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North of the Don and extending to the banks of the Dnieper were the tents and hunting-grounds of the MAGYARS or Hungarianx.' The continuous history of this Finnish incople, who lived by hunting and fishing," begins in the ninth century, and if we think we an recognise it unler other names in the days of Attila and the early migrations, our conclusions are more or les* *preculiitive. It is, however, highly probable that the Magyars had lived or windered for centuries in the regions of the Volga, had bowed to the sway of the great llun, and had been aflected loy the manners of their Turkish neighbours." They spoke a tongue closely akin to those of the Finns, the Ostyaks, the Voguls, and the Samoyeds, but it is likely that even before the ninth century it had been modified, in its vocabulary, by Turkish influence." A branch of the preopile penetrated in the cighth century south of the Crucisiis, sind settled on the river Cyrus, enxt of Tillis and west of l'artnv, whicre they were known to the Armenians liy the name of Sevordik or “ Black children." These Black Hungarians, in the ninth century, destroyed the town of Shamkor, and the governor of Armenia repeopled it with Khazars who had been converted to Islam (1.1). 834-855)."

On the northern shore of the Sea of Azov, and extending towards the Dnieper, was the land of the Inner or BLACK BULGARIASS, which thus lay between the Magyars and the

i For criticism of the Aralic sources but it was profoundly modificed by (Gurvizi, etc.) sce Westberg, op. cit. Turkish. The well-known able attempt 20 899., Dcilr. i. 24 89%. Marquart, of Vámbéry to prove that it was (op. cil. 30-31, 516) places the llun. originally a Turkish tongue (in his a garians between the Don and the magyarok Pirelelo) lins not convinced Kulan, but his interpretation las me, nor has it pursuaded Marquart, luoni refutel by Wexthers.

who hus frertinent observations on the • Rrogino, 8.11.889, p. 1552,:(). Kurze. slloject (19). This is an insertion of Regino in his Constantine, Cer. 687 eis tous q' general escription which is transcribed άρχοντας των Σερβοτιών (eg. Σεβορτίων, front Justinus, ii. 1-3.

Marquart) των λεγομένων μαύρα παιδία. Marquart finds their ancestors in Hence Marquart explains Saßápto, tlıc Akatzirs (cp. l'riscus, fr. 8 in dopalo, said in Dc adın. imp. 169 to P.11.G. iv. 89; Jordancs, licl. c. :) be the old naine of the Hungarians, as and thic Unigurs (up.cil. 10 8919.); but "the lower Sevorilik " (op. cit. 39-40); sce the important work of k. Vimati, ordik, children, lie considers only all Vispy Slagprorsusiy ismeretlen lorlis Armenian transformation by popular nolini olmuinyl (1911), where the atymology of Orgik = Ugrians. Sec passage in the Origines of Isidore of also W. l'écr. in 13.2. vii. 201-202, Seville (ix. 2, $ 60, in Migne, l'. I. 32, 618.619. 3:34) is fully discussed. Hlo likewise 6 For this we have the gool authority iclotilies them with thic Unigurs. of Baladhuri, who calls the Sevordik

• Cp. Marquart, 333. Tlie basis of Sirarili. Marquart, ib. 36. tlıc llungarian language was Ugrian, 7 Scc above, j. 3:37.

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Goths. The lower Dnieper seems to have forined the western boundary of the Khazar Empire, but their influence extended up that river, over some of the Eastern Slavs. The Slavs round Kiev' paid at one time tribute to the Chagan, who perhaps ensured them ngainst the depredations of the Mugyars.

On the contrul Volyn Wils the extensive territory of the BURDAS," who were subject to the Khazars, and formed i barrier against the Outer Bulgarinns, their northern neighbours, whose dominion lay on the Volga and its tribuitury the Kama, including the modern province of Kasan."

If the Burdīs served the Khazars as a barrier against the northern Bulgarians, they were also useful in helping to hold the l'ATZINAKS in check. This silvage people possessed a wide dominion between the Volyn and the Ural; their neighbours were, to the north-west the Burdūs, to the north the Kipchaks, to the cast the Uzes, to the south-west the Khazars. It would seem that some of their hordes pressed curly in the ninth contury, west of the Volga, into the busin of the Don, and became the formidable neighbours of the most eusterly Slavonic tribes.

