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in a subterranean prison. But he presently released him, and Methodius, who, though an inflexible image-worshipper, was no fanatic, lived in the Palace on good terins with the Emperor, who esteemed his learning, and showed him high honour.
of the measures adopted by Theophilus for the suppression of icon-worship by cutting off the supply of pictures we know. nothing on authority that can be accepted as good. It is stated that he forbade religious pictures to be painted, and that he cruelly tortured Lazarus, the most eminent painter of the time. There is probably some truth behind both statements, and the persecution of monks, with which he is charged, may be explained by his endeavours to suppress the painting of pictures. Theophilus did not penalise monks on account of their profession; for we know from other facts that he was not opposed to monasticism. But they were the religious artists of the age, and we may conjecture that many of those who incurred his displeasure were painters.
If we review the ecclesiastical policy of Theophilus in the light of the few facts which are certain and compare it with other persecutions to which Christians have at various times resorted to force their opinions upon differing souls, it is obviously absurd to describe it as extraordinarily severe. The list of cases of cruel inaltreatment is short. obscure monks besides underwent distress and privation we cannot doubt; but such distress seems to have been due to it severer enforcement of the same rule which Michael II. had applied to Theodore of Stulion and his friends. Those who would not acquiesce in the synod of Leo V. and actively defied 'it were compelled to leave the city. The monastery of Phoberon, at the north end of the Bosphorus, seems to have been one of the chief refuges for the exiles.' This brings us to the second characteristic of the persecution of Theophilus, its geographical limitation. Following in his father's traces, he insisted upon the suppression of pictures only in Constantinople itself and its immediate neighbourhood. Iconoclasın was the doctrine of the Emperor and the Patriarch, but they did not insist upon its consequences beyond the precincts of the capital. So far as we can see, throughout the second period of iconoclasm, in Greece and the islands ind on the coasts of Asia Minor, imaye-worship flourished without let or hindrance, and the bishops and inonks were unaffected by the decrees of Leo V. This salient fact has not been realised by historians, but it sets the persecution of Theophilus in a different light. He would not allow pictures in the churches of the capital; and he drove out all active picture-worshippers and painters, to indulge themselves in their heresy elsewhere. It was probably only in a few exceptional cases that he resorted to severe punishment.
1 i l'il. Vith. 1, $ 8. The subter- he was imprisoned. Relca sed by the rancan prison (with two roblers, in the intercession of Theodora, he retired island of Antigoni: Pseudo-Sine011, to the cloister of Phoberon, whicre le 012), may be a reduplication of the painted a picture of John the Baptist continement in the island of S. Andreas (to whom the cloister was dedicated), uuder Michael II. Cl. Paryoire, estant in the tenth century. After the Suint Vilhole, in Echos d'Orieni, vi. death of Theophilus he painted a Christ 18:3 8419. (1903).
for the palace gate of Chalkê. It seems • Gen. 70; Cont. Th. 116. Genesios
incredible that he could have con. says that Theophilus was very curious
tinued to work after the operation on alwilt micult lore (rd dro prichá), in
his hands. Lazarus is mentioned in which Methalius was an adept.
Lib. Pont. ii. 147, 150, as bearer of a * See above p. 136, n. 2.
poresent which Michael III. sent to
St. Peter's at Rome, and is described • Conl. Th. 102: Lazarus was at as genere Chazarus. The visit to first cajoleil, then tortured by scourg.
Ronie is mentioned in Synazar. Cpl. ng; continuing to paint, his palms 233, where he is said to have been were burnt with reil-hot iron nails sent a second time and to have died (τέταλα σιδηρά απανθρακωθέντα), and
on the way.
