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vacant ecclesiastical throne to be filled by Antonius Kassymatas, bishop of Syllaion, who had been the coadjutor of Leo V. in his iconoclastic work. By this step those hopes which the Imperial leniency had raised in the minds of Theodore and his party were dissipated.
The negotiations, as they were conducted by Theodore, had raised a question which was probably of greater importance in the eyes of Michael than the place of pictures in religious worship. The Studite theory of the supremacy of the Roman See in the ecclesiastical affairs of Christendom had been asserted without any disguise; the Emperor had been admonished that the controversy could only be settled by the co-operation of the Pope. This doctrine cut at the root of the constitutional theory, which was held both by the Emperors and by the large majority of their subjects, that the Imperial autocracy was supreme in spiritual as well as in secular affairs. The Emperor, who must have been well aware that Theodore had been in constant communication with Rome during the years of persecution, doubtless regarded his Roinan proclivities with deep suspicion, and he was not minded to brook the interference of the Pope. His suspicions were strengthened and his indignation aroused by the arrival of a nessage from l'ope Paschal I. Methodius (who was afterwards to ascend the latriarchal throne) had resided at Rome during the reign of Leo V. and worked there as an energetic agent in the interests of image-worship. He now returned to Constantinople, bearing a document in which Paschal defined the orthodox doctrine.” He sought an audience of the Emperor, presented the Papal writing, and called upon the sovran to restore the true faith and the true Patriarch. Michael would undoubtedly have resented the dictation of the Pope if it had been conveyed by a Papal
1 Theodotos was Patriarch for six 2 See Vit. Meth. 1 § 4, p. 1248 ; cp. years (Theoph. 362 ; Zonaras xiv. 24, Theodore, Epp. ii. 35. Methodius was 14, p. 350 : Zonaras probably had a a native of Syracuse. He went at list of Patriarchs before him, sec an early age to Constantinople, and Hirsch, 384). As he becamo Patriarch became abbot of the monastery of at Eastor 816, his death occurred in Chonolak kos. He went to Rome in 821. Cf. Amreev, konsl. Pulr. 200. 4.1), 815. Soo l'orgoire's papers in Hlin Hueconsor Antonius was already Echoa l'Oricul, 0, 120 84%. and 183 899. l'niriuruh at Whitsluitidlo (weer alove, (1903). f. 80 11. "); wo many conjeriliru thout 23 . Meth. 185 τόμους δογματικούς ho was inaugurato at Eastor. Seo ήτοι όρους ορθοδοξίας. further Vasil'ov, l'ril. 147-1:18.
envoy; but it was intolerable that one of his own subjects should bu the spokesman of Rome. Methodius was treated with rigour as a treasonable intriguer; he was scourged and then imprisoned in a tomb in the little island of St. Andrew, which lics off the north side of the promontory of Akritas (Tuzla-Burnu), in the Gulf of Nicomedia.? His confinement lasted for more than eight years."
After the outbreak of the civil war Michael took the precaution of commanding Theodore and his faction to move into the city, fearing that they might support his opponent, who was said to favour images. The measure was unnecessary, for the iconolaters of the better class seem to have had no sympathy with the cause of Thomas, and the ecclesiastical question did not prove a serious factor in the struggle. On the termination of the war, the Emperor made a new effort to heal the division in the Church.
He again proposed a conference between the leading exponents of the rival doctrines, but the proposal was again rejected, on the ground that the question could be settled only in one of two ways-either by an ecumenical council, which required the concurrence of the Pope and the four Patriarchs, or by a local council, which would only have legal authority is the legitimate Patriarch Nicephorus were first restorul."
i l'il.llith. 1 $ 3. For the island sec l'argoire, liirin, 28.
: l'il. Noth. 1 $ 6, says nine years. As he was imprisonel in sforing 821, and releaseid (ib.) loy: Michael just before his death (Oct. 929), cight and a half would be more accurate,
s Michael, l'il. Thound. c. 61. l'il. Nicol, Stud. 900. Girossil (149) and others think that Theolore, while he was in the city; was probalily re. instillers at Stuilion. I coulit this, During the latter part of the war (lirossii omits to notice) lie wils in the l'rince's Island, as we learn from a letter written there', Epp. ii. 127, p. 1412. (Nicephorus it would seem, was allowed to remain in his monastery on the Bosphorus.) From Epp. ii. 129. p. 1416, we learn that Thcolore had no sympathy with the rebel : poviokos επά κρατηθη δικαίως αποτίσει προς του νόμου την αντισηκούσων ποινών.
