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scholars and true men-work generous in scope, scientific in method, fair in spirit-I believe there must come out of it something better than the ownership of swamp or of forest, of gold mines or mouths of rivers. I believe that the world will be slow to forget that there has been found for an aggrieved nation, even when its demand for arbitration has been refused, a way to deal with a question of historical claim more effective than an immediate appeal to arms. And if, to the sober eye of retrospective history, it shall appear that in this instance the foremost of civilized states was on the point of being drawn into desperate war with two transatlantic neighbors over a claim which had no better objective basis than a German adventurer's misreading of an Indian name, I much doubt if any civilized state will so soon again be willing to risk the derision of posterity by refusing all peaceful arbitration until it has at least set its own scholars at one earnest effort to test the justice of its cause.



1. The Siege of Charleston; Journal of Captain Peter Russell, December 25, 1779, to May 2, 1780.

CAPTAIN PETER RUSSELL, “a remote scion of the Bedford Russells," was born near Cork. From a letter addressed to the Duke of Portland in April, 1799, we learn that he attended the University of Cambridge. Entering the army, on August 18, 1778, he received his commission of captain in the 64th Regiment and was with the expedition sent against Savannah and Charleston in 1779– 1780, during which he seems to have kept the following journal. Nothing appears to be known of his career after the termination of the war until his emigration to the newly-formed province of Upper Canada in 1792. Governor Simcoe appointed him a member of the Executive Council, and on Simcoe's return to England, in 1796, he became administrator of the province with the title of President. This position he held until the arrival of General Hunter, in August, 1799. His name is usually associated with th circumstance of the numerous grants of land made by the administrator to the individual. As executive councillor he was entitled to 6000 acres, which he preferred to take in small quantities in different portions of the country. He afterwards filled the position of receiver-general and died at York (Toronto) September 30, 1808. His papers, with all his property, passed into the hands of his sister, Miss Elizabeth Russell, who bequeathed them to Dr. William Warren Baldwin, a young doctor from the same district in the South of Ireland from which she and her brother had emigrated. In his custody and that of his son, the Hon. Robert Baldwin, attorney-general, they remained until the death of the latter in 1858. Shortly after they were burned, with the exception of the longer documents, which were deposited with the Baldwin papers. The executors of the Baldwin estate retained these in safe custody until 1898, when they were deposited in the Public Library, Toronto. The little volume. ends abruptly, and so far no continuation has been discovered. As it is marked No. 3, it is evidently one of a series, the earlier parts of which may yet be found.


December 25 1779 Embarked at N York in the John, a Horse Transport, with the Commander in Chief, Sir H. Clinton, and his family consisting of Major Crosby, Major Willmousky,' Captains Hanger,2 S George, and Keppel and L: Col: Watson, Aides de Camp, and Captains Philips and Russell Ass! Secretaries. Fell down the same day to the Hook, where the Commander in Chief, Major Crosby and Major Andre3 left us and embarked in the Romulus Man of War.

Dec 26. The whole Fleet, consisting of the Europe, V. Admiral Arbuthnot, Russell Commodore Drake, Robuste, Raisonable and Defiance Line of Battle, Renown 50, Roebuck and Romulus 44, Perseus and Camilla Frigates, Anna Theresa Packet, 57 Transports 3 Ordnance and 3 Engineer Ships, 3 Navy and 7 Army Victualers, and 13 Small Craft with Horses, having on board 1 and 2 Batt: of Light Infantry and 1 and 2 Batt of

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Sailed from the Hook about one oclock with a fair wind for the Southward.

1 Emanuel de Willmousky, major of the Regiment Mirbach, major of brigade in the

Hessian corps.

[Mr. Bain is not responsible for the annotation of the documents.]

2 Afterward Lord Coleraine.

3 The celebrated Major John Andre.

Afterward Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Samuel Drake.

5 Of the Hessian corps.

[The entries for the next thirty-three days, relating to the voyage and the storms encountered, are omitted.]

Jan 29. The Wind came about to the N. E. in the Night, which carried us 7 Knots, fine weather and smooth Sea. in Lat. 32.41 by obs. 60 Sail in Sight The admiral at Noon Shaped his Course for Tybee. Course S. W. by S. Land in Sight on the Starboard Beam. Joined today by the Roebuck, Renown, and Blonde. Received Intelligence from the Romulus which She received from a Privateer that 800 Men had been taken Prisoners by the Spaniards in Pensacola. They were commanded by Lieu! Col! Dickson of the 16th. Also that the Raleigh and Richmond were arrived on the Coast in their way to New York; who bring an acc! that the British Fleet were drove into Port' by the combined Fleets and that a Rebel of the Name of Jones had taken one of our 40 Gun Ships and carried her into the Texel. The Admiral brought to with the fleet at 10 at Night, being afraid of running too far in.