That many , and a picture of the Virgin nople" (herue des questions historiques, ascribed to St. Luke) were expelled to Ixv., 1899) 93 899. Phoberon, and said to have been beaten
The females of the Emperor's household were devoted to images, and the secret opinion of Theodora must have been well known to Theophilus. The situation occasioned anecdotes turning on the motive that the Empress and her mother Theodora kept it supply of icons, but kept them well out of sight. The Emperor had a misshapen fool and jester, named Denderis, whose appearance reminded the courtiers of the Homeric Thersites." Licensed to roam at large through the Palace, he burst one day into Theodora's bedchamber and found her kissing sacred images." When he curiously asked
1 ευκτήριον Προδρόμου (St. John the miraculous inage. Legend as. Baptist) το ούτω καλούμενον του cribed its foundation to Constantine Φοβερού κατά τον Εύξεινον πόντον (Cont. (cp. Ducange, Const. Chr. ir. 80), Th. 101). The monks of the Abraimito but it was probably not older than monastery (which possessel a famous the sixth century. Cp. largoire, “ Les image of Christ impressed on débuts de monachisme à Constanti. clothi
2 Cont. Th. 91. to death (ib.). The monastery of St. Aloramios wils outside the city, near 3 The scene is represented in the the Ciolden Gate (Leo Diacomis, 47-48). Madrid Skylitzes, and reproxlucel logo It wils called the choiropuiétos, from Beylić, L'Hlubilation longentine, 120.
what they were, she said, “ They are my pretty dolls, and
said Denderis (so he used to call Theodora), “ and I saw her taking such pretty dolls out of a cushion.” The Emperor comprehended. In high wrath he rose at once from table, sought Theodora, and overwhelmed her with reproaches as an idolatress. But the lady met him with a ready lie. " It is not as you suppose,” she said; “I and some of my maids were looking in the mirror, and Denderis took the reflexions for dolls and told you a foolish story." Theophilus, if not satisfied, had to accept the explanation, and Theodora carefully warned Denderis not to mention the dolls again. When Theophilus asked him one day whether nurse had again kissed the pretty dolls, Denderis, placing one hand on his lips and the other on his posterior parts, said, “Hush, Emperor, don't mention the dolls."
Another similar anecdote is told of the Emperor's motherin-law, Theoktiste, who lived in a house of her own," where she was often visited by her youthful granddaughters. She sought to imbue them with a veneration for pictures and to counteract the noxious influence of their father's heresy. She would produce the sacred forms from the box in which she kept them, and press them to the faces and lips of the young
ταρά την μάνα. 2 Corn. Th. 90. The house was known as Gastria. She had bought. it from Nicetas, and afterwards converta it into a monastery. It was in the quarter of l'samathial, in the southwest of the city: l'aspates (Bus. MEN. 354-357) hias identified it with the ruinous building Sanjakdar Jesjedi (of which he gives a drawing), which lies a little to the north of the Armenian Church of St. George (where St. Mary Peribleptos used to stand). Gastria is interpreted as flower-pots in the story told in the 1Πάτρια κπλ. 215, where the foundation of the cloister is ascribed to St. Helena, who is said to have brought back from Jerusalem the flowers which gret over the place where she had discovered the cross, and plantel them in pots (gáorpas) on this spot. Passaics įmoints out that
the abundance of water in the grounils
girls. Their father, suspecting that they were being tainted with the idolatrous superstition, asked them one day, when they returned from a visit to their grandmother, what presents she had given them and how they had been amused. The older girls saw the trap and evaded his questions, but Pulcheria, who was a small child, truthfully described how her grandinothér had taken a number of dolls from a box and pressed them upon the faces of herself and her sisters. Theophilus was furious, but it would have been odious to take any severe measure against the Empress's mother, who was highly respected for her piety. All he could do was to prevent his daughters from visiting her as frequently as before.
§ 4. Death of Theophilus and liestoration of Icon Worship
Theophilus died of dysentery on January 20, A.D. 842.? His Inst illness was disturbed by the fear that his death
would be followed by a revolution against the throne of his ! infant son. The man who seemed to be the likely leader of
a movement to overthrow his dynasty was Theophobos, a somewhat mysterious general, who was said to be of Persian descent and had commanded the l'ersian troops in the Imperial service. Theophobos was an “orthodox ” Christian," but he was one of the Emperor's right-hand men in the eastern wars, and had been honoured with the hand of his sister or sister-in-law.” He has been implicated some years before in a revolt, but had been restored to favour and lived in the Palace. It is said that he was popular in Constantinople, and the Emperor may have had good reasons for thinking that he might aspire with success to the supreme power.
