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thousands of Michael were swallowed up by the tens of thousai ds of Thomas' As no forinidable resistance was offered to the tyrant's progress in Asia Minor, he prepared to attack the city itself. For this enterprise, in which so many had failed before him, it was judged indispensable to possess a fleet. The City of the Bosphorus had over and over again defied a joint attack by land and sca; it was naturally inferred that an attack by land alone would have no chances of success, The pretender therefore set himself to gather a fleet, and it would seem that he had no difficulty in scizing the fleets of the Aegean and the Kibyrrhacot Themes, which together formed the Thematic or provincial navy: Thus all the warships stationed in the eastern parts of the Empire were in his hands, except the Imperial fleet itself, which lay at the Imperial city. In addition to these, he built new warships aud new ships of transport. When all was ready, he caused his uaral forces to assemble at Lesbos and await his orders, while he himself advanced to the Hellespont and secured Abydos. And now he met his first reverse. All had yielded to him as he swept on through the Asiatic Themes, except one place, whose name our historians do not mention. He did not think it worth while to delay himself, but he left a considerable part of his army under the command of Constantius, to reduce this stubborn fortress. It seems probable too that this dividing of his forces formed part of a further design. We may guess that while Constantine was to cross by the western gate of the Propontis and advance on the city from the west, Constantius was to approach the eastern strait and attack the city on the south. But if this was the plan of operations, Constantius was not destined to fulfil his part of it. Olbianos, the general of the Armeniac Theme, was biding his time and watching for an opportunity. His army

"This engagenient is recordeol only the feeble spirit" of the defenders. by the Continuer, wlio uses thc .ex llc remarks that currents of thic Mar. ressive metaptor ώστερ τι ποτών διψών mora, and “the violent stornis to åveppódmoer (55). Part of Michael's which tlic waters around the city are army, however, escaped.

liable," were natural allics of the It ix, however, will remarked by Inexioner. van Millingen (Walls, 179) that in * εντεύθεν και του θεματικού στύλουν Byzantine history "there is only one

γίνεται εγκρατής (i..); ήδη το ναυτικόν isistance of a successful naval assault άπαν το υπό 'Ρωμαίους ον, πλήν του upon Constantinopole, the gallant cap. βασιλικού κληθέντος υποποιείται («:en. ture of the city in 1201 ly the Vene- 337). lians," anil tliat was largely clue 10

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was not large enough to try an issue with the united forces of the

enemy, but his chance came when those forces were divided. He. set an umbush to waylay the younger tyrant, who, as he advanced securely, supposing that the way was clear, allowed his men to march in disorder. Constantius was slain and his head was sent to Constantine. This was the first check in the triumphant course of the war, though the death of the "son" may have caused little grief to the "father."

The scene of operations now shifts from Asia to Europe. The Emperor, sceing that his adversury wils preparing to cross the straits, had gone forth at the head of a small army and visited some of the cities of Thrace in order to confirm them against the violence or seductions of the tyrant and assure himself of their stedfast faith. But his care availed little. On a dark moonless night Thomas transported his troops to various spots on the Thracian shore, starting from an obscure haven named Horkosion.' About the same time the fleet arrived from Lesbos and sailed into the waters of the Propontis. No resistance was offered by the inhabitants of Thrace when they saw the immense numbers of the invading host. Michael seems to have lingered, perhaps somewhere on the shores of the Propontis, to observe what effect the appearance of his foe would produce on the cities which had yesterday pledged themselves to stand true, and when he learned that they were cowed into yielding, he returned to the city and set about making it realy to withstand at sieye. The garrison was recruited by loyal soldiers froin the Asiatic Themes, now free from the presence of the pretender. The Imperial fleet, supplied with “ Marine Fire,” was stationed not in the Golden Horn, but in the three artificial harbours on the southern shore of the city,--the port of Hormisdas, which was probably already known by its later name of Bucoleon ;? the Sophian

1 Gen. 37 implies that Horkosion the Marniora appears in the sequel. was on the Hellespontine coast, not of the harbours along this shore the necessarily that it was close to Abydos. best account is in van Millingen, We may therefore identify it with Walls, 268 sqy. There were two other 'Opxbs, which Iny between Parion and. harbours besiiles the three above. Lampsacus (Thood. Sti. Bipp. i. 3, !!! mentioned ; but there is no eviilenec 017), which is loulitless thio Lorco of that the fontoskulion (between the later tinies, placed with probability Sophian and the liaisarian) existeil by Tomaschek in the crescent bay a in the ninth century, while that of little N.E. of Lampsacus ( Terp. v. Eleutherios or Theodosius, the most kleinasicn, 15).

