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Imperial presence. But another chance was granted to them. ! Four days later they were informed by the Prefect that if they i
would communicate once with the iconoclasts it would be sullicient to save them from punishment; "I," he snid, "will il company you to the Church.” When thoy refused, they were Inid upon benches, and their faces were tattooed-it was it long process-with the vituperative voraus. Some acliniration is due to the dexterity and delicacy of touch of the tormentor who succeeded in branding twelve inmbic lines on a human luce. The other purt of the sentence was not carried out. The brethren were not reconducted to their own country; they were imprisoned at Apamea in Bithynin, where Thcodoro lied.' Theophanes, the hymn writer, survived till the next reign and became bishop of Nicaen.
Of the acts of persecution ascribed to Theophilus, this is the most authentic. Now there is a circumstance about it which may help to explain the Emperor's exceptional severity, the fact that the two monks who had so vehemently agitated against his policy were strangers from Palestine. We can easily understand that the Emperor's resentmont would havo buen especially aroused nguinst interlopers who had como from abroad to make trouble in his dominion. And there are two other facts which are probably not unconnected. The oriental Patriarchs (of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem) had addressed to Theophilus it “synodic letter” in favour of
il the worship of images," a manifesto which must have been highly clispleasing to him and to the l'atriarch John. Further, it is recorded, and there is no reason to doubt, that Thcophilus Skylitzes, reproduced in Beylié, graphy) was supposed by Combetis Llubilution bountino, p. 122. The to be a joint composition of the place of the punishment was the mid. three easterni l'atriarchis. This is marlen, merokýrlov, of the Lansiakos, very uulikely, but the author may doubtless the same as the peoOKÝRIOV have belonged to onio of the custern near the cast end of the Justinianos, dioceses (op. c. 30), though it would mentioned in Constantine, Cer. 685. bo'rash to argue (with Schwarzlose, | Dec. 27, 811. Vil. Theodori, 210;
111), from a certain tono of authority,
that he way a Patriarch. lle sketches ep. Simeoni, Aild. Georg. 808 ; Monwloy. busil. Migne, 117, 229.
the history of the controversy on
An anecdote in ('ont. Th. (160), makes him survivo
images from the beginning to the
death of Michael II. (committing somo Theophilus (so Vil. Mich. Syne. 252 ; Vierre de Theoph. absol. 32), and in
chronological blunders pointed out ly
Schwarziose), and uxlorts Theophilus the same passago Theophanes is falsely described as bishop of Smyrna.
to follow the example of pious
Emperors like Constantine, Theo 2 The Epistola synodica Orientalinn dosius, Marcian, and not that of the all Theophilum imp. (sce Biblio. godlons iconoclasts.
imprisoned Michael, the synkellos of the Patriarch of Jerusalem," who had formerly been persecuted by Leo V. We muy fairly suspect that the offence of the Palestinian brethren was seriously nggruvated in his eyes by the fact that they were Palestiniun. This suspicion is borne out by the tenor of the bad verses which wore inscribed on their faces.?
There was another cusO of cruelty which seems to be well attested. Euthymios, bishop of Sardis, who had been prominent among the orthodox opponents of Leo V., died in consequence of a severo scourying. But the greater number of imuyo-worshippers, whose sufferings are specially recordled, suffered no more than bunishment, and the Proconnesian island Aplusin is said to have been selected as the place of confinement for many notable champions of pictures."
The very different treatment which Theophilus accorded to Methodius is significant. In order to bend him to his will, he tried hursh measures, whipped him and shut him up
1 Gen. 74; Vit. Alich. Sync. 238, whoro ho und luis companion Job aro said to have been imprisoned in a cell in the Protorium in Aall, *31. Cl. Vuille, Suint Michel lo Syneelle, 018.
Thio senso of the verses (which are
place. 3 There is a difficulty about Euthy. mios. In the actu Daviilis, 237, his death is connected with the persecu. tion in the reign of Theophilus. In Cont. Th. 48 it is placed in the reigu of Michael II., who is mado responsibile, whilo the execution is ascribed to Theophilus. This notice is derived from Genesios (or from a common source), who suys, at the end of Michael II.'s ruigi Evoúhlov . . Ocopilos
βουνεύρους χαλεπώς έθανάτωσεν. Που tho act is ascribed entirely to Theo. philus, so that wo miglit assume a minating It sucnis quite incon. sistunt with the policy of Michael. The author of tho cà Duviis, ib., expressly states that the punishment of 'Methodius was the only hardship intlicted by Michael. If hio hai pur. mitted the scourging of Euthynios, would it have been passed over by ( Cieorge the Monk? largoire, Saint Euthyme, in Echos al'Orieni, v. 157 54%. (1901-2), however, thinks the date of the death of Euthymios was Dec. 20, 824.