Jan 30. Calm in the Morning but the Wind afterward sprung up from the West. Two Men of War, The Foy and an armed Ship called the Germain, came into the fleet today. In Lat. 31.51 Received Intelligence that the Rebels have twelve Sail of strong armed Ships and a considerable Body of Troops at Charles Town. Lord Cornwallis landed at Savannah from the Roebuck, who chased a 32 Gun Ship a Shore yesterday, but she got off again. The Renown, Roebuck and Blonde left the fleet this morning to cruise off Charles Town. 61 Sail in Sight. about 9 Leagues off Tybee at noon. at 5 in the Evening the Admiral made the Signal for the fleet to Anchor, but at half after Nine he tacked without Signal which our Ship observed and did the Same, by which we got separated from the rest of the fleet.

Jan 31 Wind N. N. W. At ten in the Morns light airs and foggy and no Ships in Sight. About noon we saw the Light House of Tybee bearing N. N. W. of us two leagues distant and discovered Several of the fleet to leeward thro the Fog. having no Pilot we are obliged to stand off and on. The Fog continuing we came to an Anchor at 4 in the Afternoon near the Perseus about two leagues N. W. of the Light House. Cap! Elphinston, L Thomas Clinton &c paid us a Visit to day and informed us that 13 of the Missing Ships were arrived; including Russell, Roebuck, Raisonable, and Renown. The Crews of the Russell and Roebuck very sickly. The Troops at Savannah in high health; and 300 Men sent to reinforce the Garrison at St Augustine. Col Dickson was taken at the Natchez. That the Frigates at Cha: Town wish to make their Escape but part of our Fleet are ordered to anchor on the Bar and remain until drove off by bad weather. and the large Ships are to water at Beaufort. Cap! Elphinston gave us a loaf of Sugar.

Feb 1. At half after ten in the Morning we weighed with a few

1 Read "Baton Rouge." Remembrancer, 1780, I. 359–365.

2 An exaggeration.

3 The Serapis.

4 Afterward Admiral Lord Keith.

more transports in comp with the Perseus, but the Fog is so thick we cannot see the light House. However by following the Perseus we had the good fortune to get to an Anchor within the Light House at half after 4 in the afternoon. We here found the Vigilant and Several Transports. The Course in is to keep the Light House West and by South and not to shallow your water above three fathom. We were here informed that the Judith Transport foundered on her Voyage and with difficulty the Peoples lives and twenty of the Pontoons were Saved by the Raisonable. Admiral hoisted his flag in the Roebuck

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on the 5th of Jan! The Columbus Rebel Privateer of 20 Guns from Charles Town took the Juno Horse Sloop in the Midst of the fleet, cut the Horses Throats, and after taking Cap! James of the Legion out, and making the eleven Men of his Troop give their Parole let the Sloop proceed on her Voyage.

Feb 2. Remain at anchor. Weather mild but very Foggy. A great many of the Transports with the Roebuck and Romulus came up with the Mornings Tide. The Island of Tybee has a miserable appearance, being a Bank of Sand with a few Trees and no Water. The watering Place is five fathom Hole 14 Miles from the light House. The General

went up to Savannah to day in the Romulus's Barge. Our last Morcel of fresh Provisions consumed to day. Sent Whitaker up to Major Crosbie to inform him of the low State of our Stock. Terrible accounts from Savannah of the great Scarcity and high Prices of every thing.

Feb 3. Being sent for by the Commander in Chief, Cap! Philips and I went up to Savannah. we were 4 hours and half in rowing up. It is a very broad River with two or three narrow Channels. We passed by Geridoes Plantation (a Bluff about 1⁄2 a Mile from the River, to which there is a passage thro' the Marsh by a Causeway) where Col: Campbell first landed when he came to reduce this province. We arrived about six


1 Probably the Anna, the romantic story of whose loss is related by Eelking, II. 63, 64.

2 Jacob James, a Loyalist, captain of cavalry in the British Legion.

3 December 29, 1778.

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