The source is Theodore's letter to
T.ro, the Sithollarios (whom Michnol hadd charred with the negotiation), re. jecting the proposition on behalf of his party (Epp. ii. 129). The writer refers to the ulicnce which the Emperor hand accorded to him and his friends in 821 as a pd tpewn étv. This onables us to assign thedate to thc first months of $24. At the same time Thcoloro aldressed a letter directly to the Emperors Michael and Theopoliilus (ii. 199), setting forth the cisc for pictures, At the end of the war. Thcolore retireed (along with his disciple Nicolaus) to the monastery of St. Tryphion, close to the poromontory of Africa, in the Gulf of Nicomedia (Michael, l'il. Theod., ib. ; l'it. Nicol. Suud. 900), where he lived till his death, Nov. 11, 820 (l'it. Nicol. 902 ; Naukratios, Encyclicn, 1815 ; Michael, l'it. Theol. c. 61). He was buried in Prince's Island, but the remains were afterwards removed to spathar rank; Nicetas, bishop of Mich. Ep. ad Lud. 420. It is Myra ; Theodore, oekonomos of St. dated April 10, a. D. 824.
The Emperor was convinced that the obstinacy of the image-worshippers rested larvely on their hopes that the Roman See would intervene, and that if he could induce the Pope to issume il cold attitude to their solicitations the opposition would soon expire. In order to influence the l'ope he sought the assistance of the Western Emperor, Lewis, to whom he indited a long letter, which contains an interesting description of the abuses to which the veneration of imayes had led.'
Lights were set in front of them and incense was burned, and they were held in the same honour as the life-giving Cross. They were prayed to, and their aid was besought. Some used even to cover them with cloths and make them the baptismal sponsors for their children. Some priests scraped the paint from pictures and mixed it in the bread and wine which they give to communicants; others placed the body of the Lord in the hands of images, from which the communicants received it. The Emperors Leo V. and his son caused a local synod to be held,” and such practices were condemned. It was ordained that pictures which were hung low in churches should be removed, that those which were high should be left for the instruction of persons who are unable to read, but that no candles should be lit or incense burned before them. Some rejected the council and fled to Oll Rome, where they calumniated the Church." The Emperor's proceed to proteoss their belief in the Sir Boumenical Councils, un to assure King Lewis that they venerate the glorious and holy relics of the Saints. They ask him to spend the envoys to the Pope, to whom they are bearers of a letter and gifts for the Church of St. l'eter.
The four envoys' who were sent on this mission met with a favourable reception from the Emperor Lewis at Studion in 844 (Michael, ib. c. 68). the false idea of some historians that During his last years lio continueel liis Michael held a council in 821. le epistolary activity in the cause of simply adhered to the acts of 815. orthodoxy, and many people came to : Theodore, a stratégos of proto sce and consult lim (ib, c. 63).
Sophia ; Leo, an Iniperial candidatus 2 “Propterea statuerunt orthodoxi The Patriarch Fortunatus of Grado imperatores et doctissimi sacerdotes (who had tled to Constantinople in locale adunare concilium." This state- 821) accompanied them (Ann. 1. P., ment, which of course refers to the
sub 824). synod of A.D), 815, seems to have led to
Rouen, and were sent on to Rome, where Eugenius had succeeded Paschal in St Peter's chair. It is not recorded
' how they fared at Rome, but Lewis lost no time in making an attempt to bring about a European settlement of the iconoclastic controversy. The Frankish Church did not agree with the extreme views of the Greek iconoclasts, nor yet with the doctrine of image-worship which had been formulated by the Couucil of Nicaea and approved by the Popes; and it appeared to Lewis a good opportunity to press for that intermediate solution of the question which had been approved at the Council of Frankfurt (A.D. 794).
794). The sense of this solution was to forbid the veneration of images, but to allow them to be set up in churches as ornaments and memorials. The first step was to persuade the Pope, and for this purpose Lewis, who, like his father, was accustomed to summon councils on his own authority, respectfully asked Eugenius to permit him to convoke the Frankish bishops to collect the opinions of the Fathers on the question at issue. Eugenius could not refuse, and the synod met in Paris in November 825. The report of the bishops agreed with the decision of Frankfurt; they condemned the worship of images, tracing its history back to the Greek philosopher Epicurus; they censured Pope Hadrian for approving the doctrine of the Nicene Council; but, on the other hand, they condemned the iconoclasts for insisting on the banishment of images from churches.• Lewis despatched two learned bishops to Rome, bearing extracts from the report of the synod, but the story of the negotiations coines here to a sudilen end. We hear of no further direct communications between Rome and Constantinople, but we may reasonably suspect that a Papal embassy to Lewis (A.D. 826), and two embassies which passed between the Eastern and Western Emperors in the following years,' were concerned with the question of religious pictures.
Till his death, from disease of the kidneys, in October A.D. 829, Michael adhered to his resolution not to pursue or imprison the leaders of the ecclesiastical opposition. The only unse of harsh dealing recorded' is the trentment of Methodius, and he, as we have seen, was punished not as a recalcitrant but as an intriguer.
3 Sickel, Acta Lud. 235, 236, pp.
i Paschal seems to have died some time in spring 824 ; cr. Simson, Lud. rig, i. 212, n. 1.
2 For all this, see Simson, ib. 218 899., where the sources are giren.
• Änn. r. F., sub 826, 827, 828. See below, p. 330.