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orthodoxy was celebrated by a solemn festival service in St. Sophia, on the first Sunday in Lent (March 11, A.D. 843). The monks from all the surrounding monasteries, and perhaps even hermits from the cells of Athos, flocked into the city,' and we may be sure that sacred icons were hastily hung in the places from which others had been torn in all the churches of the capital. A nocturnal thanksgiving was held in the church of the Virgin in Blachernne, and on Sunday morning the Empress, with the child Emperor, the Patriarch and clergy, and all the ministers and senators, bearing crosses and icons and candles in their hands, devoutly proceeded to St. Sophia."

I Gen. 82 mentions Olympus, Ida, (George Acrop. i. 27-28. ed. Heisenberg) Athos, and even το κατά Κυμινών which corresponds to Balikesri in ouurlijpwua, monks from Mt. Kyminas Mysia, according to Ramsay, Asia in Mlysia. This passage is important Minor, 154, and Tomaschek, Zur his. as a chronological indication for the Lorischen l'opographie von Kleinasicn beginnings of the religious settlements im Mittelalter, 96. But the evidence on Mount Athos, which are described of the Vila Michaelis Maleini (ed. in K. Lake's The Early Days of Petit, 1903) and the Vita Mariac iun. Nonasticism on Blount Alhos, 1909. (cited by Petit, p. 61) seem to make it He seems to have overlooked this probable that Mount Kyminas of the passage. As he points out, there were monks was in castern Bithynia near ihrce stages in the development (1) Prusias ad Hypion (Uskub; cp. the hermit period ; (2) the loose organ: Anderson, Map), and Petit identifies izations of the hermits in lauras ; (3) it with the Dikmen Dagh. the strict organization in monasteries. 2 New icons soon adorned the halls In a.d. 843 we are in the first period, of the Palace. The icon of Christ and the first hermit of whom we know above the throne in the Chrysotriklinos is Peter, whose Life by a younger con. was restored. Facing this, above the temporary, Nicolaus, has been printed entrance, the Virgin

was represented, by Lake. Peter had been a soldier in and on either side of her Michael III. the Scholae, and was carried captive and Methodius; around apostles, to Samarra (therefore after a. D. 836, martyrs, etc. Sec Anthol. Pal. 106 see belox, p. 238) by, the Saracens, (cp. 107), ll. 14, 15 : possibly in Mutasin's' expedition of

όθεν καλούμεν χριστοτρίκλινον νέον AN), 838 ; having escaped, he went to

τον τρίν λαχόντα κλήσεως χρυσωνύμου, Ronie to be tonsured, and then to Athos; where ho livedi fifty years as a Tpbedpos, 1. 10, is the l'atriarch as hermit. The first laura of which wo Ebersolt has seen (1.c Grand Palais, know seems to have been founded at 82). Coins of Michael and Thoodora the very end of the reign of Michael were issued, with tho head of Christ on III. (seo Lake, p. 41), by Euthymius the reverse. This had been introduced of Thessalonica, whose Life has been by Justinian II., and did not reappear edited from an Athos MS. by L. Petit till now. The type is evidently copied (l'ie d office de Saint-Euthyme le Jeune, from coins of Justinian. Wroth, xliv. 1904). The earliest monastery in the $ Narr. de Theoph. absol. 38. An vicinity was the Kolobu, rounded by official description of the ceremony, John Kolobos in the reign of Basil I.; ít cvidently drawn up in the course of was not on Mount Athos, but to the Michael's reign (with later additions at north, pirobally near Erissos (Lake, the end), is preserved in Constantine, 60 891.), and there were no monasteries Cer. i. 28. The Patriarch and the ou the mountain itself till the coming clergy kept vigil in the church at of Athanasius, the frieud of the Blachernae, and proceeded in the Emperor Nicephorus II. - There was morning to St. Sophia, dià Toll Onuoriou a dlount Kyminas close to Akhyraos cupólov (from the church of the

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It was enacted that henceforward the restoration of icons should be commemorated on the same day, and the first Sunday of Lent is still the feast of Orthodoxy in the Greek Church,

All our evidence for this ecclesiastical revolution comes from the records of those who rejoiced in it; we are not informed of the tactics of the iconoclastic party, nor is it

hinted that they mide any scrious effort to fight for a doomed | cause.

We can hardly believe that the Patriarch John was quiescent during the year preceding the Council, and silently awaited the event. But the only tradition of any countermovement is the anecdote of a scandalous attempt to discredit Methodius after his elevation to the Patriarchate. The iconoclasts, it was said, bribed a young woman to allege publicly that the Patriarch had seduced her. An ollicial inquiry was held, and Methodius proved his innocence, to the satisfaction of a curious and crowded assembly, by a cynical ocular demonstration that he was physically incapable of the offence with which he wils charged. He explained that many years ago, during his sojourn at Rome, he had been tormented by the stings of carnal desire, and that in answer to his prayer St. Peter's miraculous touch had withered his body and freed him for ever from the assaults of passion. The woman was compelled to confess that she had been suborned, and the heretics who had invented the lie received the mild punishment of being compelled every year, at the feast of orthodoxy, to join the procession from Blachernae to St. Sophia with torches in their hands, and hear with their own cars anathema pronounced upon them. There was some

