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proscribed, or destroyed, seems, at first sight, to beur out this opinion. If, however, we examine the facts more closely, we shall find that the iconoclastic age was fur froin being inartistic, and that it witnessed the insurrection of new ideus and tendencies which exercised a potent and valuable influence upon the religious art of the succeeding period.' One immediate effect, indeed, which may be considered a loss and a calamity, the doctrine of the image-breakers produced. It exterminated a whole brunch of art, it abolished sculpture. The polemic against images had carried weight with orthodox opinion so far that sculptured representations of holy persons or sacred scenes were discontinued by common consent. a partial victory for the iconoclasts, an illogical concession of the imaye-worshippers. No formal prohibition was enacted by Church or State; the rejection of plastic images was a tacit but authoritative decree of public opinion.

The iconoclastic sovrans were not unfriends of pictorial art as such. Two of the most illustrious and uncompromising, Constantine V. and Theophilus, who desired to abolish entirely religious pictures of a monumental kind, sought a substituto in secular painting for the decoration of both sacred and profane buildings. The antique traditions of profane art had never disappeared in the Byzantine world, but they had become inconspicuous and unintluentiai through the domination of religious art, with its fixed iconographic types, which had ascended to its highest plane of excellence in the sixth century Under the auspices of the iconoclasts, profine art revivel. Constantine V. caused the churchi of Blachernue to hver decorated with landscapes, trees, and birds and animals; Theophilus followed his example. This was not really a novelty; it was al return to the primitive decoration of early Christian churches, which had been gradually abandoned. Scènes de genre, pictures of the chase, scenes in the hippodrome, were demanded from the artists who adorned the halls of the Imperial Palace.

Of such frescoes and mosaics we know only what chroniclers tell us, but some ivory coffers which were

| This has been shown in some bril. D. V. Ainalov, Ellinisticheskiin osnory liant pigause of Diehl's l'art byzorntin, risanliishugo iskusstrn, 1900. 338 81'., 372 84711. To this masterly ? Conl. Th. 99. See alvove', p. 130 work the following pringes arr indebteit. R79., for the recorntion of his new For the influence of ll llenistic on buililings in the l'alaci. Byzantine painting and design, sce


carved in the ninth century illustrate the revival of profune urt under the iconoclasts. One of them may be seen in London, exhibiting scenes of pagan mythology, such as the rupo of Europa and tho sacrifico of Iphigeneia.?

The taste for rich ornainent also characterized this period, and did not expire with the defent of iconoclasm. It is apparent in the description of the sumptuously decorated buildings of Thcophilus; and Basil I., in the new palaces which he erected, did not full behind the splendour of the impious Amorian. This taste displayed itself also in the illumination of books, of which brilliant specimens are preserved dating froin the tenth and eleventh centuries.

Even under the iconoclastic dispensation, artists who desired to represent religious subjects had an outlet for the expression of their ideas in the illustration of manuscripts. A psalter is preserved. at Moscow ? which is supposed to have been written in the early part of the ninth century in the monastery of Studion. It is simply and elegantly illustrated by coloured vignettes in the margins, animated and realistic, free from the solemnity which we associate with Byzantine art. The proud who “set their mouth against the heavens and their tongue walketh through the earth”. are portrayed liy two bearded men with long tongues touching the ground, and upper lips, like beaks, which touch a bowl, surinounted by al cross, representing the sky.

The iconoclastic controversy itself supplied the monastic artists with motives to point the moral and adorn the text of sicred writ. In another pulter which must have been written in the generation succeedling the triumph of orthodoxy, the congregation of the wicked is exemplified by a picture of the Synod of A.N. 815. We sec Leo the Amorian on a throne, the Patriarch Theodotos seated by his side, and two men defacing with long spears the icon of Christ. The assembling of the righteous is depicted as the Council of A.D. 843, where Jannes is trampled under foot by the orthodox Patriarch who holds the image of Christ in his hand, while above we see the

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I The coffer of Veroli in the Victoria and is known as the Khludor Psalter. and Albert Museum.

See Diehl, op. cit. 353-354. . In the monastery of St. Nicolas.

3 Diehl, ib. It long been studied by koniakov, Miniaturcs l'lln. manuscrit grec idu

+ l's. 73. 8. This picture is repro. 20811 ulicr de la collection Chloudof (1878), duced in Dichi, ib.


the age.

Biblical sorcerer Simon hurled down by St. Peter' In another book of the sume period, designed for popular instruction, the Physiologus, some of the illustrations are allusive to the recent controversy and inspired by monustic spite; but this manuscript cxhibits at the Kilme time the influence of the profune art which the iconoclasts had revived, in the realism of its pictures and in the pagan subjects, such as sirens, nymphs, and centaurs.?

The employment of art in the service of controversy, or as in outlet for controversial spite, seems to be characteristic of

The archbishop Gregory Asbestils, the friend and supporter of l'hotius, had soine skill in painting, and he illustratul a copy of the Acts of the syno, which condemned Ignatius with realistic and somewhat scurrilous unricatures. At the beginning of the first Act he depicted the llogging of the l'atriarch, abovo whose head was inscrilad "the l)evil." The necond picture showed the byxtinders spilling upon him ils bic was halel to prison; the third represental liim, “the son of purdition," suffering dethronement; the fourth, bound in chains and going into exile. In the fifth his neck was in a collar; and in the sixth he was condemned to death. Each vignette had an insulting legend; and in the seventh, and last, the head of “ Antichrist " was severed from his boily. This manuscript, in a rich cover of purple silk, was found among the books of Photius, and was burned, with others, at the Eighth Ecumenical Council.

