one spends Thursday and Friday from 9 a. m. to 12 m. and from 12.25 to 3.25 p. m. at Kingsland, N. J. School is in session 44 weeks per year. Each apprentice devotes two and one-fourth hours per week to mechanical drawing, and three-fourths of an hour to shop mathematics. Spelling, reading, and business letter writing are also taught incidentally. Boys are given articles to be read at home and briefed in writing, which represents three hours per week. Occasionally the usual routine is suspended and the methods used in the old-fashioned spelling school is subsituted. In addition to this talks are given by the supervisor and by outside men. These talks are sometimes on practical shop subjects and sometimes on civic subjects. The supervisor believes that a part of his mission in the school is to turn out men who shall be good citizens, and his work is shaped to that end. Making efficient workmen, he considers one of the necessary steps to making good citizens.
The supervisor makes a personal study of every boy and attempts to discover the work he is best fitted for and to direct him into it. Boys are frequently transferred to some other trade after they have been apprenticed, and if the boy proves unsuited to any work about the shops he is advised as to what vocation seems to offer a better future for him.
The shop practice is that of the ordinary motive-power shops.
DELAWARE & HUDSON.
The Delaware & Hudson maintains apprentice schools at its. motive-power shops at Carbondale, Pa., and Green Island and Oneonta, N. Y. These schools were established in 1907. Persons 17 to 21 years of age who pass the mental and physical examination are accepted as apprentices, and are required to attend school throughout their apprenticeship, which is four calendar years.
The number of apprentices by trades and localities is here given:
NUMBER OF APPRENTICES IN SCHOOLS OF THE DELAWARE & HUDSON RAILROAD, BY TRADES AND BY LOCALITY OF SCHOOLS.
The superintendent of tests is the supervisor of apprentices, and the lesson sheets and blue prints are made up under his direction. There is but one regular instructor. He is a graduate of one of the New York Central apprentice schools. There is a senior apprentice at each shop who acts as assistant instructor. School is in session 52 weeks per year. Instruction is given Monday and Tuesday from 1 to 6 p. m. at Green Island; Wednesday and Thursday from 7 a. m. to 12 m. and 1 to 6 p. m. at Oneonta; and Friday from 7 a. m. to 12 m. and 1 to 6 p. m. at Carbondale. Each apprentice attends school five hours per week. Instruction is given in mechanical drawing and shop mathematics. In the shops apprentices are under the direction of the shop foremen, and are transferred from one operation to another according to the rules of the Master Mechanics' Association.
CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY.
The Central Railroad of New Jersey has no general system of apprentice schools, but maintains a school at the Elizabethport (N. J.) shops which were established in 1905. Persons 17 years of age and over who are able to read and write the English language, and pass an examination in arithmetic, embracing all subjects to and including decimals, are accepted as apprentices, and are, after two months' probation, required to attend school four years.
The trades taught during the past year were blacksmithing, with an average enrollment of 2 pupils; boilermaking, 4; carpentry, 4; electrical work, 1; machinist, 47; and patternmaking, 2. School is in session 40 to 42 weeks per year, and instruction is given Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 2.45 to 4.45 p. m. Each pupil attends one day per week. One and two-thirds hours per week are devoted to mechanical drawing, and one-third to elementary mechanics. The aim is to develop ability to read drawings rather than to train mechanical draftsmen. A draftsman in the company's employ, serves as school instructor, and the various foremen are depended upon to give shop instruction; no books or lesson sheets are used.
CHICAGO GREAT WESTERN.
The Chicago Great Western maintains an apprentice school at Oelwein, Iowa, which was established in 1908.
Persons 16 to 20 years of age who have a common-school education are accepted as apprentices and required to attend school throughout their apprenticeship, which is four years.
There were 88 pupils in school in October, 1910. The following trades are taught: Blacksmithing, boiler making, coach carpentry, electrical work, machinist, painting, pattern making, steam fitting, tinsmithing, woodworking, and upholstering.
School is in session throughout the year, and instruction is given Monday to Saturday from 1 to 2 p. m. Each pupil attends school one day per week and receives instruction in mechanical drawing, or in arithmetic, algebra, and geometry.
One teacher devotes his entire time to the instruction of apprentices and to watching them in their daily work and giving such instruction as is needed. The mechanical engineer assists in getting out practical lessons in mathematics; he also takes special interest in mechanical drawing. A record is kept of the work covered by each apprentice, the progress being carefully noted. Transfers and promotions
are made as rapidly as the boy's work warrants.
THE PERE MARQUETTE AND THE ST. LOUIS & SAN FRANCISCO RAILROADS.
These roads have evening classes for apprentices, meeting one or two evenings per week, in which instruction is given in mechanical drawing and shop arithmetic. The object of the courses is to teach apprentices to read drawings and blue prints and to enable them to work intelligently from the blue prints.
The information obtained concerning the schools of these two roads was so limited that they do not appear in the general tables of this report.