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$ 3. The Russians and their Commerce Such, in the early part of the ninth century, was the general chart of the Turkish Empire of the Khazars, their clients, and their neighbours. Before we consider the import of this primitive world for the foreign policy of the Roman Empire, it is necessary to glance at yet another people, which wils destined in the future to form the dominant state in the region of the Euxine and which, though its home still lay beyond

I The Poliano ; scc below, p. 412. tributary (ib. 19, and i. 385). Cpu. Constantine, De aim. imp. 75, men. Musudi (Sprenger) 412, and sce Mar. tions that kicv was calleil Sambatas

quart, xxxiii. and 336. (which has not been satisfactorily ex

3 From their chief town, Bulgar, plained ; ; cp. Westlers, hiaval. ii. 12 ; Marquart, 198). Tho capital of the

the Bulgarians could sail down the Slavs, calleri Jirbal or Ilrunb by Ibu

Volga to Itil in less than three weeks Rusta (179), Jiraut ly Ciuruizi (178),

(Ibn Faillilan, 202). is pirobably kicv, an Westberg (ib. For the lioundaries of the Patzinaks 21) would reall in the texts Chayali. accoriling to the early Arabic sourcc

· Ibu Rustit and Guridizi, 158 8119. of the ninth century, seo Westberg, For thic orthography see Westberg, ki anal. ii. 10 879., licitr. i.::212-213. K. anal. ii. 14. Ile distinguishes the The Patzinaks or l’echeneys were Burdás from the Mordvins, and shows known to the Slovs as the Polorisi, that the river Burdas means the the name they bear in the Chronicle central course of the Volga, not a of l'seudo-Nestor.

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the horizon of Constantinople and Itil, was already kuown to those citics by the ways of commerce. The RussiaXS or Ris were Scandinavians of Eastern Sweden who, crossing the Baltic and sailing into the Gulf of Finland, had settled on Lake Ilmen, where they founded the island town, known ils Novgoroil, the Holmgard of Icelandic Saga, at the point where the river Volkhov issues from the northern waters of the lake.' They were active traders, and they monopolized all the tratlic of north-eastern Europe with the great capitals of the south, Constantinople, Baghdad, and Itil. Their chief wares were the skins of the castor and the black fox, swords, and

The Slavs were their natural prey ;? they used to plunder them in river cxpeditions, and often carry them off, to le transported and sold in southern lands. Many of the Slavs used to purchase immunity by entering into their service. The Russians did not till the soil, and consequently had no property in land; when a son was born, his father, with a drawn sword in his hand, addressed the infant: “I leave thee no inheritance; thou shalt have only what'thou winnest by this sword." They were, in fact, a settlement of

MICNI.

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" The following account of the De aum, imp. 79), south of Novgorul, Russians and their commerce is derived towards Smolensk ; the l'iatichi, on from the carly Arabic source and from the river Oka, south of Moscow : the the somewhat later book of Ibn Radimislichi, on the riveis Sozlı, cast Khurdalhluli, as oluciolatu loy West. of the Dricguros: thic Siever, on the loupy, Kl. ii. 2: 379. an i. 372 37%. rivor Desna, which joins the Duliofaer As for the Scandinavian (suvlish) north or kiev ; the Poliane (“plain. origin of the Russians (Ris 'Pus), the men "), probably west of Kiev ; thu cviilenee is overwhelming, anil it is Drievliano (“pier of the woo:ls" ; 10w admitted love all competent in. Jepgilerira, Const. p. cit. 166), pero vestigators. The theory that they Britpos north of the Poliane; the were Slar's-of which Ilovaiski was Dregovichi (Apoiryorsirai, ib. 79), the ablest cxponent--was crushingly between the rivers l'ripet and Diina ; refuted by logoulin, Kunik, and also the Tiver'tsi, on the Dniester Thomsen. The * Xorman" or " Var.: (whom Schafarik, ii. 13:3, finds in Con. anzian" question which raucil in stantine, ib., reading twv Tepeppiávwv Russia ilt one time is no longer sub for twv Te B.); their neighbours the indicc. For a full examination of the Uglichi (identified by Schafarik with lata, the English reader should con. Constantino's Olivos, ib. 166); the suilt Thomsen's Ancirne l'ussin (sec Bujani, so called from their habitation Bibliography, ii. 5). The theory firo. on the river Bug. Schafiirik (ii. 113) pounded by Vasilevski, in his old age, explains Constantine's Sevsavivo (loc. iliat the Russians rere (Crimean) cit.) as Luchanie, whom he considers a (ioths, and that 'Pus is a corruption of portion of the krivitsi. The localities Tal.poo.nilai, may be mentionid as a of these tribes are mainly deterinineed curiosity.

loy the data in Pseudo-Xestor. Seo : The general disposition of the further Schafarik, ii. sect. 28, and cj. Slavonic tribes, as the Russians found the relevant articles in Leger's Index tlıcm, seems to have been as follows: to his Chronique de Xestur. the krivichi (Kpoßitgai, Constantine,

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military merchants--it is suid their numbers were 100,000— living by plunder and trade. They had a chief' who received a tithe froin the merchants.'

