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her son. The administration was conducted in their joint names; but she possessed no sovran authority in her own right or independently of him. Her actual authority was ! formally limited (unlike Irene's) by the two guardians or co-regents whom Theophilus had appointed. To find two men who would work in harmony and could be trusted not to seek power for themselves to the detriment of his son was difficult, and Theophilus seems to have made a judicious choice. But it was almost inevitable that one of the two should win the effective control of affairs and the chief place in the Empress's confidence. It may well be that superior talent and greater political experience rendered Theoktistos a more capable adviser than Manuel, her uncle, who had probably more knowledge of warfare than of administration. Theoktistos presently became the virtual prime minister," and! Manuel found it convenient to withdraw from his rooms in the Palace and live in his house near the Cistern of Aspar, though he did not formally retire from his duties and regularly attended in the Palace for the transaction of business?

Her uncle's practical abdication of his right to a voice in the management of the Empire corresponds to the policy which Theodora pursued, under the influence of the Logothete, Ý towards the other members of her own family. Her brotheri Petronas, who was a competent general and had done usefulwork for her husband, scems to have been entrusted with no important post and allowed no opportunity of winning distinction under her government; he proved his . military capacity after her fall from power. Her more famous and brilliant brother Bardas was forced to be contented with an inactive life in his suburban house: Theodora had also three sisters, of whom one, Sophia, had married Constantine Babutzikos. Another, Calomaria, was the wife of Arsaber,

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παραδυναστεύων, Simeon (Cont. Georg.), 815.

2 Gen. 86, where it is explained that Theoktistos schemed to get rid of Manuel by a charge of treason, but Dlanuel anticipated the trouble by a voluntary semi-retirement. Simeon, ib. 816, mentions that Theoktistos built himself a house with baths and

garden, within the Palace. Blanuel converted his house into a monastery, the church of which is now the Kefelé mosque, a little to the west of the Chukur Bostan or Cistern of Aspar. See Paspates, Buši uel. 304; Mil. lingen, 1Valls, 23; Strzygovski, Die byz. Wasserbehälter von Kpel (1893), 158.

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a patrician, who was elevated to the higher rank of magister. On his death Calomaria lived in the Palace with her sister, and is said to have worn mean raiment and performed the charitable duty of paying monthly visits to the prisons ? and distributing blessings and alıns to the prisoners.

Michael was in his seventeenth year when his mother decided to marry him. The customary bride-show was announced throughout the provinces by a proclamation inviting beautiful candidates for the throne to assemble on a certain day in the Imperial Palace. The choice of the Empress fell on Eudocin, the daughter of Dekapolites (A.1). 855). We know nothing of this lady or her family; she seems to have been a cipher, and her nullity may have recommended her to Theodora. But in any case the haste of the Empress and Theoktistos to provide Michael with a consort at such an carly age was prompted by their desire to prevent his union with another lady: For Michael already hnd a love affir with Eulocin Ingorinn, whom Theodora and her ministor regarded as an unsuitable spouse. A chronicler tells us that

1 The text of the passage in Cont. difficulty about this.

But because Th. 175 seems perfectly right as it Theodora had three sisters, it was stands, but has been misunderstood assumed that all three were married, both by the later historian Skylitzes and that the husbands of all three are (see Cedrenus, ii. 161) and loy niodorn mentioned. Ireno was the name of critics. The text is ή δε Καλομαρία the third sister, and Skylitzes says 'Αρσαβώρ τω.. μαγίστρω, το Ειρήνης that she (Eipnun oè) marricu Sergius, της μητρός του μετά ταύτα τον πατρι- the brother of Photius. Hirsch αρχικόν θρύνον αντιλαβομένου Φωτίου criticizes the passage on the same doelpô. The translation is :

“ Calo.

assumption (215). The relationship maria married Arsaber, the brother of of Photius to Thcodora and tlic text Ireno, who was the mother of Photius, . of Cont. Th, will be madu clear by a afterwards Patriarch." There is no

dingram.

!

Marinos = Thcoktisto.

Tarasius,

Sergius = Irene,

Arsabor=Caloniaria. Theodora. Irene.

