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Die Lehre vom Heerwesen. Als Theil der Staatswissenschaft. Stuttgart, 1871.

Zur Eisenbahnrechtsbildung. Wien, 1871.

Alpenrosen. Gedichte. Stuttgart, 1873.

Die Frau auf dem Gebiete der Nationalokonomie. Stuttgart, 1875; 2d ed. 1876; 3d ed. 1886.

Gegenwart und Zukunft der Rechts- und Staatswissenschaft Deutschlands. Stuttgart, 1876.

Lehrfreiheit, Wissenschaft, und Collegiengeld. Wien, 1875.

Der Wucher und sein Recht. Wien, 1880.

Die staatswissenschaftliche und die landwirthschaftliche Bildung. Berlin, 1880.

Die Frau auf dem sozialen Gebiete. Stuttgart, 1880.

Die drei grossen Fragen des Grundbesitzes: die irische, Die kontinentale, und die transatlantische. Stuttgart, 1881.

Bauerngut und Hufenrecht. Ein Gutachten. 1882.

Die Landwirthschaft in der Verwaltung, und das Prinzip der Rechtsbildung des Grundbesitzes. Drei Vorträge. Wien, 1883.

Stein was also editor of the following journals:

Centralblatt für Eisenbahnen und Dampfschiffahrt. Wien, 1861-87. Zeitschrift für Eisenbahnen und Dampfschiffahrt der oesterreichungarischen Monarchie. 1888–90.

He was the author of the article " Polezei und Verwaltungsrecht," in v. Stengel's Wörterbuch des deutschen Verwaltungsrechts; and a contributor to the following periodicals: Finanzarchiv, Annalen des deutschen Reiches, Zeitschrift für die gesammte Staatswissenschaft, Leonhard's Congress, Unsere Zeit, Nord und Süd, Allgemeine Zeitung (formerly in Augsburg, now in Munich).

ENGLAND.

Oxford.-James Edwin Thorold Rogers, Professor of Political Economy at the University of Oxford, died on the 13th of October, 1890. Born in 1823, he received his early education at Southampton and King's College, London. Subsequently entering Magdalen Hall, Oxford (now Hertford College), he won the distinguished success of a first class in the final examination in Litera Humaniores, and took his degree in 1846. For some time it seemed likely that he would become actively engaged in the High Church movement; he took orders, and contributed an

article to Orby Shipley's Church and the World. But his attention was attracted to economics by his friendship with Cobden, and in 1862 he was elected to the professorship of Political Economy at Oxford. In 1866 appeared the first two volumes of his monumental History of Agriculture and Prices in England, covering the period 1249-1400; and in 1868 his Manual of Political Economy for schools. Owing to a certain soreness of feeling arising from university politics, Convocation, which had then the right of renewing the appointment from time to time, refused in 1868 to re-elect him to the professorship. From this time forward Mr. Rogers devoted his energies in a great measure to current politics. He gave up his clerical status, and, in 1874, stood as a candidate for Parliament at Scarborough. He did not, however, succeed in securing his election till 1880, when he was chosen at Southwark in the Liberal interest; and he lost his seat in 1886. For many years, however, he held the almost nominal Tooke Professorship of Economic Science at King's College. He wrote Cobden and Public Opinion in 1873; edited the Protests of the Lords in 1875, the Speeches of John Bright, and Gascoigne's Liber Veritatum; and in addition wrote a number of smaller popular works, of which perhaps the best is the British Citizen, 1885. In 1882 appeared the third and fourth volumes of his History of Agriculture for the period 1401-1583; and in 1885 he produced a popular account of his conclusions under the title Six Centuries of Work and Wages. Losing his seat in Parliament in 1886 he turned with fresh zeal to his researches, and was able to issue in 1887 the fifth and sixth volumes of his history (1584-1702), and the First Nine Years of the Bank of England. Finally, in 1888, he was reëlected to the Oxford professorship, and his Economic Interpretation of History may be regarded as his manifesto on resuming his old position.

GERMANY.

