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over il strcill, so that neither devils nor men nor worms might be able to penetrate it. The mausoleun was called puerulise, ilul those who deposited his body in one of its recesses were put to denth, that the exact spot in which he was laid might never be revealed. A rider who passed it by dismounted, and dill not remount until the tomb could be no longer seen. When a new Chagan ascended the throne, a silk cord was lound tightly round his neck and he was required to declare how long he wished to reign; when the period which he mentioned had elapsed, he was put to death. But it is lllcertain how far we can believe the curious stories of the Irabic travellers, froin whom these details are derived.'

We have no information at what time the active authority of the Chagan was exchanged for this divine nullity, or why lie wils exalted to a position, resembling that of the Emperor of Japan, in which his existence, and not his government, was considered essential to the prosperity of the State. The laboili's of government were fullilled by Bey or viceny;" who coma manded the army, regulated the tribute, and presided over the administration. He appeared in the presence of the Chngin with naked fect, and lit it torch'; when the torch had burnt out he was permitted to take his seat at the right hand of the monarch. When evil times befell, the people held the Chayari responsible and called upon the Bey to put him to death ; the Beg sometimes complied with their demand.? The commander of an army who suffered defeat was cruelly treatedl : his wife, children, and property were sold before bois eyes, and he wils either exccutel or degraded to menial rank.

The most rumarkable filct in the civilisation of this Turkish popolo wild the conversion of the Chingan and the upper rank of society to Juninn. The religion of the Hebrews hud OSTÍOch it profound inluence on the creed of Islam, and it lom beon i min of Christinnity; it hnd wou souttereil prosclytes; but the conversion of the Khazars to the undiluted religion of Jehovah is unique in history. The date of this

! Ilin Failhan, ib. 592.593. llo in χαγάνος εκείνος και ο πεχ Χαζαρίας cilled by Arabic writers the ishal (text ó kal méx orroncously, which wo (Ciurilizi, tr. Bartholi, 120 ; isha, coull correct cven without the right Ibn Rustil ; = iiloshad, op. Marquart, reading in Cont. Th. 122). Ibu Failli. op. cit. 21). But he was probably also lan, ib. 592. Cp. Masudi (Sprenger), known its the bulkhul, see below, p. 410. 106, n. 1.

3 Masudi, ib. 411. : Const. De alm. impr

. 178., yap Thor Fallhlan, ib. 583.

iu event has been disputed, and the evidence variously assigns it to the first half of the cighth century or to the beginning of the ninth.' There can be no question that the ruler was actuated by political motives in adopting Judaism. To embrace Mohammadinism would have made him the spiritual dependent of the Caliphs, who attempted to press their faith on the Khazars, and in Christianity lay the danger of his becoming an ecclesiastical vassal of the Roman Empire. Judaismu Was it reputable religion with sacred books which both Christian and Mohammadan respected; it elevated him above the heathen Barbarians, and secured him against the interference of Caliph or Emperor. But he did not adopt, along with circumcision, the intolerance of the Jewish cult. He allowed the mass of his people to abide in their heathendom and worship their idols.

The circumstances of the conversion are as uncertain as the date. Joseph, the Chagan whose Hebrew letter to the Rabbi Chislai of Cordova in the tenth century is preserved, states that the Roman Emperor and the Caliph, whoin he respectively styles the King of Edoin and the King of the Islımaelites, sent embassies laden with rich gifts and accompanied by theological Sitges, to induce his ancestor to embrace their civilisations. The prince found a learned Israelite and set him to dispute with the foreign theologians. When he saw that they could

