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This disaster befell on the 26th of July. It seclued more shameful thun any reverse that had happened throughout the invasions of the Huns and the Avars, worse than any defeat since the fatal day of Hadrianople. After the death of Valens in that great triuinph of the Visigoths, no · Roman Augustus had fallen a victim to barbarians. During the fifth and sixth centuries the Emperors were not used to fight, but since the valour of lleraclius het il new example, most of the Rom NOVrans hnd le armics to bottlo, and if they were not always victorious, they always succeeded in escaping. The slaughter of Nicephorus was then an event to which no parallel could be found for four centuries back, and it was a shock to the Roman world.

Krum exposed the head of the Emperor on a lance for a certain number of days. He then caused the skull to be hollowed out in the form of a large drinking bowl,' and lined with silver, and at great banquets he used to drink in it to the health of his Slavonic boliads with the Slavonic formula “zdravitsa."

al memorial of this disaster survived till late times at Eskibaba in Thrace, where il Servian patriarch of the seventeenth century saw the toml, of a certain Nicolas, it warrior who had accompanied the futal expedition of Nicephorus and seen a strange warning alream. The Turks had shrouded the head of the corpose with a turban.:

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§ 3. Krum and Michuel I. Sated with their brilliant victory, the Bulgarians did not pursue the son and son-in-law of the Emperor, who escaped from the slaughter, and they allowed the Romans ilmple time to arrange the succession to the throne, which,

are this patricians Artins, Peter, Sisiunios Triplıylling, Theolosius Salibaras, and the Prefect (it is very strange to find the Prefect of the City ---who can only bo meant--taking

il campaign); also the Domesticus of the Excubitors; the Drugirios of the Witelo; in many other ollice's. Theropois. 191. 111 what animdir Nicephorus' was slain liim. soll 110 one couched till. Some of his

part in

conirales were burnt alive in a cou. flagration of the roolen palisades (τω της σούδας πυρί).

Cj. Herodotus iv. 63, un 26. See Blasel, Dio l'under:üye din Lunyuburile, 112 89.

σδράβιτζα. :' In the diary of, it journey to Jerusalem by Arsing Crnojevič (1.1. 16833), published in the citurnik (338, 189); see Jirudol, op. cit. 14.1.

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as we have seen, wils attended by serious complications. But Michael I. had not been many months established in the seat of Empire, when he received tidings that the enemy had invaded Thrace (A.1). 812). The city which Krüm first attackel was near the frontier. (11 an, imer curve of the Imnya, on whom northern und Houthum horny Anchinlus and

Apollonin fuel ench other, lay the town of Devellos. It .. might pride itself on its dignity ils un episcopul vent, or on

its strength is a fortified city. But its fortifications did not Now avail it, nor yet its bishop. Krum reduced the place, and transporte inhabitants and bislop beyond the mountains to Bulgaria. The Emperor ineanwhile prepared to oppose the in voller. On the 7th day of Jue ho left the capital, and the Empress l'rocopia accompanied him as far il! Tzurulon,' : place which still preserves its name as Chorlu, on the direct road from Selymbria to Hadrianople.

It does not seem that Michael advanced farther than to T211rulon. The news of the fate of Develtos came, and a mutiny broke out in the army. It was thought that the Emperor hul shown incompetence or had followed injudicious advice. While we can well unlerstand that little confidence could be felt in this weak and inexperienced commander, we must also remember that there was in the army a large iconoclastic section hostile to the government. The Opsikian and Thrakesian Themes played the most prominent parts in the riotin. d conspiracy in favour of the blind brothers of Constantine V. followed upon this mutiny, and Michael returneul to the City. The field was thus left to the Bulgarians, who prevailed in both Thrace and Macedonin. But the alarm felt by the inhabitants caused perhaps more confusion than the actual operations of the invaders. It does not indeed appear that the Bulgarians committed in this year any striking atrocities or won any further success of great moment. But the fate of the Roman Emperor in the previous year had worked its full effect. The dwellers in Thrace were thoronghly frightened, and when they silw 10 Roman army

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1 It was a tow'll on a hill close to the tributary of the Erginus, which is called chiorillosll. See Jireerk, lorrstreger, 51, 101. 11 the days of Justinian, Tzusulon hai loroces stormeel

by the terrible hordes of Zabergilll; and in the reign of Maurice, the valiant general Priscus was besieged in this fortress by the Avars.

in the field they had not the leart to defend their towns. The taking of Develtos brought the fear home to neighbouring Anchialus on the sea. Anchialus had always been one of the firmest and strongest defence's against the barbarians—against the Avars in olden drys and against the Bulgarians 'more recently. Fifty years ago the inhabitants had seen the Bulgarian forces.defentul in the neighbouring plain ly the urmies of the Fifth Constantine, But Michael was not like Constantine, is the men of Anchinlus well knew; and now, although the defences of their city had recently been restored and strengthened by Irene, they fled from the place' though none pursueel. Other cities, not only smaller places like Vicacione. l'roluton, but even auch als Beroe and the great city of Western Thrace, Philippopolis, lidl likewise. The Thracian Nicaen is little known to history; it seems to have been situated to the south - east of Hadrianople. Probatón or Sheep-fort, which is to be sought at the modern Provadia, north-east of Haulrianople, had seen Roman and Bulgarian armies face to face in a campaign of Constantine VI. (A.1). 791). Stara Zagora is believed to mark the site of Beroe, at the crossing of the Roman roads, which led from Philippopolis to Anchialus and froin Hadrianople to Nicopolis on the Danube. It was in this neighbourhood that the Emperor Decius was defeated ly the Goths. The town had been restored by the Empress Irene, who honoured it by calling it Irenopolis ;' bout the old name persisted, as in the more illustrious cases of Antioch and Jerusalem. Macedonian Philippi behaved like Thracian Philippopolis, and those reluctant colonists whom Nicephorus had settled in the district of the Strymon seized the opportunity to return to their original dwellings in Asia Minor."