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.Photius. Tarasius. Sergius. Stephen. Bardas. ? The Chalke and the Numera in s Thic evidence for this bride-show the Palace, and thic Praetorium in tho is in the Vil. Irenes, 603-604. Irene, town. She was accompanied by the a Cappadocian ladly, was one of the Count of the Walls: tlic Doniestic of competitors. Her sister-apparently the Numeri, or the Prefect thc als a candidate-afterwards married City. Cont. Th. ib.

Bindas.

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they disliked her intensely“ on account of her impudence";' which means that she was a woman of some spirit, and they feared her as a rival influence. The young sovran was obliged to yield and marry the wife who was not of his own choice, but if he was separated from the woman he loved, it was only for a short time. Eudocia Ingerina did not disdain to be his mistress, and his attachment to her seems to have lasted till his death.

But the power of Theodora and her favourite minister was doomed, and the blow was struck by a member of her own family (A.D. 856, January to March). Michael had reached an age when he began to chafe under the authority of his mother, whose discipline had probably been strict; and his uncle Bardas, who was ambitious and conscious of his own talents for government, divined that it would now be possible to undermine her position and win his nephew's confidence. The most difficult part of his enterprise was to remove Theoktistos, but he had friends among the ministers who were in close attendance on the Emperor. The Parakocmômenos or chief chainberlain, Damianos (il man of Slavonic race), persuaded Michael to summon his uncle to the Palace, and their wily tongues convinced the boy that his mother intended to depose him, with the assistance of Theoktistos, or at all events—and this was no more than the truth-that he would have no power so long as Theodora and Theoktistos co-operated. Michael was brought to acquiesce in the view that it was necessary to suppress the too powerful minister, and violence was the only method. Theophanes, the chief of the privato wardrobe, joined the conspiracy, and Bardas also won over his sister Calomarin. Somo generals, who had,

i Simeon (Cont. Geory.), 810, thu from the official description in Con. source for Michael's marriage. The stantino, Cer. 213. probablo dato, A.1). 855, is inferred ? For date scc Appendix VII. from tho fact that tho marringe pre- 3 So Simcon (Cont. Gcorg.), 821. Ac. coded the death of Thcoktistos, com: cording to Gen. 87, Bardas suggested bined with Michnols ago. The bridal to Michael that Thcodora intended ceremony of an Emperor was performed to marry herself, or to find a husband in the church of St. Stephen in the for one of her daughters, and depose l'alace of Dapline. The chronicler (ib.) Michael, with the aid of Theoktistos. notes that the bridal chamber (70 • The part played by Caloniaria is magtóv) was in the palace of Magnaura, recorded by Genesios, whose informaind the marriage feast, at which the tion was doubtless derived from his senators were present, was held in the ancestor Constantine the Armenian, hell of the Nineteen Couches. This who was an cyc-witness of the murder. Wils the regulir habit, as

For Theophapics of Farghana see p. 2:38.

We learn

It was

been deposed from their commands and owed a grudge to Theoktistos,' were engaged to lend active assistance. arranged that Bardas should station himself in the Lausiakos, and there attack the Logothete, whose duties frequently obliged him to pass through that hall in order to reach the apartments of the Empress. Calomaria concealed herself in an upper room, where, through a hole, perhaps constructed on purpose,» she commanded a view of the Lausiakos, and could, by signalling from a window, inform the Emperor as soon as Bardas sprang upon his victim.

Theoktistos had obtained at the secretarial office the reports which he had to submit to the Empress, and as he passed through the Lausiakos he observed with displeasure Bardas seated at his ease, as if he had a full right to be there. Muttering that he would persuade Theodora to expel him from the Palace, he proceeded on his way, but in the Horologion, at the entrance of the Chrysotriklinos, he was stopped by the Emperor and Damianos. Michael, asserting his authority perhaps for the first time, angrily ordered him to read the reports to himself and not to his inother. As the Logothete was retracing his steps in a downcast mood, Bardas sprang forward and smote him. The ex-generals hastened to assist, and Theoktistos drew his sword." The Emperor, on receiving a signal from his aunt, hurried to the scene, and by his orders

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" A grudge: this is a fair inference & Gen. 88, Bardas threw Theoktistos from the fact that they were selected down (καταπρηνίξας), και ευθέως επιδίδοfor the purpose.