' Apostles to the Augustoon, the street mother of Metrophanes, afterwards had porticoes ; wo know nothing about bishop of Smyrna, who was prominent the roail from Blachernae to the in the struggle between Photius and Apostles). The Emperor went to St. Ignatius. There must have been Sophia from the Palace.

some link of connexion between her The story is told by Gen. 83-85, and Methodius. A second motif and repeated, with the usual elabora. probably was the impotence of the tion, in Cont. Th. 158-160. It was Patriarch. The story had the merit unknown to the anthor of the Vita of insulting the ropentant iconoclastic Jetholii, and his silenco is a strong clergy, who, as a condition of retaining external argument for rejecting it their posts, were obliged to take part entirely. But that there was a motif in the anniversary procession. We behind, which we are not in a position cannot put much more faith in the to discover, is proved, as Hirsch has anecdote that the ex-Patriarch John, pointed out (154), by the fact that who was compelled to retire to a Genesios identifies the

monastery at Kleidion on the Bog.

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kernel of truth in this edifying fiction, but it is impossible to disentangle it.

It would seem that the great majority of the iconoclastic bishops and clergy professed repentance of their error and were allowed to retain their ecclesiastical dignities. Here Methodius, who was a man of moderation and compromise, followed the precedent set by Tarasius at the time of the first restoration of image-worship. But the iconoclastic heresy

' was by no means immediately extinguished, though it never again caused more than administrative trouble. Some of those who repented lapsed into error, and new names were added, twenty-five years later, to the list of the heretics who were held up to public ignominy on the Sunday of Orthodoxy, and stigmatized as Jews or payans.

The final installation of icons among the sanctities of the Christian faith, the authoritative addition of icon-worship to the superstitions of the Church, was a triumph for the religious spirit of the Greeks over the doctrine of Eastern heretics whose Christianity had a more Semitic flavour. The struggle had lasted for about a hundred and twenty years, and in its latest stage had been virtually confined to Constantinople. Here the populace seems to have oscillated between the two extreme views, and many of the educated inhabitants probably belonged to that moderate party which approved of images in Churches, but was opposed to their worship. Of the influence of the iconoclastic movement on Byzantine art something will be said in another chapter, but it must be noticed here that in one point it won an abiding victory. In the doctrine laid down by the Council no distinction was drawn between sculptured and painted representations; all icons were legitimized. But whereas, before the controversy began, religious art had expressed itself in both forms, after the Council of phorus (Sinieon, Cont. Geory. 811), Ortakcui, on the European side of the ordered a servant to joke out the cyos Bosphorus. of an icon in the church of that cloisier, For tho policy of Methodius and and for this offence received 200 stripes the disapproval which it arousel, see by the command of the Empiress (lien. below, p. 182. 82). Cont. Th. 151 says that he was Condemned by the Council of 4.8). banished to his suburban house called 869 (Mansi, xvi. 389). 5d Yixá (there was another place of 3 εαυτούς τη των Ιουδαίων και Ελλήνων this name near the Forum of Constan. μερίδι καθυποβαλλομένοις, Usvenski, tine, Cont. Th. 420). Probably Psicha op. cit. 98. "Elnu is here used for was at Kleidion, which is the modern

pgan. Defterdan Burnu, a little north of Cd. Bréhier, 10.

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A.1). 843, sculpture was entirely discarded, and icons came to mean pictures and pictures only. This was a silent surrender, never explicitly avowed by the orthodox Church, to the dainnable teaching of the iconoclasts; so that these heretics can claim to have so far influenced public opinion as to induce their victorious adversaries to abandon the cult of graven images. After all, the victory was a compromise.

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CHAPTER V

MICIIAEL III

A.D. 842-867

§ 1. The Regency MICHAEL III. reigned for a quarter of a century, but he never governcd. During the greater part of his life he was too young; when he reached a riper age he had neither the capacity nor the desire. His reign falls into two portions. In his minority, the Empress Theodora held the reins, guided by the advice of Theoktistos, the Logothete of the Course, who proved as devoted to her as he had been to her husband. During the later years, when Michael nominally exercised the sovranty himself, the real power and the task of conducting the administration devolved upon her brother Bardas. In the first period, the government seems to have been competent, though we have not sufliciont information to estimate it with much contidence; in the second period it was eminently efficient. The Empress Thcolora' occupied the same constitutional

1 position which the Empress Irene had occupied in the years following her husband's death, She was not officially the Autocrat, any more than her daughter Thecla, who was ilssociated with her brother and inother in tho Imperial dignity;” she only acted provisionally as such on behalf of '? At the beginning of the reign cp. above, p. 150, n. 2. coins were issued with the head of 'Acta 42 Mart. Am. 52 (A.D. 845) Theodora (despoina) on onc side, on the βασιλεύοντος της Ρωμαίων αρχης Μιχαήλ other the child.Emperor and his eldest και θεοδώρας και Θέκλης, CD. W roth, sister Thecla robed as Augusta. A 431 (PI. xlix. 19) Μιχαήλ Θεοδώρα και few years later dichacl and Theodora Θέκλα εκ θεού) βασιλείς Ρωμαίων οι appear together on the obrersc; on · reverse of silver coins. the reverse is the hicad of the Saviour,

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