* Simcon the Stylite of Lesbos (sce inbove, p. 75), who in the reign of Michael II. lived in the suburb of Pagac, on the north side of the Colden Jorn, was banished to Apliusin (.104 Darilis, 239), whither Theodore and Theophanes had at first been sent. Other exiles to this island Makarios, abbot of Pelekêtê (who was first llogged and imprisoned, according to Vit. Mucurii, 158): Hilarion, abbot of the convenit of Dalmatos (21.8., June 6, t. i. 759, where he is said to have received 117 stripes); and Jolin, allot of the Katharoi (A.S., April 27, t. iii. 496). All these men had sufi fered persecution under Loo V. ; seo above, Chap. II. § 3 and jill.
in a subterranean prison. But he presently released him, and
' Methodius, who, though an inflexible image-worshipper, was no fanatic, lived in the Palace on good terms with the Emperor, who esteéined his learning, and showed him high honour.?
of the measures adopted by Theophilus for the suppression of icon-worship by cutting off the supply of pictures we know nothing on authority that can be accepted as good. It is stated that he forbade religious pictures to be painted, and that he cruelly tortured Lazarus, the most eminent painter of the time." There is probably some truth behind both statements, and the persecution of monks, with which he is charged, may be explained by his endeavours to suppress the painting of pictures. Theophilus did not penalise monks on itccount of their profession; for we know from other facts that he was not opposed to monasticism. But they were the religious artists of the age, and we may conjecture that many of those who incurred his displeasure were painters.
If we review the ecclesiastical policy of Theophilus in the light of the few facts which are certain and compare it with other persecutions to which Christians have at various times resorted to force their opinions upon differing souls, it is obviously absurd to describe it as extraordinarily severu. The list of cases of cruel maltreatment is short. That many obscure monks besides underwent distress and privation wo cannot doubt; but such distress sceins to have been due to it severer enforcement of the same rule which Michael II. haud applied to Theodore of Studion and his friends. Those who would not acquiesce in the synod of Leo V. and actively defied it were compelled to leave the city. The monastery of Phoberon, at the north end of the Bosphorus, seems to have been one of the chief refuges for the exiles.' This brings us to the second characteristic of the persecution of Theophilus, its geographical limitation. Following in his father's traces, he insisted upon the suppression of pictures only in Constantinople itself and its immediate neiglıbourhood. Iconoclasın was the doctrine of the Emperor and the Patriarch, but they did not insist upon its consequences beyond the precincts of the capital. So far as we can see, throughout the second period of iconoclasm, in Greece and the islands ind on the coasts of Asia Minor, image-worship tourished without let or hindrance, and the bishops and monks were unaffected by the decrees of Leo V. This salient fact has not been realised by historians, but it sets the persecution of Theophilus in a different light. He would not allow pictures in the churches of the cpital ; and he drove out all active picture-worshippers and painters, to indulge themselves in their heresy elsewhere. It was probably only in a few exceptional cases that he resorted to severe punishment.
I l'il. Moth. 1, § 8. The subter. ranean prison (with two robbers, in the island of Antigoni : Pseudo.Simeoni, 012), may be a reduplication of the continement in the island of S. Andreas under Michael II. Chi largoire, Suine Methode, in Echos il'Orient, vi. 18:3 8179. (1903).
• Gen. 705 ; Coil. Th. 116. Ciejjesios says that Thcopiilus was very curious abollt occult lore (Tà ámok poá), in which Methullius was an adept.
3 Sic above p. 130, 1. 2.
+ Cont. TA. 102: Lazarus was at first cajoleil, then tortured by scourg. ing; continuing to print, his palinis wiro burnt with real hot iron maily (πέταλα σιδηρά απανθρακωθέντα), and
ho was imprisoned. Relvased by the intercession of Theodora, he retired to the cloistor of Phoberon, wlioru he painted a picture of John the Baptist (to whom the cloister was dedicated), extant.in the tenth century. After the death of Theophilus he painted a Christ for the palace.gate of Chalkê. It seems incredible that he could have continued to work after the operation on his hands. L. Zarus is mentioned in Lib. l'ont, ii. 147, 150, as bearer of a present which Michael III. sent to St. Peter's at Rome, and is described as gencre Chazarus:
The visit to Rome is mentioned in Synaxar. Chul. 2:33, where he is said to have been solt a second time and to have died on the way.
