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steadily maintained. Michael had himself marched to the front, and the Saracens had won no important successes while his uncle was at the helm. It was probably after the death of Bardus that an incident occurred which has stamped Michael as supremely indifferent to the safety of his Empire. One evening as he was preparing in his private hippodrome in the Palace of St. Mamas to display his skill as a charioteer, before a favoured company, the spectators were alarmed and distracted by seeing a blaze illuminated in the Pharos of the Great Palace, which announced tidings tlashed from Cappadocia, that the Saracens were abroad within the Roman borders. The spectacle was not discontinued, but the attention of the onlookers languished, and the Emperor, determined that such interruptions should not again occur, commanded that the beacon signals in the neighbourhood of Constantinople should be kindled no more.'
It might be thought that the signal system had been abandoned for some serious reason, connected perhaps with the loss of Lulon, and that this anecdote, illustrating the Emperor's frivolity, had been invented to account for it. But the very moderation of the story may be held to show that it had a basis of fact. For it does not suggest that the beacon messages were discontinued; on the contrary, it expressly states that the lighting of the bencong in or close to Constantinople, that is at the Pharos and on Mt. Auxentios, was forbidden. This Imperial order, though dictated by a frivolous motive, need not have caused a very serious delay in the arrival of the news at Constantinople, nor can it be alleged that Michael endangered thereby the safety of the provinces.
On the whole, the frontiers between the two powers in Asia Minor had changed little under the rule of the Amorian dynasty. The Moslems had won a few more fortresses; and what was more serious, in Cappadocia eust of the Halys their position was strengthened by the invaluable support of the Paulician rebels. The Amorians bequeathed to their successor the same task which had lain before them and which they had
1 Cont. Th. 197-198.
3 Cout. Τh. 198 μηκέτι τους πλησιά. 2 But the loss of Lulon did not ζοντας φανούς ενεργείν προσέταξεν. render the signals useless or impossible. Modern writers have not attended to Mt. Argaios would become the first the limitation ainoiá forras. station.
failed to achieve, the expulsion of the enemy from Cappadocia; but the difficulty of that task was aggravated by the disastrous policy of the Paulician persecution for which Theophilus and Theodora were responsible.
In the last years of the reign of Michael the Caliphate was troubled by domestic anarchy, and offered a good mark for the attack of a strenuous foe. The Caliph Mustain writhed under the yoke of the powerful Turkish party, and he desired to return from Samarra to the old capital of Baghdad. But he was compelled to abdicate in favour of Mutazz, whom the Turks set up against him (January 866). The best days of the Abbasid dynasty were past, and the Caliphate had begun to decline, just as the Empire was about to enter on a new period of power and expansion.
TIE SARACEN CONQUESTS OF CRETE AND SICILY
§ 1. The Saracen Conquest of Crete SINCE the remote ages which we associate with the uncertain name of Minos, when it was the home of a brilliant civilization and the seat of an Aegean power, the island of Crete played but a small part in Greek and Roman history. In the scheme of administration which was systematized in the eighth century, it formed, along with soine neighbouring islands, a distinct theme; but its name rarely occurs in our chronicles ? until its happy obscurity is suddenly disturbed in the reign of Michael II. by an event which rendered it, for long years to come, one of the principal embarrassments and concerns of the Imperial Government. The fate of Crete was determined by events in a distant Western land, whose revolutions, it might have seemed, concerned the Cretans as little as those of any country in the world.
The Omayyads in Spain no less than the Abbasids in the East, Cordova no less than Baghdad, were troubled by outbreaks of discontent and insurrection, in which the rational. istic school of theology also played its part. The Emir AlHakamo dyod his hands in the blood of insurgents, and finally when the inhabitants of one of the quarters of Cordova rose against him, he commanded those who escaped the edge of his sword, to leave Spain with their families in three days (A.D. 814). Ten thousand men, as well as women and children, sailed to Egypt, and, placing themselves under the protection
? It did not, however, altogether is mentioned in the Vita Andreae Cre. escape the visitations of the Omayyad tensis (Papadopulos-Kerameus, 'Arad fleets in the 7th century ; see Theo. 'Iepoo. v. 177). phanes,
of a powerful Beduin family, settled in the outskirts of Alexandria Soon they felt strong enough to act for themselves, and under the leadership of Abu Hafs' they seized the city (A.D. 818-819).
