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urined ambush rushed out from the place of hiding. The attendants of Krum pressed on either side of him as he rode away, trying to defend him or escape with him; bút, as they were on fout, the Greeks were able to capture them. Thoso who watched the scene from the walls, and saw, as they thought, the discomfiture of the pagan imminent, cried out, “The cross has conquered "; the darts of the arined soldiers were discharged after the retreating horseman; but though they hit him he received no mortal wound,' and escaped, now morc formidable than ever, as his ferocity was quickened by the thirst of vengeance. His treasurer was slain ; his brotherin-law and nephew were taken alive.

On the next «lay the wrath of the deceived Bulgarian blazed forth in literal fire. The inhabitants of the city, looking across the Golden Horn, witnessed the conflagration of the opposite suburbs, churches, convents, and palaces, which the enerny plunderell and destroyed.” They did not stay their course of destruction at the mouth of the Golden Horn. They burned the Imperial Palace of St. Mainas, which was situated opposite to Scutari, at the modern Beshik-tash, to the south of Orta Kcui. They pulled down the ornamental columns, and

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to deck the residence of their king, the sculptured iranges of inimnix which they found in the hippodrome of the quence and packel in Waggone." All living things were Inutchered. Their ravages were extended northwards along the shores of the Bosphorus, and in the inland region behind.” But this was only the beginning of the terrible vengeance. The suburbs outside the Golden Gate, straggling as far as Rhegion, were consigned to the flames, and we cannot suppose that their energy of vlestruction spared the palace of Hebdomon.

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Ann. r. F., A.N. 813 "graviter (some placing it near Blachernae), vulneratum." The notice in these has been denionstrated by largoire, annals of the Bulgarian War and the S. Namas. accession of Leo was derived from the Scr. Inc. ib. fwdia. Theophanes, Grock ambassadors who visited the 503, gives details : & bronze lion, a court of Lewis in A.1). 814. Cp. Voucs bear, and a serpent; and other udpua poi Archir, 21, 55.

επίλεκτοι. Shkorpil asserts (aboba, • Scr. Inc. 344, clearly designates 116), that according to our sources the locality by αντιπέραν της πόλεως. Krum also carried away some marblo Some of the larger churches here hail columns. He mily have done so, but been recently restorell loy Irene, Nice. our sources do not say so. Scr. Inc. phorus, and Michael.

says that the Bulgarians tous klovas 3 The position of the palace, as to κατέκλασαν. which totally false ideas were current • Scr. Inc. ib, kal thu avw.

The fort of. Athyras and a bridge of remarkable size and strength' over the river of the same name, which flows into

1 the l'ropontis, were destroyed. Along the western highroad the avenger advanced till he reached Selymbria, where he destroyed the churches and rased the citadel. The fort of Daunin. was levelled, and the first obstacle in the path of destruction was the strong wall of Heraclea which had once defied Philip of Macedon. Unable to enter it the Bulgarians burned the suburbs and the houses of the harbour. Continue ing their course, they rased the fort of Rhaedcstos' and the

3 cistle of Apros. Having spent ten days there, they marched southward to the hills of Ganos," whither men und beasts had fled for concealment. The fugitives were easily dislodged from their hiding-places by the practised mountaineers; the men were slain; the women, children, and animals were sent to Bulgaria. After it visit of depreslation to the shore of the Hellespont, the desolater returned slowly, capturing forts as he went, to Hadrianople, which his brother had not yet succeeded in reducing by blockade. Poliorcetic engines were now applied ; hunger was already doing its work; no relief was forthcoming; and the city perforce surrendered. All the inhabitants, including the archbishop Manuel, were transported to “ Bulgaria ” beyond the Danube," where they were permitted to live in a settlement, governed by one of themselves and known as

Macedonia.” It was now the turn of the Imperial government to make overtures for peace, and of the victorious and offended Bulgarian to reject them. Ico then took the field himself 7

g. 102.

1 παράξενον ούσαν και πάνυ οχυρω. párov. For the locality sro above,

% The old Daunion trichok on the ronil from Holymbria to lloraclca.

3 At this point the rould left the coast and reached the fort of Aprox, more than twenty Roman miles W. of Kiruelcxtos (Bisanthe). See kicpert's Slap of Illyricum and Thrace.

