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seen the foundation of a weekly paper devoted to economic topics, Le Monde Economique. The editor is Professor Paul Beauregard, of the Law Faculty at Paris. He is assisted by a committee of prominent economists, chief among them M. Leon Say. In his exposition of his programme, the editor promises to examine the many economic problems now coming to the front in France in a liberal spirit, not departing from the fundamental axioms of the orthodox economy. He is, however, careful to say that he does not accept absolutely the maxim of laissez faire, but promises in all practical questions a thorough discussion of all the facts necessary to a decision.

FROM M. Maurice Block we have learned to expect a clear-cut statement of the views of the individualistic economy. The reader will not be disappointed in taking up his latest work Les Suites d'une Grève (Paris: Hachette et Cie., 1891). But it is with a feeling of surprise that we discover that the work is a novel. It is needless to say that the narrative portion of the work is meagre, and is used merely as an instrument to enforce the lessons of the necessity of saving and of the inherent weakness of Socialistic ideas.

THE foundation of the British Economic Association undoubtedly marks an important advance for economic science in England. It would seem that the attitude of English scholars towards economics generally is undergoing much the same change as in the past ten years has taken place here. The founding of such an organization means that the question is open for discussion. A tendency to regard the problems of economics as finally settled has had its place in the growth of economic thought in all countries. But at length a demand for a revision, or at least a restatement of economic theory, has made itself felt. This is the significance to be attributed to the extraordinary growth of associations and journals devoted

to economic science in recent years. The Association was founded at a meeting held November 20, 1890, at Unversity College, London, under the presidency of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Hon. J. G. Goschen, who is the President of the Association. Among its officers are to be found the prominent teachers and writers in political economy throughout the kingdom. For the present the main function of the Association will be the publication of a journal under the editorship of the Secretary, Professor F. Y. Edgeworth. The new journal is to have no creed of its own, but to be the exponent of all schools of thought. The first number is promised for the end of March. An imposing list of contributors has been published, containing also a few foreign names.

THE hopes and spirits of all persons interested in social and economic reforms ought to be greatly strengthened by the results of a movement recently inaugurated in Philadelphia, as it shows how much can be accomplished by a few energetic men under the lead of a determined and farsighted organizer. At the instigation of Mr. William H. Rhawn, a prominent Philadelphia banker, a "Committee for Better Roads" was formed, which undertook to arouse public interest in the improvement of our highways. They contributed a small sum each, and, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, offered prizes for the best essays on roadmaking and road management. A number of valuable essays were contributed-a Canadian taking the first prize. These essays have been collected in one volume, and, under the editorship of Professor Haupt, have been recently published. Although the book has been out only a short time, it has attracted the attention of nearly all our legislators, and has led to the introduction of numerous bills looking toward the improvement of existing conditions.



IN 1865, the American Association for the Promotion of Social Science was organized, after the plan of the British Association, founded in 1857.

In November, 1869, the Philadelphia members organized a local branch, with Judge Strong, of the Supreme Court of the United States, as President. Mr. J. Miller McKim, as the representative of the parent Association, assisted at several of its meetings to complete its working organization. Mr. Henry Villard, the General Secretary of the American Association, also gave valuable assistance in perfecting this local branch. Through him, correspondence with Messrs. John Stuart Mill and David Watson, on the subject of ballot reform, was carried on. A circular was printed inviting answers from all interested in the matter. Measures were also taken to invite congressional action in favor of Civil Service Reform. Judge Lowrie took part in a conference on legal education in New York, at the invitation of President Barnard, of Columbia College.

In May of 1870, the local branch invited the General Association to hold its next meeting in Philadelphia. In October, a conference was held with Dr. Eliot, Messrs. Blatchford, McKim, and Godkin in reference to that meeting. The Ninth General Meeting was held in the chapel of the University, beginning on the 26th October. The Philadelphia members who took part in it were: Messrs. Lorin Blodgett, on "The Waste of Existing Social Systems;" Eckley B. Coxe, on "Mining Legisla

tion;" Hon. William Strong, on "Social Science;" Hon. Charles R. Buckalew, on "Minority Representation;" J. G. Rosengarten, on "Civil Service Reform;" Hon. W. H. Lowrie, on "Method in the Study of Social Science;" Dr. Isaac Ray, on "The Evidence of Experts;" Joseph Wharton, on "International Industrial Competition;" and Eckley B. Coxe, on "The Theory of Civil Service Reform." An address was made by A. J. Mundella, M.P., and a paper by Thomas Hare, on "Minority Representation," was also contributed.

The first annual report, in December, 1870, made mention of a course of lectures on "Social Science," by Professor McIlvaine, of Princeton; on the foundation by Stephen J. Colwell, Esq.; and also adverted to the efforts to secure Civil Service Reform by National, State, and municipal legislation. A membership of between one and two hundred members attested the success of the organization, and the various committees gave promise of active work in the several subjects assigned to them. Of the receipts of over $1100, $450 were sent to the parent society in Boston.

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A year later the annual report noted the delivery and printing of the following papers: Compulsory Education," by Lorin Blodgett; "Arbitration," by Eckley B. Coxe; "The Revised Statutes of Pennsylvania," by R. C. McMurtrie; "Local Taxation," by Thomas Cochran; "Infant Mortality," by Dr. J. S. Parry. This last was the opening of a war on the bad management of the Philadelphia Blockley Hospital, which ended finally in the reforms that have made such marked changes in that institution. Unfortunately, Dr. Parry did not live to see the final results of his work, for he died prematurely soon after the reading of his paper.

Among the papers announced for the winter of 1871-72, the following were read and printed: "Statute Law and Common Law, and the Proposed Revision in Pennsylvania," by E. Spencer Miller, and under the weighty

objections of Messrs. McMurtrie and Miller, that scheme ended in failure and well-deserved oblivion; "Apprenticeship," by James D. Whitney; "The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution," by Hon. F. Jordan; “The Uses and Abuses of Medical Charities," by Dr. J. S. Parry; "Vaccination," by Dr. Parry; "The Census of our Industrial Establishments," by Lorin Blodgett. At the close of 1871, Judge Strong resigned the office of President, and was succeeded by Henry C. Lea, Esq. At the annual meeting at the close of 1872, the Association again renewed its pledge to support the movement for Civil Service Reform.

In 1873, the following papers were read: "The Tax System of Pennsylvania," by Cyrus Elder; "The Work of the Constitutional Convention," by A. Sydney Biddle; "What shall Philadelphia do with its Paupers ?” by Dr. Isaac Ray, another well-directed attack on the abuses of the Philadelphia Almshouse and Hospital at Blockley. Dr. Ray, too, did not live to see the results of his strong plea for reform, yet they were finally secured. The Philadelphia Association was represented, through its Secretary, at the Eighth General Meeting of the American Social Science Association, in Boston, in May, 1873. In June, a paper was read by S. Dana Horton, of Cincinnati, on "Proportional Representation;" and an address was made by Miss Mary Carpenter, of England, on "Reformatory Treatment and Prison Discipline." In September, a paper was read by Dr. Stockton Hough, on "Vital Statistics," and in December the same gentleman read a paper on "The Relative Influence of City and Country Life on Health, Mortality, and Longevity," and Dr. Ruschenberger read a paper on "The Value of Original Scientific Research."

In January, 1874, Professor J. P. Lesley read a paper on "The Utility of Government Geological Surveys;" in February, J. G. Rosengarten read a paper on "The Law of Partnership." Invitations were received to take part in

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