I For the former date, our authority in the accounts of that mission the is the Khazar tradition preserved in Chayan is not represented as a Jew. the Letter of Josepola; it is supporteel But the Arabic accounts of the Khazars loy Westberg, Ki anal. ii. 31. For (Ibn Rusta, etc.); which depend on an the latter. (rcign of Harun), Masudi oller source forior to.1.31.850, assume the (Sprenger), 107. Accoriling to Joseph, Judaism of the Khazars at that time. the name of the king who was con. Marquart endeavours to explain away vertcil was Bulan, who passed through this evidence by assuming that it is the Gates of Dariel and reached the later addition of an intermediate land of Ardebil. We know from Arabic source, Gaihani. The passage which and Arnicnian sources that such an le cites from the commentary on expedition was conducted by Bulklinn. Matthew by Druthmar (on Matt. 21, in a... 7:31. Bulkhan was the major: 14, Joz. bibl. rcterum patrum Lugdun. clonio (m+x), as Westberg says; and xv. 158, 1677), who was writing soon we may susquct that this was his title, after the conversion of the Bulgarians, not loix unur. Marquart (who donics prove's nothing, as to the chronology, thic groselinelines of "Joxopolis Lutter) cxcrgot that ille Conversion of thic places the conversion too Julinimin ini Klinirs was prior to 1.11. 805, the ile second half of the ninth century, late of the conversion of the Bul. after tlic mission of Constantine garians. C. Westlers, op. cit. 36. (Streif:üge, 5.17), on the ground that : So Gurdizi ani Ilin Rusta.

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not agree on a single point, he said, “ Go to your tents and return on the third day.” On the morrow, the Chagan sent for the Christian and asked him, " Which is the better faith, lliat of Israel or that of Islam?" and he replied, " There is no lizw in the world liko that of Israel.” On the second any the Chngan sent for the learned Mohammuddin and suid, " Tell mo the truth, which law seems to you the better, that of Israel or that of the Christians ?" And the Mohammadan replied, " Assuredly that of Israel." Then on the third day the Chagan called thom all together and said, “You have proved to me by your own mouths that the law of Israel is the best and purest of the three, and I have chosen it.”

The truth underlying this tradition which embodies the ictual relation of Judaism to the two other religions--scems to be that endeavours were male to convert the Chayans both to Christianity and to Islam. And, as a matter of fact, in the reign of Leo III: the Caliph Marwan attempted to force the faith of Mohammad upon the Khazars, and perhaps succeeded for a moment. He invaded their land in A.D. 737, and marching by Belenjer and Semender, advanced to Itil. The Chagan was at his mercy, and obtained peace only liy consenting to embrace Islam.” As Irene, who married the Emperor Constantine V., inust have been the daughter or sister of this Chagan, it is clear that in this perioil there were circumstances tending to draw the Khazars in the opposite directions of Christ and Mohammad. And this is precisely the period to which the evidence of the Letter of Joseple seems to assign the conversion to Judaism. We may indeed suspect that Judaism was first in possession--a conclusion which the traditional

I Der chaz. Königsbrief, 74 sqq. In its main truor this story coincides. with that told ly Bakri (whose sourco here Marquart considers to be Masudi, Sorcijzigc, 7). TheChagan had a lopted Christianity, but found it to be a corrupt religion. lle sent for & Christian bishop', who, questioned by it Jewish dialectician in the king's preschic, allmitted that the Law of Moses was true, He ill.so sollt for a Molinimulan nago, but the Jew con. trived to have liim poisoned on his journey. The Jow thioli klicceeded in converting the king to the Mornic religion. It is clear that the same

tradition, recorded by Joxepili, las been modified, in the Arabic source, in a sense unfavourable to Christianity and favourable to Islam. In the twelfth century the Spanish poct Juda Halevi wrote a curious philosophical religious work in the forni of a dialogue between a king of the Klazars and a Jewish rabbi. It has been translated into English loy II. Hirschfelel (Juduh dilleri's kilubul klusuri, 1905).

? Baladouri, apud Marquart, Sereif. ilgr, 12. The invasion of Marwan was A riprisal for an expedition of lilazars, who in 1.11. 730 penctrated to Allar: biyan.

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story unintentionally suggests." The Jewish influence in Khazaria was due to the encouragement given by the Chagans to Hebrew merchants. Of the Jewish port of Tamatarkha more will be said presently; and we may notice the Jewish population at Jundār, a town in the Caucasus, which was governed in the ninth century by a relation of the Chagan, who is said to have prayed impartially with the Moslems on Friday, with the Jews on Saturday, and with the Christians on Sunday"

Somewhat later in the cighth century it princess of the Khazars married the Saracen governor of Arinenia, and there was peace on the southern frontier till the reign of Harun alRashid.' In A.D. 798 another marriage alliance was arranged lnetween a daughter of the Chagan and one of the powerful family of the Barmeciiles. The lady died in Albania on the way to her bridal, and the officers who were in charge of her reported to her father their suspicion that she had been poisoned. The suggestion infuriated the Chayan, and in the following year the Khazirs invaded Armenia, by the Gates of Derbend, and returned with an immense booty in captives. Then Harun's son, Mamun, carried his arms victoriously into the land of the Khazars.