The females of the Emperor's household were devoted to images, and the secret opinion of Theodora must have been well known to Theophilus. The situation occasione anecdotes turning on the motive that the Empress and her mother Theodorit kept it supply of icons, but kept them well out of sight. The Emperor had a misshapen fool and jester, named Denderis, whose appearance reminded the courtiers of the Ilomeric Thersites. Licensed to roam at large through the Palace, he burst one day into Theodora's bedchamber and found her kissing sncred images. When he curiously asked 1 ευκτήριον Προδρόμου (St. Jolie
(John the miraculous image. Legendas. Baptist)" το ούτω καλούμενος του cribed its foundation to Constantine Φοβερού κατά τον Εύξεινον πόντον (Cont. (cp. Ducange, Const. Chr. iv. SO), Th, 101). The monks of the Abraimito but it was probably not older than monastery (which possessed a famous the sixth century. Cp largoire, " Les image of Christ impressodon Hébuts de monnchisme à Colistinti. clothi, and a picture of the Virgin ople" (Revue des questions historiques, ascribed to St. Luku) were expelled to Ixv., 1899) 93 899. Phoberon, and said to have been beaten
? Cont. Th. 91. to death (ib.). The monastery of St. Abriramioy Wils outside the city, near 3 The scene is represented in the the Civkilen Gate (1.00 Dincomis, 47-18). Madrid Skylitzes, and reproduced by Il wils calleil the choiropriélos, from Beylis, L'Hlubitulion bantine, 120.
whnt they woro, who will, "Thoy aro my protty dolls, and I lovu them dourly" llo thon went to the Emperor, who was sitting at dinner. Theophilus asked him where he had been. “ With nurse,"' suid Denderis (so he used to call Theodora)," and I siw her tuking such pretty dolls out of a cushion." The Emperor comprehended. In high wrath he l'Ose it once from table, sought Theodoru, and overwhelmed her with reproaches us an idolatress. But the lady met him with a ready lie. " It is not as you suppose," she said ; “I and some of my maids were looking in the mirror, and Denderis took the reflexions for dolls and told you a foolish story.” Theophilus, if not satisfied, had to accept the explanation, and Theodora carefully warned Denderis not to mention the dolls again. When Theophilus asked him one day whether nurse had again kissed the pretty dolls, Denderis, placing one hand on his lips and the other on his posterior parts, said, “Hush, Emperor, don't mention the dolls.”
Another similar anecdote is told of the Emperor's motherin-law, Theoktiste, wlio lived in a house of her own," where she was often visited by her youthful granddaughters. She
sought to imbue them with a veneration for pictures and to I counteract the noxious intluence of their father's heresy. She i would produce the sacred forms from the box in which she į kept them, and press them to the faces and lips of the young 1 παρά την μάναν.
the abundance of water in the grounils 2 Curot. T'h. 90. The house was below the Sanjakdar mosque favours known as Gastria. She had bought the tradition that there was a flowerit from Nicetas, and afterwards con. garden there, and this would explain verted it into a monastery. It was in the motive of the Helena legeud. the quarter of lsamathia, in the south- Mr. van Millingen is disposed to
west of the city. Paspates (Bus: uen. think that the identification of N 351-357) has identified it with the Puspates may be right, but he sug
ruinous building Sanjakdar Mesjedi (of gests that the extant building was which he gives a drawing), which lies originally a library, not a church. a little to the north of the Armenian The gooid Abbé Marin, who accepts Church of St. George (where St. Mary withont question all the monastic Peribleptos used to stand). Gastria foundations of Constantinian date, is interpreted as flower pots in the thinks there was a monastic foundastory told in the llárpia Kal. 215, tion at Gastria before Theoktisto. where the foundation of the cloister in The evidence for Constantinian nonascribed to St. Helena, who is said to asteries has been drastically dealt have brought back frem Jerusalem the with by Pargoire, “Les Débuts de flowers which griw over the place monachisme à Constantinople," in the where she had discovered the cross, Revuc des questions historiques, Ixv. 67 and pliantel them in pots (yáo tpas) on 899. (1899). this spot. l'aspies jwints out that