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It is important to note that the wonderful growth in the passenger traffic has not required an increase in the number of ticket agents. It has even been possible to abolish certain ticket offices in the station at Budapest, since the same ticket office can now issue tickets for routes in several directions.

The ticket regulations are most simple, especially as, since the 1st of December, 1889, arrangements have been made by which railroad tickets are sold in post-offices, hotels and tobacco stores. In these different offices the public can purchase tickets whenever desired, and with his ticket bought in town, a traveler can enter a car without being obliged to have his ticket stamped at the ticket office in the station.

Railroad employés alone are charged with the inspection of these tickets.

Translated by

JANE J. WETHERELL.

Philadelphia.

N. B.-The extreme rates used in the introductory note for comparison, are rates for third class with no free baggage. The accommodations are, of course, much inferior to the ordinary first class.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

American Academy of Political and Social Science.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

INTEREST in scientific work of all kinds has increased of late so rapidly in the United States as to attract the attention of observers in every country. In no department has this interest been more active or scientific progress been more real than in the field of economic, social and political studies. We have not, it is true, as yet made contributions which would entitle us to take rank with England or Germany or France, but in no country is there at present a more hopeful outlook for scientific work of a high character along these lines than in America.

The evidence of this is cumulative and abundant. University professors.in Germany agree pretty generally that they have had in the last fifteen years no more eager, industrious and able students than those who go from this side the water. University professors in this country testify to the steadily improving quality and continually growing number of students interested in these fields. The growing facilities for study along these lines in our own institutions speak more eloquently than words of the new era that has dawned upon us.

In the larger colleges the field has been subdivided so as to permit a detailed kind of work which even ten years ago was impossible. In the smaller ones it has been separated from other and dissimilar fields and entrusted to what fifteen years ago was almost unknown outside of a few institutions-the specialist, fitted by taste and training to do original work as well as teaching.

The instruction offered at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Cornell, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Johns Hopkins is not only of high character, but of a comprehensive scope and spirit which, ten years ago, would have been deemed impossible; while that given in many other institutions is, if not so comprehensive, at least as thorough and vigorous as in the larger centres. It is a most hopeful sign that many of our best workers in this field are in smaller or newer institutions scattered from

Maine to California and from Minnesota to the Gulf, working oftentimes under unfavorable conditions, but doing their share toward cultivating the common field and increasing our stock of scientific capital.

The increase in public interest is amply evidenced by the growing attention given to such problems by our daily or weekly papers and by our leading monthlies and reviews. The interest in the scientific aspect of these problems is also plain from the growing stock of technical or professional literature. We have already two high-class reviews-the Quarterly Journal of Economics and the Political Science Quarterly-periodicals of which any country might be proud-one published at Harvard and the other at Columbia. The Johns Hopkins Series of Studies, the University of Pennsylvania Series on Political Economy and Public Law, the American Economic Association Series, the American Social Science Journal, the Statistical Association Series-all successful publications of established reputation-show how strong and deep these subjects are striking root in American soil. The recent contributions to economic and political science by Amercan writers are neither few nor unimportant, and they cover every part of the field with more or less thoroughness. The text-books for elementary instruction by Andrews, Ely, Laughlin, McVane and Walker, the contributions to economic history by Taussig, Jenks, Bourne and others too numerous to mention, the essays on transportation by Hadley and Seligman, the work on theoretical economics by Clark and Patten, the work on statistics by Dewey, Smith and Wright, that by Goodnow and Wilson on political science, are simple specimens, taken at random, of American work which have commanded not only local but foreign attention as well.

Another and no less striking indication of a growing scientific spirit is to be found in the effort to secure such coöperation among scientific workers as can only be obtained by the organization of societies and associations. To those of a national scope and spirit which have exercised or are exercising a wide influence belong the American Social Science Association, the American Economic Association, and the American Statistical Association, the latter having been recently revived and made efficient chiefly through the efforts of Prof. Dewey. It is a special society whose object is sufficiently explained by its title. The first two cover a wide field, one of them has a long, and both of them an honorable, history.

In spite of the valuable work of these organizations, it was widely felt that the spirit of scientific coöperation had not found an adequate expression; that there was still room for another society; that there was work of a specific kind which could not be done by any of the existing associations. As a result of this feeling, a preliminary meeting for organization was held in Philadelphia, December 14th, 1889, in the

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Lecture Hall of the Law School, Girard Building, corner of Broad and Chestnut Streets.

A temporary organization was effected which was subsequently made permanent. The name selected for the new organization was the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and Philadelphia was selected as its headquarters. The list of officers and advisory committee will be found in the printed announcement.

The response to the invitation to become members of the Academy testifies to the strength of the feeling that there is important work to be done in this field, which previously existing societies cannot do. Over seven hundred persons have joined the society, although it is not yet six months old. The membership is scattered from Maine to California, every state being represented by one or more persons.

The plan of organization calls for regular meetings for the presentation of papers and communications and the discussion of the same. Members who may not be able to attend may send papers or communications to the corresponding secretary, who will present them to the Academy. Annual meetings will be held at such times and places as the council may decide. Suitable papers and communications will be published in full or in abstract in the proceedings of the Academy.

It is proposed through this society to secure to investigators of economics, politics and sociology, a regular means of getting the results of their studies directly before the public most interested in them, and as soon as possible after they are ready for publication. It will not be necessary to wait for an annual or biennial meeting in order to find an audience for a special paper. It can be sent at any time to the Academy, be there read and discussed, labeled, dated and put on file for publication. The Academy will, in a word, afford to students of economics, politics and sociology an opportunity for speedy publication of important matter-like that afforded in a similar field by the various academies of natural science. Brief communications in regard to special points, new facts in economic or social or political life, and similar matter will be acceptable.

It has been decided to publish the proceedings in the form of a quarterly periodical, to be called the ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY, with such supplementary numbers as circumstances may make necessary. The quarterly and supplements will be sent gratis to all members.

FIRST SESSION.

The Frst Scientific Session of the Academy was held in Philadelphia, on Friday, the 21st of March, 1890, in the rooms of the New Century Club, 1520 Chestnut Street, at 8 o'clock P.M.

The President of the Academy, Professor Edmund J. James, delivered a brief opening address on the raison d'étre of the Academy, the history of its formation and its general plan of work.

The Corresponding Secretary announced that the following papers had been submitted to the Academy :

1. By Dr. J. G. Bourinot, of Ottawa, Canada, on the Politics of Canada and the United States.

2. By Mr. J. G. Rosengarten, on the History of the Philadelphia Social Science Association. Read by title. To be printed in full.

3. By Professor Simon N. Patten, on Decay of Local and State Government in the United States.

4. By Mr. Stuart Wood, on Theories of Wages.

5. By Professor W. P. Holcomb, on a National Department of Education.

Mr. Stuart Wood read the paper, submitted by him, on Theories of Wages. He gave a history of the wagefund theory from its origin to the restatement of Cairnes, and showed how it should be modified in order to be a satisfactory explanation of wage phenomena. To be printed

in full.

Professor Simon N. Patten read a paper on Decay of Local and State Governments in the United States. Printed in the ANNALS, July, 1890.

SECOND SESSION.

The Second Scientific Session of the Academy was held Tuesday, April 29th, at 8 o'clock P.M., in the rooms of the New Century Club, in Philadelphia.

The following papers were announced:

6. The Theory of Wages and Interest. By Professor J. B. Clark, of Smith College, Mass. Read by title, and printed in the ANNALS, July, 1890.

7. The Zone-Tariff in Hungary. Translation by Jane J. Wetherell. Read by title and printed in the ANNALS,

July, 1890.

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