The Russian traders carried their wares to the south by two river routes, the Dnieper and the Volga The voyage down the Dnieper was beset by some disliculties and dangers.? The boats of the Russians were canoes, and were renewed every year. They rowed down as far as Kiev in the boats of the last season, and here they were met by Slavs, who, during the winter had cut down trees in the mountains and made new boats, which they brought down to the Dnieper and sold to the merchants. The year and merchandise were transhipped, and in the month of June they sailed down to the fort of Vytitshev," where they waited till the whole flotilla was assembled.' South of the modern Ekaterinoslav the Dnieper forces its way for some sixty miles through high walls of granite rock, and descends in a succession of waterfalls which offer a tedious obstacle to navigation. The Slavs had their own names for these falls, which the Russians rendered into Norse. For instance, Vlnyi-prag' was translated literally by

. Baru-fors, both names meaning " billowy waterfall," - and this

force" is still called Volnyi, “the billowy." In soine cases the navigators, having unloaded the boats, could guide them through the fall; in others it was necessary to transport them, as well as their freights, for a considerable distance. This passage could not safely be made except in a formidable com

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I The Arabic writers designate him the Chayan of the Russians, and so he is called (chacinus) in clan. Bert., s.a. 839. This Turkisli title was e viilently applied to him by the Khazars, and Wals adopted from them by the Arabs and perhaps by the Greeks (in the letter of Theophilus to Lewis ?).

? The following account is derived from Constantine, De ailm. imp. c. 9. Thongli composed at a later time, When the l'atzinaks were in the neighbourhood of the Duioper, it obviously applies to the carlier periud too.

Movóžoda, “one-plaukers." • Beterdépn. The namic still exists.

5 Constantine says that the mer. chants came not only from Novgorod), lolit also from Miliniskit (Smolenski),

Chernigov, Vyshegrad, un Telintsa (Liuliech), but it is uncertain whether ny of these settlements were prior tu the settlement at Kiev.

6 There are eleven poroyi (waterfalls extending over the whole bed of the river), of which Constantine enumer. ates seven, and six zabori (only par: tial obstructions).

i The fifth in Constantine's cnumeration : Βουλνηπράχ, Βαρουφόρος (rolne is the Russian, bara the Old Norse, for “wave"). All the names are not quite

so clear, but they have been explaineil, some with certainty, others probably, by Thomsen, op. cit. Lect. ii. Thiese double lames are one of the most important items in the overwhelming evidence for the fact that the Russians were Scandinavians.

pany; a small body would have fallen a prey to predatory nomads like the Hungarians and the l'utzinaks. Ou reaching the Black Sea, they could coast westwards to Varna and Mesenbria, but tbeir usual route was to Cherson. There they supplied the demands of the Greek merchants, and then rounding the south of the peninsula, reached the Khazar town of Tamatarkha, where they could dispose of the rest of their merchandise to the Jewish traders, who in their turn could transport it to Itil, or perhaps to Armenia and Baghdad. But the Russians could also trade directly with Itil und Baghdad. The Vulgat curricd them to Itil, where they lodged in the curtern town; then they embarked on the Cuspinn Sen and sililed to various ports within the Saracen dominion; somctimes from Jurjan they made the journey with camels to Baghdad, where Slavonic eunuchs served as their interpreters.

This coinmerce was of high importance both to the Emperor and to the Chayan, not only in itself, but because the Emperor levied a tithe at Cherson on all the wares which passed through to Tamatarkha, and the Chagan exacted the same duty on all that passed through Chamlich to the dominion of the Saracens. The identity of the amount of the duties, ten per cent, was the natural result of the conditions. ;

§ 4. Imperial Policy. The Russian Danger The first principle of Imperial policy in this quarter of the world was the maintenance of peace with the Khazars. This was the immediate consequence of the geographical position of the Khazar Empire, lying as it did between the Dnieper and the Caucasus, and thus approaching the frontiers of the two powers which were most formidable to Byzantium, the Bulgarians and the Saracens. From the seventh century, when Heraclius had sought the help of the Khazars against l'ersia, to the tenth, in which the power of Itil declined, this was the constant policy of the Emperors. The Byzantines and the Khazars, moreover, had a commou interest in the development of commerce with Northern Europe; it was to the aivantage of the Empire that the Chagan should exercise an effectivo control over his barbarinn neighbours, that his influence should be felt in the basin of the Dnieper, and that

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