Westerly of all, haud probably been filled ? The position of Michael's fleet on lip locfore this preriol (the author of & Michael, Ep. ad Lud. 418: Thrace, Macedonia, Thessalonia, rt circum. jacentibus Sclariniis.

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harbour, further to the west ;' and beyond it the harbour of Kaisarios? The entrance to the Golden Horn was blocked by the Iron Chuin, which was stretched across the water from a point near the Gute of Eugenios to the Castle of Galata.S In making these dispositions Michael was perhaps availing himself of the experience of previous sieges. When the Saracens attacked the city in the seventh century, Constantine IV. had disposed a portion of his naval forces in the harbour of Kaisarios. In the second attack of the same foe in the eighth century, Leo III. had stretched the Iron Chain, but he seems to have stationed his own ships outside the Horn.

The host of Thomas had been increased by new adherents froin the European provinces, and Slavs from Macedonia flocked to the standard of the Slavonian pretender. But he needed a new general and a new son. To succeed the unlucky leader, whom he had destined to be Constantius the Fourth, he chose a monk, already bearing an Imperial name, and worthy in the opinion of the tyrant to be Anastasius the Third; not worthy, however, of such an exalted place, in the opinion of our historians, who describe him as an ugly man, with a face like an Ethiopian's from excessive wine-drinking, and of insane inind." But the monk was not fitted to lead troops to battle, and for this oflice Thomas won the services of a banished general named Gregory, who had perhaps better cause than himself to hate the name of Michael. Gregory Iterôtos was a nephew of Leo the Armenian, and, on the death of his uncle, whom he loved, fear had not held him back from entering the presence of his successor, where, instead of falling among those

the. Ilárpia, 181, 248, says this happencil in the reign of Thcodosius I. ; Lout the alternative name suggests ratlier that lic repaired it). It may los noticed that tlic harlours in which l'ocaexpucted lloraclius (1.11. 010) to land were those of Kuisariox, Sophia, and Ilormisdas (John Ant., in Miiller, F.II.G. v. 1. 38).

1 Also calledl llarbour of Julian and New llarbour.

Van Dillingen has shown that it is almost certainly identical with the Veorion of Heptaskalon, and there is arclacological evilence for placing it between Kum Kapussi and Yeni Kapu (310 syy.).

* From Thcoph. 396 we know that in A.1). 717 it was attaclied to the καστελλιον των Γαλάτου (as in later limcs). The soutlıcrn cnil was firstonice, in 'Intor tinica, to thic kontenarios tower close to the l'orta Eugenii, and we know that this existed in the ninth century (Ilárpia 264, where Con. stantine I. is said to have built the tower). Cr. van Millingen, 228.

• Thcoph. 353.
s Ib. 396.

i Gen. 39.

who grovelled at the Imperial feet, he overwhelmed him with reprouches for the murderous deed. The Emperor merely said, “I know the greatness of your sorrow and the ocean of your distress," but two days later he banished this fearless kinsman of his predecessor to the island of Skyros. Gregory was not unwilling to attach himself to the rival of him who had banished himself and dethroned his uncle, and he was specdily entrusted with the command of ten thousand men and sent on to open the assitult on the Imperial city.