Bonn. Professor H. Dietzel, who succeeds the late Professor Nasse at the University of Bonn, was born in 1857 at Leipzig. He studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg and Berlin, taking his degree of Doctor of Laws at Göttingen in 1879, and that of Doctor of Philosophy at Berlin in 1882. He was on the point of becoming a privat-docent in Berlin, when he received, in 1884, a call as extraordinary professor at Dorpat. Assuming his duties in 1885, he was made ordinary professor in 1887. Called in 1890 to Bonn, he began his work there with the current semester. The list of his writings is as follows:

Ueber das Verhältniss der Volkswirthschaftslehre zur Sozialwirthschaftslehre. Inaugural Dissertation, Berlin, 1882.

Der Ausgangspunkt der Sozialwirthschaftslehre und ihr Grundbegriff (Zeitschrift f. d. ges. Staatswissenschaft, 1883).

Beiträge zur Methodik (Conrad's Jahrbuch, Neue Folge, Bd. ix.). Ueber Wesen und Bedeutung des Teilbaus in Italien (Zeitschrift f. d. ges. Staatswissenschaft, 1884, 1885).

Karl Rodbertus. Bd. I. Jena, 1886. Bd. II. Jena, 1888. Further reviews: Menger, Methode der Socialwissenschaften, in Conrad's Jahrbuch. N. F., viii. 107, 353; Schmoller, Zur Litteraturgeschichte der Staats-und Sozialwissenschaften, in Göttinger Gelehrten Anzeigen, 1889, pp. 721-741. And also, shorter essays: Papierrubel oder Silberrubel? in Baltische Monatschrift, 1888, pp. 306-331; Sozialpolitik des Fürsten Bismarck, in Nordische Rundschau, 1887, pp. 329-357; Die klassische Werththeorie und die Theorie vom Grenznutzen, in Conrad's Jahrbuch. N. F. xx. pp. 561-607.

Heidelberg. At the University of Heidelberg the degree of Doctor of Philosophy has been conferred on Mr. Edward Luther Stevenson. Mr. Stevenson graduated at Franklin College, Indiana, with the degree of A. B., in 1881. Having studied from 1887-88 at Johns Hopkins University, and from 1888-90 at Heidelberg, he secured the Ph.D. degree on August 4, 1890. His major subject was. History, his minors, Prussian History and Political Economy; and the title of his dissertation, Ueber den Einfluss der amerikanischen Ideen auf den Gang der französischen Revolution.

SWITZERLAND.

Geneva.-Professor Louis Waurin, lately appointed ordinary Professor of Sociology and allied subjects at the University of Geneva, was at the time of his appointment extraordinary professor in the same institution. He was born at Geneva in 1846, and after completing his studies in his own country, went to Paris, where he graduated at the Sorbonne. He then spent two years in the United States. He has obtained two prizes offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Science of the French Institute, one of them being for the subject, "A Critical Study of the Doctrines Known Under the Name of Sociology." Besides occasional pamphlets, Professor Waurin has published l'État et l'École, a part of the other prize essay alluded to above, and in 1889 Le Contribuable, ou comment defendre sa Bourse-Paris, Alcan-a work in which economics and politics are mingled, and which was the subject of much praise and bitter criticism. Professor Waurin is a prominent contributor to the Revue d'Economie politique.

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES.

REVIEWS.

A MANUAL OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF CANADA. BY JOHN GEORGE BOURINOT, LL.D., F. R. S. Can., Clerk of the House of Commons of Canada. Pp. 238. Montreal: Dawson Brothers.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA. BY JOHN G. BOURINOT, Hon. LL.D., D. C. L., Clerk of the House of Commons, etc. Pp. 172. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Studies.

THESE books are from the pen of Dr. Bourinot, who has already given the scientific world several works on the Constitution and government of Canada which are excellent contributions to a class of literature in which Canada has few acceptable treatises. The position which he occupies in the House of Commons gives him an opportunity to obtain the exact facts on many historical and political questions.

The Constitutional History of Canada is designed especially as a manual for students of political science, and is a revision of the author's Parliamentary Practice and Procedure in Canada. After giving a short history of the nature of the first government of Canada, the author proceeds to a consideration of Canada under the French régime and very briefly presents the more salient features of that feudal and bureaucratic administration which has left its stamp on the religious institutions, feeling, and character of the people. Then follows a short sketch of the attitude of Great Britain toward Canada from the time of the French capitulation in 1760 to 1774, when the uncertainty as to the

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