Later in the same year (812) Krum sent an embassy to the Roman Emperor to treat for peace." The ambassador whom he chose was a Slav, ils his name Daryamer“ proves. The Bulgarians wished to renew an old commercial treaty which seems to have been made about half a century before between kiny Kormisos and Constantine V.;' and Krum threatened that

I for restoration of Anchialus iend 3 In October : p. Theopilia 197, 198. Beror, see Theopoli. 457; for Constan.

+ That is, Dragomir. time I'l. itt Ilpo sátou káo tpov, ib. 167. - Serialove, p. 3:12.

- See above, p. 339.

3

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he would attack Mescubria if his proprills were not immerlintuly acceptel. The trenty in question (1) loud defined the frontier by the hills of Melcona ; (2) had secured for the Bulgurinn monarch a gift of apparel and red dyed skins to the value of £1350; (3) had arranged that deserters should be sent buck; and (4) stipulated for the free intercourse of merchants between the two states in case they were provided with seals and passports ;' the property of those who had w passport was to be forfeited to the treasury.”

After some discussion the proposal for the renewal of this treaty was rejected, chietly on account of the clause relating to refugees. True to his threat, Krum iminecliately set his forces in motion against Mesembris and Inid siege to it about the middle of October (812). Further out on the bay of Auchialus than Ançhialus itself, where the coast resumes its northward direction, stood this important city, on il peninsula hanging to the mainland by it low and narrow isthmus, about five hundred yards in length, which is often overflowed by tempestuous seas." It was famous for its salubrious waters; it was also famous for its massive fortifications. Here had lived the parents of the great Leo, the founder of the Isauriau Dynasty. Hither had fled for refuge a Bulgarian king, driven from his country by a sedition, in the days of Constantine V. Krum was aided loy the skill of an Arah engineer, who, formerly in the service of Nicephorus, had been dissatisfied with that Einperor's parsimony and had fled to Bulgaria.' No relief came, and Mesembriit fell in it fortnight or three weeks. Meanwhile the promptness of Krum in attacking had iulduced Michiel to reconsider his decision. The Patriarch was strongly in favour of the proposed peace; but he was opposed by Theolore, the abbot of Stulion, who was intimate with Theoktistos, the Emperor's chief adviser. The' (liscussion which was held on this occasion (November 1)'illustrates how the theological atmosphere of

1 διά σιγιλλίων και σφραγίδων. (according to Theophanes). He in.

2. This clalise is not in our extarit strurted ihe Bulgarians in every poļi. MSS. but is preserved in the Latin orcetic contrivance (doar Margavenna translation of Anastasius.

τέχνην). Theophanes Mentions also Cp. Jireček, Fürstenthum, 526. the desertion or it certain spuithar

Viccfliorus settlecllimin Hadrian- named Eumathios, where was anxavens ople, and when hie grumbleed at not ču pretpos, in the year $09; but there is receiving an adequate remuneration no reason for supposing that these two four his services, siruck hin violently were the same person.

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the time was not excluded from such debutes. The war party said, “We inust not accept pence at the risk of subverting the divino command; for the Lord muid, Him who cometh unto me I will in no wise cust out,” referring to the clause concerning the surrender of refugees. The peace party, on their side, submitted that in the first place there were, as a matter of fact, no refugees, and secondly, even if there were, the safety of a large number was more acceptable to God than the safety of a few; they suggested, moreover, that the real inotive of those who rejected the peace was a short-sighted parsimony,' and that they were more desirous of saving the 30 lbs. worth of skins than concerned for the safety of deserters; these lisputants were also able to retort upon their opponents passages of Seripture in favour of peace, The war party prevailed.

four diys later the news came that lesembria was taken. The Barbarians had found it well stocked with the comforts of life, full of yold and silver ; and among other things they discovered a considerable quantity of Roman Fire," and thirty-six engines (large tubes) for hurling that deadly substance. But they did not occupy the place; they left it, like Sardicit, disinantled and ruined. It would seem that, not possessing it navy, they judged that Mesembria would prove in embarrassing rather than a valuable acquisition.

All thoughts of peace were now put away, and the Emperor made preparations to lead another expedition against Bulgaria in the following year. In February (813) two Christians who had escape from the hands of Krum announced that he was preparing to lurry Thrace. The Einperor immediately set out and Krum was obliged to retreat, not without some losses. In May all the preparations were ready. The Asiatic forces had been assembleil in Thrace, and even the garrisons which protecteil the kleisurai leading into Syria had been withdrawn to fight against a foe who was at this moment more formidable than the Caliph. . Lycaonians,

! Sol interpret Theophanes, a loute iv and men por népôos (1998). The majority itt least of the Senate were opposed to tlie: |::, άτοπον εφάνη το των προσ. φύγων τοϊς της συκλήτου βουλής (Con!. Theoph. 1:3); the poinion of Theo. keistos porobilily weigheal heavily. Michael 'himself wils" in favour of

peace, and this is an instructive case . of the autocrat being overruled lay the opinion of the Senate. 12. Bury, nonstitution ojo L.R.E., 31. The Con. tinuator of Theopilianes remarks that the Bulgarian kings feared leat all the population should by degrees migrate to Roman territory (ib.).

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