ται συν κουλες σπάθη επώμιος, ήν προς The apartments of Thcodora scem αποτροπήν εναντίων εγύμνωσεν. Sinmeon, to have been in the Chrysotriklinos. ib. 822, says that Bardas began to The castern door of the Lausiakos strike him on the cheek and pull his faced the Horologion which was the hair; and Maniakes, the Drungary of portal of the Chrysotriklinos.

the Watch, cried, “Do not strike the 3 Gen. 87 ( 'reprépov Tetpquévov' Logothete.' Maniakes was therefore οικίσκου διόπτειραν καταστήσαντες. Wo the surname of Constantine the may imagino this room to have been Armenian. in the Eidikon, to which stairs led up • Gen. 88 κατασημαίνεται βασιλεύς from the Lausiakos. The Eidikon, προς εξέλευσιν τήν διά χαλκηλάτων which was over the Thermastra, ad. πυλών Τιβερίου του ανακτος, και στας joined the Lausiakos on the north side. ekcioe kth. This gate, not mentioned

• rà ảơnopria, Simeon, ib. 821. elsewhere so far as I know, was prob. The accounts of the murder in this ably a door of the Chrysotriklinos chronicle and in Genesios are inde. palace, which, wo know, Tiberius II. pendent and supplement each other. improved. if Calomaria was, as I Simcon gives more details before the suppose, in the Eidikon building, assault of Bardas, Genesios a fuller dc. she could have signalled from a winscription of the murder and the part dow on its eastern sido to the Chrysoplayed loy his own grandfather. triklinos.

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Theoktistos was seized and dragged to the Skyla.' It would seem that Bardas did not contemplate murder, but intended to remove the Logothete to a place of banishment. But the Emperor, advised by others, probably by Damianos, that nothing short of his death would serve, called upon the foreign Guards (the Hetairoi) to slay Theoktistos. Meanwhile the Empress; had heard from the Papias of the Palace that the Logothete's life was in danger, and she instantly rushed to the scene to save her friend. But she was scared back to her apartments by one of the conspirators, a member of the family of Melissenos, who cried in a voice of thunder, “Go back, for this is the day of strikers." S The Guards, who were stationed in the adjoining Hall of Justinian, rushed in ;* one of them dragged the victim from the chair under which he had crawled and stabbed him in the belly (A.D. 856).

Of the two offices which Theoktistos had held, the less onerous, that of Chartulary of the Kanikleion,' was conferred on Bardas, while his son-in-law Symbatios—whose name shows his Armenian lineage—was appointed Logothete of the Course. The reign of Theodora was now over. She had held the reins 1 of power for fourteen years, and she was unwilling to surrender them. Slie was not an unscrupulous woman like Irene, she did not aspire to be Autocrat in her own right or set aside her son; but well knowing her son's incapacity she had doubtless looked forward to keeping him in perpetual tutelage and retaining all the serious business of government in her own

| Cont. Th. 170, whose narrative family sec above, p. 23, n. 3. varies in particulars, represents Theo- + Gen. (ib.) states that Constantine, ktistos as making an attempt to flee the Drungary of the Watch, tried to to the Hippodrome through the Asék. save Theoktistos by holding the doors riteia, for at the time the office of between the Skyla and the Triklinos the Asekrētai was there." The secre- of Justinian, hoping that he would be tarial ollices were probably in the same condemned to banishment before the building as the Eidikon (op. Ebersolt, guards appeared. But Michael called Le Grand Palais, 124), and were them, and Constantinc was obliged reached through a cloor on the north unwillingly to give way. It is clear side of the Lausiakos. Thicoktistos from the narrative that Theoktistos was doubtless returning thither. was not taken through the Trikliņos ? Gen. 89.

of Justinian; therefore he must have 3 This is told by Gen. 88, and prob. been dragged through a door on the ably comes from his granı father. The north side of the Lausiakos, into the identification of the ex-general who Thermastra, and thence to the Skyla scared the Empress as a Melissenos is by way of the Hippolronic. in favour of the inciilont. Simcon o Cont. T'h. 171. loes not mention this, but states that

gecms probable, though the l'apias informed Thcodora (Cont. Symbatios is not nicntioned till some Georg. 822). For the Molisscnos

6 This

years later.

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