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§ 2. The Subjects anul Neighbours of the Khazars The Khazars had never succeeded in extending their lordship over their neighbours the Alans, whose territory extended from the Caucasus to the banks of the river Kuban : and was bounded on the west by the Euxine. The Alans, who

1 The Jewislı rabli who disputes is • Baladhuri (Marquart, op. cil. 37). already on the sjut. The Letter of

Marquart, ib. 5. Joseph gives the date as about 340 years before his own time (r. .1. V. 860). * The authority is Mukaildasi, who 340 is clearly corrupt, anıl if we read says that Mamun required the Chayin 210 with Westberg (op. cit. ii. 34), to embrace Islam (Marquart, ib. 3). we get c. .1.1), 720 as the date.

Mamun governed Khurasin, under his ? In the ninth century, Ibn Khur. father, from A.1). 798. He was also in dadhlah mentions that Jewish Khurasiin, as Caliphi, between 8.1). merchants from Spain nised to come 813 and 818. Marquart does not regularly overlanıl, thmugli the coun. decide the date of thie campaign in try of the Slavs, to the capital of Kliazaria. It is natural to stlpiposo thie Khazars (Chamlich). Marquart, that it was the reply to the Khazar

invasion of a... 799, anil to itssign it 3 Iloi Rusta aml (iurvizi, 190 ; to the earlier period ; but cp. Mar. Marquart, op. cil. 20.

"p. cit. 24.

quart, 170,

have survived to the present day under the name of the Ossetians, were a mainly pastoral people; their army consisted in cavalry; and they had a fortress, which was virtually impregnable, at the so-called Alan-gate of the Caucasus or l'ass of Dariel.' We are told that the habitations of the people were so close together that when a cock crowed in one place he was answered by all the cocks in the rest of the kingdom. At some time before the tenth century the king adopted Christianity, but the muss of his subjects remained heuthen." Ho received his Christianity from Constiintinople, and the Emperors approprinted to him the special title of ecusiastes. Between the Alans and the Khazars were the habitations of the SARIRS, a heathen people whose name does not come into the annals of Byzantium.'

North of the Aluns, between the rivers Kuban and Don, the territory of the Khazars extended to the shores of the Maeotic lake," and at the mouth of that water they possessed the important town of Tamatarkha, the modern Taman, which hird arisen close to the ancient l'hanagoria, over against the city of Bosporos on the other side of the straits.

The conimercial importance of Tamatarkha, which had a large Jewish population, will claim our attention presently. Bosporos itself, the ancient Pantikapaion, was under the control of the Khazars, and the Tetraxite Cioths, who occupied the greater part of the Crimea, were subject to their sway. The Gothic cilpital, Doras, had been taken by the Khazars before A.D. 787, and in the following years the Goths, under the leadership of their bishop, had made an attempt to throw off the yoke of their powerful neighbours."

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I For descriptions of the Alans, see + of the Sarirs an account is preCiurilizi and Ibu Rusta, 193-191, and scrved by Ibu Rusta and Gurulizi (187 , Masui (Sprenger), 134 $14. Cp. Mar. $941.), derived from their common ninth. Allart, m. cit. 10+ $11!: The King's century source. iitle was buyhuyar (Ibn R.) or kur. * This country had been the habita. killnej (Mas.). Arabic writers call the tion of the Utiyurs — the malaid Alans Sandar, or l'ulash (?), with the BovAgapia of Theophanes and Nice. second part of which Marquart connects pliorus. Cp. Marquart, op. cit. 503. the (ieorgian namelisi (=Old Russian · After the sixth century we hear Yusi), whence the moslern Ussetinli. nothing more of this people, but their

2 Thit tiie Alans were still pagans descendants may have still been there, in the ninth century is shown by Kula. though of no political importance. korski, l'iz. I'rom. v. 1 877. (1898). c Shestakov, Premiatniki, 335 sq.; Vit. 3 Corestillitine, Chr. 685.

Jouren. (p. (vithinr, 191. The bishop & spiritual son of the Emperors Jolin was taken prisoner, but succeeded (πνευματικών ημών τέκνον).

He was

in escaping to Amastris.

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