Enough has been suid to indicate the significance of the iconoclastic movement for the history of art.

A ban was placed on certain forms of pictorial work; but whatever temporary disadvantages this may be thought to have entailed, they were far outweighed by the revival of other styles which were in danger of complete extinction. If there had been no iconoclastic movement, the dead religious art of the seventhcentury decalence might have continued, without reanimation, to the end. Under the Isuurian and Amorian dynasties profanc art revived; there was a renaissance of the old picturesque decorative style which, originating in Alexandria, had spread over the world, and profoundly influenced the development of the art of the early Church. Alexandrine decoration, with its landscapes, idyllic scenes, mythological themes, still life, and realistic portraits, came to life again in the iconoclastic period; al school of secular artists, who worked for the Emperors and tho Court, arose ; and the spirit of their work, with its antiquo inspiration, did not fail to awaken religious painters from their torpor. For the second great period of her art, which coincided with the Macedonian dynasty, Byzantium was chiefly indebted to the iconoclastic sovrans. Or rather we should say that art revived under the Amorians, religious art under their successors.

i The Barlarini l'xalter (in the 3 l'ile lyn. 260. Vatican). Tikkanen, Dic Psaltor. had been prepared, vestincel for the illustralion im Jilleluller, 1895. Diehl, Emaror Lewis.

A compinion JS., 333-356.

containing the Acts of the Council ? Strzygowski, Der Bilderkreis des which conlenincil l'ope Nicolas, seems gricchischen Physiologus, 1899.

not to have been illustrated.

A seconil coliy



Wealth was al condition of this artistic revival, of which a chief characteristic was rich and costly decoration. In the work of the age of Justinian the richness of the material had been conspicuous; in the subsequent period, when all the resources of the Strito were straince in a life and death struggle with formidable enemies, there were no funds for the luxurice of art. By the ninth century the financial prosperity of the Empire had revived; the Imperial coffers were well filled; and the Emperors could indulge their taste or their pride in artistic magnificence. In the flourishing condition of the minor arts of the jeweller and the enameller, from the ninth to the twelfth century, we may also see an indication of the wealth of Constantinople. Here, too, we may probally suspect oriental influence. The jewellers did not abandon repoussé work, but they devoted themselves more and more to the colour effects of enamel decoration; the richest altars and chalices, crosses and the caskets which contained crosses or relics, the gold and silver cups and vessels in the houses of the rich, goldembroidered robes, the bindings of books, all shone with cloisonné enamels. The cloisonné technique was invented in the East, probably in Persia, and though it seems to have been known at Byzantium in the sixth century, we may ascribe its domestication and the definite abandonment of the old champlevé method to the oriental influences of the ninth. l'ortable objects with enamel designs, as well as embroidered fabrics,


i On the formation of a new system of iconografiley between the ninthi and reventh centuries, see Diehl, 381 549. • Diehl, op. cit. 642.

A cross preserved in the

treasury of the Sancta Sanctorum at Romne, ascriberl to this period, is wrought in cloisonne enaniel (not glass).

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Casily travelled, and were frequently offered by thic Emperors to foreign poteutates; they inust have performed an appreciabile part in diffusing in Western Europe the influence of the motives and styles of Byzantine art.'

§ 2. Eduation and Learning Among the traditions which the Empire inherited from antiquity, one of the most conspicuous, but not perhaps duly estimated in its importance as a social fact, was higher education. The children of the well-to-do class, from which the superior adıninistrative officials of the State were mainly drawn, were taught ancient Greek, and gained some acquaintance at Icast with some of the works of the yreut classicnl writers, Illiterateness was it reproach among reputable ficople; and the possession of literary education by lymen generally sind wonen was a deep-reaching distinction between Byzantine civilisation and the barbarous West, where tlic field of letters wals inono. polized luy ecclesiastics. It constituted one of the most indisputable claims of Byzantim to superiority, and it had fun important xial result. In the West the olenvnge between the acclesiastical and lay classex Wilx widened and cleropuenicol loy the fact that the listinction between thien coinciile with the distinction between learned aud ignorant. In the East there were as many learned laymen as learned monks and priests; and even in divinity the layman was not helplessly at the mercy of the priest, for his clucation included some smuttering of theology. The Patriarchs Tarasius and Nicephorus must have acquired, before they were suddenly moved into thie spiritual order, no contemptible knowledge of theolowy; and Photius, its a layman, was a theological expert. Thus layman and cleric of the better classes met on common ground; there Wils no pregnant significance in the world clerk; and ccclesiastics never obtained the influence, or played the part, in administril

1 This lias been riglıtly insisted on nopile to the Abbey of Stavolot in loy Diell. The namelled reliquarios Belgium has recently been sold in porosesvel at Limburg anil Gran are Luonnon. It runtnins al plic of thieu well known, and there are many line true Cross. Many churches in France *poecimens in the Treasury of St. Mark and Germany prossima rich wilks, with at l'enice, including the l'ala il' Oro. embroidered or woven designs, from An enamelled gold triptych brought the furtories of Constantinopole (trolith in thor twelfth century froin Constanti. and eleventh centuries).

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