At this time the governor of Egypt had availed himself of the revolts with which the Caliph Mamun had to cope in the eastern provinces of his dominion to declare himself independent. The Spanish fugitives held Alexandria for six years before Mamun had his hands free to deal with Egypt. At length (A.D. 825) he sent Abdallah ibn Tahir to compel the submission both of the rebellious governor and of the Andalusian intruders. The governor was overthrown by one of his officers before Abdallah arrived, and the Spaniards readily submitted to the representative of the Caliph and obtained permission to leave Egypt and win a settlement within the borders of the Empire. In the previous year they had made a descent on the island of Crete, and their ships had returned laden with captives and booty ;' and they now chose Crete as their place of permanent habitation. They sailed in forty ships, with Abu Hafs as their leader, and anchored probably in the best harbour of the island, in the bay of Suda. Abu Hafs commanded his followers to plunder the island and return to the port in twelve days, retaining twenty men to guard each ship. It would appear that no serious resistance was offered by the islanders, who perhaps had little love for the Imperial government, which, besides being oppressive, had in recent years been heretical.' It is related that when the Spaniards returned
· Abu Hass Omar ibu Shuaib. Cp. (Cont. Gcorg. 789) merely notices the Dozy, Histoire des Jusulmans fact of the conquest of Crete, which, d'Espagne, ii. 68.76.
along with that of Sicily, he ascribes ? This descent is recorded by Gencsios to the rebellion of Thomas, with which (46), who dates it as occurring in the Michael was fully occupied. But time of the rebellion of Thomas. He Thomas had been suppressed before says that the conquest occurred in the the occupation of Crete or the invasion following year, i.e. A.1). 825, as we know of Sicily. Hopf (Gr. Gesch. 121) and from the Arabic sources. Therefore Amari (Storia, i. 163) placed the con. the first descent was in A.D. 824. Con quest of Crete in 823, Muralt (Chron. Vasil'ev, 47. Genesios knew nothing by:. 410) in 824. about the Egyptian episode, and sup- 3 Thechief Arabic source is Humandi posed that Abu Hafs ('Aróxay) and his (11th cent.) who used an older writer, people cane directly from Spain. The Mohammad ibn Huzaw. Conde, Arabs account in Cont. Th. 73 sqq. is derived in Spain, i, 263. Genesios places the from Gonesiou, hout the writer's remark
landing at Charax, distinguishing it may be noted that tho Saracens of Sjuin from Chanılax (47). Ioan find no traco had come in the courso of time to bo of Charas, called Spaniaris ('londra)7874 Simeon
to the port, they were dismayed to find that their ships had disappeared. They had been burned by the orders of Abu Hafs. To their loud and mutinous complaints that they were now irrevocably severed from their wives and children whom they had left in Egypt, he replied by bidding them marry the women of the island whom they had taken captive. We may question the truth of the story,' but it seems to point to the fact that there was a considerable fusion by marriage between the invaders and the natives.
The inodern capital of Crete was founded by Abu Hafs. He chose, to be the seat of his dominion, a site on the northern shore of the island, not far from the hill of Knossos, the ancient stronghold of Minos. The new town was central; it looked towards the isles of the Aegean which the conquerors of Crete hoped to plunder ; but it had the disadvantage of having no harbour or natural shelter for ships. It was surrounded by a deep moat (handak), from which it derived its name Chandax or Candia. Twenty-nine towns were taken and their inhabi. tants reduced to slavery. One alone was excepted from this general fate by a special capitulation, and in it the Christians were permitted freely to celebrate the rites of their religion.”
The Emperor Michael and his successors did not underestimate the danger with which Crete in the possession of the Moslems menaced the Empire. Michael appointed Photeinos, the governor of the Anatolic Theme, to be stratêgos of Crete, and not many months after the Saracen occupation this general arrived at the island. But he found that his forces
| The story is told in Gen, and Cont. Th. (saine source), and curiously, almost in the same words by Huniandi (cp. Hirsch, Byz. Stud. 136 ; Vasil'ev, 48 n. 2). This coincidence has not been explaincd, but points to a common Cretan source. Amari (Sloria, i. 163) suggested that the foundation of the story may have been that Abu Hafs burned some ships which were useless. If we are to hazard guesses, it is possible that one ship caught fire accident. ally and the conflagration spread (του πνεύματος επακμάζοντος, Cont. Τh.
The inhabitants of this town woro callod umolby106. Tho world is omittud in tho toxt of Gonosios 47 in but l'Houdo.
founded on Genesios, enables us to restore it (cp. Latin version).--Genesios (48)records that Cyril, bishopof Gortyn, was slaughtered, and that his blood still remains liquid and acts as a miraculous unguent. This probably comes from lost dcta of Cretan martyrs (I cannot agree that καθώς τινές φασυ, as Hirsch (op. cit. 137) suggests, proves an oral source; the words may have been in the source of Genesios).
3 Photeinos was great-grandfather of Zoe, fourth wise of Leo VI. That he went as stratégos of Crete, I infer froin Cont. Th. 773. His expedition is recorded only in this source. Its dato must be early in 820, is not in 825 ; for Photoinos was appointed stratégou of Sicily in 820.