It was already winter, and the first year of Michael's reign was drawing to a close, when Gregory took up his station on the north-west of the city, in the suburbs outside Blachernae, while the fleet, under another unnamed commaniler, reached the same quarter by sailing up the inlet of the Golden Horn, having evidently unfastened the Iron Chain where it was attiched to the Castle of Galata. On the banks of the Barbyses, a stream which flows into the Horn, the leaders of the sea forces and the land forces could concert their plans together. No action, however, was taken until Constantius and Anastasius arrived with their mighty host. The leaders seem to have imagined that when this vast array spread out before the walls of the city, and their ships filled the Golden Horn and threatened the harbours on the Propontis, the inhabitants would be so utterly dismayed by the sight of the overwhelming numbers that they would throw open their gates in despair. But it soon became clear that the city and its masters were resolved to withstand even such il vast force; they trusted in their impregnable walls. It was the first business of Thomas, when he saw that a siege was inevitable, to reduce the suburbs and villages which lay north

1 The details about this .Gregory Sweet Waters of Europe. It flows (his kinship with Leo, the causo of into the Horn close to the Cosmidion his exile, and his nanie Pterotos) are (Church of SS. Cosmas and Damian, rocoriled in Cont. Th. 67, but not lig now tho Eyub mosque), which is not Genesiog.

far to the west of Blachernao. See ? This is an inference, but I think van Millingen, Walls, 175-176. There cviilent. Thomas controlled the a bridge across the Barbyses northern shore of the Horn. In ex- (Niceph. Patr. cd. de Boor, 14 and actly the same way the Venetians, 26), which niust have been quite huving captured the Galata Tower, re- distinct from the bridge across the moved the chain in A.1). 1203 (Nicctas, Golden Horn, of which the southern el. Bonn. 718-719).

point was in Aivan Serai ; . though : Gen. 38. The Barbyses (or Bar. Ducange (Const. Christ. iv. 125) and byssos) is now called the kiat-haneh van Millingen seem to connect the Sii, one of the streams known as the two bridges.

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of the city along the shores of the Bosphorus.' Thoso pincus would not resist. The inlubitants wero cloubtless glad to sulmit as speellily as possible to any onc engaged in busieying the city, remembering too well how but a few years ago they hail luen harried by another and more terrible enemy, the Bulgarian Krum.

The siege began in the month of DecemberThe course of events from this point to the end of the war may be conveniently divided into five stages.'

1. December 821 to February or March 8.22.-Thomas spent some days in disposing his forces and preparing his engines. He pitched his own tent in the suburbs beyond Blachernae, not far from the noble building which rose towards heaven like a palace, the church of St. Cosmas and St. Damian, the physicians who take no fee for their services to men. Until the reign of Heraclius the northwestern corner of the city between the Palace of Blaclicrnae and the Golden Horn must have been defended by il fortification of which no traces survive." Heraclius, whether before or after the siege of the Avars (A.1). 626)," had connected the Palace with the seaward fortifications by a wall which is flanked by three admirably built hexagonal towers. But the assiults of the Bulgarians in A.D. 813 seem to have proved that this “Single Wall of Blachernae," as it was called, was an insufficient defence, and Leo V., in expectation of a second Bulgarian siege;" constructed a second outer wall, parallel to that of Heraclius, and forming with it a sort of citadel which was known as the Brachionion."

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I Gen. 39.
" Above', p. 16.

3 The date comes from Michael, Ep. ad Lun. 118, where we also learn that the blockarle lasted for the space of a year.

There lias been rio full and critical relation of the siege by nolern his. torians See Lebeau, xiii. 30 sqq. ; Sollosser, 140 sy?; Finlay; ii. 131 (very brief). Much the best is that of Vasilev, l'iz. i. dr. 333 879.

s. The suburb loetween Cosmidion and Blachernae was known as tà llarlivor (and is so designated here in Cont. Th. 59), from Paulinus (fanious for his love-alfair with Atlienais, the wife of Theodosius II.), who founded

the Cosmislion. Cpu. Ducange, Const. Chr. 127.

* Extending, I conjecture, from the north-cast corner of the Palace to the sca-wall. Cpu. van Millingen, Walls, 120. The outer walls of the l'alace itself formed the fortitication as far as the northern extremity of the Thco. Ilosian Walls.

7 Pernice (L'Imperatorc Eraclio, 111) has given some reasons for thinking that the wall was built after the Avar attack in A.D. 619. Cp. my note in Gibbon, v. 92.

s l'an Millingen, l'alls, 164.899. * Scc below, p. 359.

10 Van Millingen, Ilalls, 168: “The Wall of L.eo stands 77 feet to the west

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