'On the coast of the Propontis, over against Procontıl•*u*.

s Sur. Inc. 345 eis Boulgaplav.dkcidev του “Ιστρου ποταμού. Simeon (Cont. (coro. 765), και μετά λαού πλείστου διαπεράσας τών τε εγενών Μακεδόνων, κατασκήνωσιν εν τω Δανουβίω ποταμώ.

Simicou (ib. 817) nunibers the capi. lives an 10,000 111011, as well as womicii. The Chronogrnpoliy of Thcozulinics Onode with the onpitiro of Hadrinnojilo --και ταύτην ελών. The enpituire of the Archbishop Manuel wo learn from the history of Basil I. by Constantino Porphyrokounctos, forniing the 5th Book of the Continuatio Theophanix, 216. The parents of Basil lived in Iladrianople and were on this occasion carried into captivity.

Sec lielow, l. 370. 7 This campaign is not noticed loy Gcorge or by tlic Scriptor Incertus. Our anthoriiy is the combined testi. mony of Conil. Th. (24-25) and Gencsios bitterly hostilo to Leo, cannot bo (33-1084.). Hirsch (125. 120) regariis considered incapable of having doliber. this poisonde as a legend, suggesting ately suppressed a subsequont success, thint it was invented to explain the and his silence is not a convincing namo Bourds léovtos. His grounds argument. The imputation of Ignatius nocni to be the silerico of Thcoplinnos camo similarly from the liostilo camp, an Simeon, al statement of the Scr. which employed every weapon of Inc. "iiber den ungiinstigen Verlauf calumny against the iconoclast. The des Feldzuges," and tho charge of details in Cont. Th. do not suggest a inactivity brought against Lco in leyend, and the account has been Ignatius, l'il. Viceph. c. 31. But accepted luy all historians (including thiese arguments live no weight. Finliy, Hopf, and Ilertzberg). The widence of Theoplondies lion 110

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and by a stratagem, successfully executed, he inflicted an overwhelming defent on the army of the enemy, or a portion of it which was still active in the neighbourhood of Mesembriu. Entrenching himself near that city and not far from the Bulgarian camp, he waited for some days. The Roman troops had command of abundant supplies, but he soon heard that the Bulgarians were hard pressed for food. Confiding his plan only to one officer, Leo left the camp by night with a company of experienced warriors, and lay in ambush on an adjacent hill. Day dawned, and the Romans, discovering that the Emperor was not in the camp, imagined that he had fled.

The tidings reached the camp of the enemy before evening, and the barbarians thought that their adversuries were now delivered an casy prey into their hands. Intending to attack the Roman cump on the morrow, and meanwhilo secure, they left aside the burden of their arms and yielded to the ease of sleep. Then Leo and his men descended in the darkness of the night and wrought great slaughter. The Roman camp had been advised of the stratagem just in time to admit of their cooperation, and not soon enough to give a deserter the opportunity of perfidy. The Bulgarians were annihilated; not a firebearer, to use the Persian proverb, escaped. This success was followed up by an incursion into Bulgaria ; and Leo's policy was to spare those who were of riper (12-13), who drew here froni a common bearing on the question, as his chronicle source which is most fully reproduced ends with the capture of Hadrianople, in Cont. Th. The campaign must be and Leo's experlition was certainly placcid in the late autuin of a.1). 813, later. George's notices of military after the capture of Hadrianopole, events are'so scrappy and meagre that which probably determined Leo' to his silence proves nothing. The Scr. Nlio for peace. Jireček assigns it to Inc, ynys that during the Bulgarian A.11. 81.1 (Tirschichte, 1910), placing rivages which he has described Leo Krull's clentli ini lol. 816. But it in ilid not leave the city (3:10 xal tourWN olmur from the burrative of the Script. γενομένων όλων της πόλεως οικεξήλθεν). Inc. Elint ouly one winter parroc ho- This wns litorally irue, but the author, twee lo' occursion and Krum's death

years, while he destroyed their children by dashing them against stones.

Henceforward the hill on which Leo hadi lain in ambush was named the hill of Leo,' and the Bulgarians, whenever they pass that way, shake the head and point with the finger, unable to forget that great disaster."

The ensuing winter was so mild, and the rivers so low, that an army of 30,000 Bulgarians crossed the frontier and advanced to Arcadiopolis. They passed the river Erginus and mude many captives. But when they returned to the river, they found that a week's rain had rendered it impassable, and they were obliged to wait for two weeks on the banks. The waters gradually subsided, a bridge was made, and 50,000 captives were led back to Bulgaria, while the plunder was carried in waygons, loaded with rich Armenian carpets, blankets and coverlets, raiment of all kinds, and bronze utensils.? His censorious critics alleged that the Emperor was remiss in not seizing the opportunity to attack the invaders during the enforced delay.