Froin his deathbed he ordered Theophobos to be cast into a dungeon of the Bucoleon Palace, where he was secretly decapitated at night." 1 Tlicoktiste is represented giving
6 Gen. 59. an icon to Pulcheria, the other 7 Gen. 60, and Add. Georg. 810, daughters standing behind, in a where Petronas, with the logothete miniature in the Madrid Skylitzes (i.e. Theoktistos), is said to have per(sce reproduction in Beylié, op. cit. 56). formed the decapitation. The alter2 Cont. Th. 139.
native account given by Gen. 60-61 has 3 See below, p. 252 sq.
no value, as Hirsch pointed out, fu * Simcon, Ailil. Geory. 803 (cp. Gen. 142, but it is to be noticed that 6130)
Ooryphas is there stated to have been $ 16. 793. See below, p. 253. drungarios of the watch. We meet a
Exercising a constitutional right of his sovran authority, usually employed in such circumstances, the Emperor had appointed two regents to act as his son's guardians and assist the Empress, namely, her uncle Manuel, the chief Magister, and Theoktistos, the Loyothete of the Course, who had proved himself a devoted servant of the Amorian house. It is possible that Theolora's brother Bardas was a third regent, but this cannot be regarded as probable. The position of Theodora closely resembled that of Irene during the minority of Constantine. The government was carried on in the joint names of the mother and the son, but the actual exercise of Imperial authority devolved upon the mother provisionally. Yet there was a difference in the two cases. Leo IV., so far as we know, had not appointed any regents or guardians of his son to act with Irene, so that legally she had the supreme power entirely in her hands; whereas Theodora was as unable to act without the concurrence of Manuel and Theoktistos as they were unable to act without her.
It has been commonly thought that Theophilus had hardly closed his eyes before his wife and her advisers inade such pious haste to repair his ecclesiastical errors that a council was held and the worship of images restored, almost as a matter of course, a few weeks after his death. The
person or persons of this dame holling different offices under the Amorians: (1) Ooryphas, in comman of a flect, under Michael II. (sec below, Chap. IX.3.290); (2) Ooryphas, one of the commanders in an Egyptian expedition in A. ll. 853 (see below, Chap. IX. p. 292); (3) Ouryplias, Prefeci of the City in A.lv, 860 (sec below, Chap XIIŤ. p. 419); (4) Ooryphas,
'strategos" of the tiect at the time of the death of Michael III.; see lat. MS. of Cont. Georg. iu Muralt, p. 752 = Pseudo-Simcon, 687.. The fourth of these is undoubtedlly Nicetas Ooryphas whom we meet in Basil's reign as drungarios of the Imperial flect. He may probably be the same as the Second, but is not likely (from considerations of age) to be the same as the first. In regard to (3), it is to be noted that according to Nicetas, l'it. Ig. 232, Nicetas Ooryphas, drungarios of the Imperial lleet, oppressed Ignatius in A.1). 860. Such business would
have devolved on tho l'refect, not on the admiral, and I conclude that Nicetas Ovryphas was predict in a. 1). 800, and drungarios in A.1). 867 (such changes of office were common in Byzantium), and that the author of l'il, lyn, knowing him by the later office, in which he was most distin. guished, described him crroneously. Ooryphas the drugarios of the watch may bc identical with (1); but Isuspect there is a confusion with Petronas, who seems to have held that .office at one time in the reign of Theophilus (sec above, p. 122).
i In the same way the Emperor Alexander appointed seven guardians (ėmit pono) for his nephew Constantino, A.Jl. 913. The boy's mother Zoc was not included. Cont. Th. 380.
2 It is safest to follow Gen. 77. Bardas was probably added by Cont. Th. (118) suo Murte, on account of his frominent position a few years later. So Uspenski, Ocherki, 25.