Shortly after this incursion, tidings reached Constantinople that it was destined soon to be the object of a grand Bulgarian expedition. Krum was himself engaged in collecting a great host; "all the Slavonias " were contributing soldiers; and, from his Empire beyond the Danube, Avars as well as Slavs were summoned to take part in despoiling the greatest city in the world. Poliorcetic machines of all the various kinds which New Rome herself could dispose of were being prepared for the service of Bulgaria. The varieties of these engines, of which a list is recorded, inust be left to curious students of the poliorcetic art to investigate. There were "three-throwers" and “four-throwers," tortoises, fire-lıurlers and stone-hurlers, rams, little scorpions, and "dart-stans," besides a large

a supply of balls, slings, long ladders, levers, and ropes (õpuas), and the inevitable "city-takers” (életróles). In the stables of the king fed a thousand oxen destined to draw the engines, and five thousand iron-bound cars were prepared. The attempt which had been made on his life still rinkled in Krumu's ! ó Bouvos doutos.

χαλκώματα εφόρτωσαν πάντα τις άμαξας. Scriptor Inert114, p. 347 'Apueria. Îlo calls tlie Erginos thic 'limiva. τικά στραγλομαλωτάρια και νακοτάπητα

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memory, and he determined to direct his chief efforts against Blachernae, the quarter where the arrow had wounded him.

Leo had taken measures for the defence of the city. He employed a large number of workmen to build a new wall ? outside that of Heraclius, and he caused a wide moat to be dug. But, as it turned out, these precautions proved unnecessary; and, indeed, the work was not completed when the death of Krum changed the situation. The most formid- . able of the Bulgarian monarchis with whom the Empire had yet to deal died suddenly through the bursting of a bloodvessel on the 14th of April 814; and his plan perished with him.

§ 5. The Reign of Omurtag After the death of Krum, Bulgaria was engaged and distracted by a struggle for the throne. Of this political crisis we have no clear knowledge, but it appears that it ended by the triumph of a certain Tsok over one, if not two, rivals. The rule of Tsok is described as inhumane. He is said to have required all the Christian captives, both clerical and lay, to renounce their religion, and when they refused, to have put them to death. But his reign was brief. It

See above, p. 94.

of Krum, and his persecution of the 2 αοράτως σφαγιασθείς, streams of Christian captives noticed (Pars ii., blooil issuing from mouth, nose, and ears Jan. 22, in Migne, P.G. 117, 276-277). (Scr. Incert. 3348). Thecause of Attila's Loparev (op. cit. 348-349) thinks that death was similar. The date, accord. Dukum, Ditseng, and Tsok were only ing to Roman captives who returned military leaders who played an im. from Bulgarii, was "the great Fifth portant role. I am disposed to of Paschal," that is Holy Thursday= conjecture that Ditseny (who is April 14, 814 (Krug, kritischer described as cruel and was slain) and l'orsuch, 156 ; Loparev, Dvie Zamietki, Tsok were one and the same. These 3:18). The dato 815 maintained by intermediate reigns are not mentioned Schafarik and Jireček cannot be in the Greek chronicles, and Theo. accepted in view of the data in Scr. Inc. phylactus (as well as Cont. Th. 217) (sce abovc, p. 357, n. 8).

represents Oinurtag as Krun's successor * In the Slavonic Prologue (cd. llist. xr. nurt. 192). The name Tsok Moscow, 1877, under. Jan. 2, p. 42) occurs in the form TŠUKOS in an in. it is stuted that after krum's death scription found north of Aboba, and Dukum scized the throne, but died dlated to the year a. M. 6328 = A.D. 819. and sliccceded by the cruel 820, but so mutilated that little can be Ditselig, who mutiluted the hands of modo of it (albobu, 220-227). According Archbishop Manuel (meo nbove, p. 368), to the Ilirol. Dies, it was kirum who and was siiccoceled by Omurtaga 'In mutilated Archbishop Manel

, who the Menologion of Basil II., Tfókos (acc. to Cont. Th. 217) was put to ò à leuratos is named as the successor death by Omurtag.

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