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yirl.' Thoir father, huspooting that they woro boing tuintod with the idolutrous suporstition, asked them one duy, when they returned from a visit to their grandmother, what presents she had given them and how they had been amused. The older girls suw the trap and evaded his questions, but Pulcheria, who was a small child, truthfully described how her grundmothor had taken a nuinber of dolls from u box and pressed them upon the faces of herself and her sisters. Theophilus was furious, but it would have been odious to take any severe mensure against the Empress's mother, who was highly respected for her piety. All he could do was to prevent his daughters from visiting her as frequently as before.

§ 4. Death of Theophilus and Restorution of Icon Worship

Theophilus died of dysentery on January 20, A.D. 342.? His last illness was disturbed by the fear that his death would be followed by a revolution against the throne of his infant son. The man who seemed to be the likely leader of a movement to overthrow his dynasty was Theophobos, a somewhat mysterious general, who was said to be of Persian descent and had commanded the l'ersian troops in the Imperial service. Theophobos was an “orthodox ” Christian," but he was one of the Emperor's right-hand men in the eastern wars, and had been honoured with the hand of his sister or sister-in-law." He had been implicated some years before in a revolt, but had been restored to favour and lived in the Palace. It is said that he was popular in Constantinople, and the Emperor may have had good reasons for thinking that he might aspire with success to the supreme power.

From his deathbed he ordered Theophobos to be cast into a dungeon of the Bucoleon Palace, where he was secretly decapitated at night.? 1 Theoktiste is represented giving

6 Gen. 59. icon to Pulcheria, the other 7 Gen. 60, and Ald. Geury. 810, daughters standing behind, in where Petronas, with the logothete miniature in the Madrid Skylitzes (i.e. Theoktistos), is said to have pier(sco reproduction in Beylić, op. cit. 56). formed the decapitation. The alter2 Cont. Th. 139.

native account given by Gen. 60-61 has 3 See below, p. 252 sq.

no value, as Hirsch pointed out, p. Simcon, Adı. Geory. 803 (cp. Gen. 142, but it is to be noticed that

Oory phas is there stated to havo been 1b. 793. See below, p. 253. drungarios of the watch. We meet it




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Exercising a constitutional right of his sovran authority, usually employed in such circumstances, the Emperor had I appointed two regents to act as his son's guardians and assist

the Empress, namely, her uncle Manuel, the chief Magister, ind Theoktistos, the Logothete of the Course, who had proved himself a devoted servant of the Amorian house. It is possible that Theodora's brother Burdus was a third regent, but this cannot be regarded as probable. The position of Theodora closely resembled that of Irene during the minority of Constantine. The government was carried on in the joint names of the mother and the son, but the actual exercise of Imperial authority devolved upon the mother provisionally, Tot there was a difference in the two cases. Leo IV., so far as we know, had not appointed any regents or guardians of his son to act with Irene, so that legally she had the supreme power entirely in her hands; whereas Theodora was as unable to act without the concurrence of Manuel and Theoktistos as they were unable to act without her.

It has been commonly thought that Theophilus hud hardly closed his eyes before his wife and her advisers made such pious haste to repair his ecclesiastical errors that a council was held and the worship of images restored, almost 119 a matter of course, a fow wecks after his death. The




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havo devolved on the Prefect, not on holiling different oflices under the the admiral, and I conclude that Amorians: (1) Ooryphas, in command Nicetas Ooryphas was pretect in A. 1). of a lloct, linder Michael II. (see 800, and drungarios in A.D. 867 (such bilow, Chup. IX. )". 290); (2) Ooryphas, changes of oflice were common in one of the commanders in an Egyptian · Byzantium), and that the author of expellition in A.1l. 853 (see below, l'it. lyn. knowing him by the later Chap. IX.p.292); (3) Ovrypus, lr«fect ollice, in which he was most distin. of the City in A.D). 860 (see below, guished, described him erroneously. Chap. XIII. p. 419); (4) Ooryphas, Ooryphas the drungarios of the watch "strategos of the fleet at the time may be identical with (1); but I suspect of the death of Michael III.; see Vat. there is a confusion with Petronas, who JIS. of Cont. Georg. iu Muralt, p. 752 seems to have held that ollice at ono

L’seudo-Simeon, 687. The fourth of time in the reign of Theophilus (seo these is undoubteilly Nicetas Ooryphas above, p. 122). whom we meet in Basil's reign as ! In the sumo way the Emperor drugarios of the Imperial fleet. llo Alexander appointed soven guardians may probably be the same as the (iwit poro) for his nephew Constantino, second, but is not likely (trom con- A.D), 013. The boy's mother Zoe wng siderations of age) to be the same as pot included. Cont. Th. 380. the first. In regard to (3), it is to be ? It is safest to follow Cien. 77. 11oted that according to Nicetas, l'il. Bardas was probably uided by Cont. m.232, Nicetas Ooryphas, drungarios Th. (148) suo Murte, ou account of his olthe Imperial fleet, oppresseul Ignatius prominent position a few years later. in 1.0). 860. Such Business would So Uspenski, Orherki, 25.

truth is that more than a year elapsed before the triumph of orthodoxy was secured.'

The first and most pressing care of the regency was not to compose the ecclesiastical schism, but to secure the stability of the Amorian throne; and the question whether iconoclasm should be abandoned depended on the view adopted by the regents us to the effect of a change in religious policy on the fortunes of the dynasty.

For the change was not a simple matter, nor one that could be lightly undertaken. Theodora, notwithstanding her personal convictions, hesitated to take the decisive step. It is a mistake 'to suppose that she initiated the measures which led to the restoration of pictures. She had a profound belief in her husband's political sagacity; she shrank from altering the system which he had successfully maintained ;' and there was the further consideration that, if iconoclasm were condeinned by the Church as a heresy, her husband's name would be anathematized. Her scruples were overcome by the arguments of the regents, who persuaded her that the restoration of images would be the surest means to establish the safety of the throne. But when she yielded to these reasons, to the pressuro of other members of her own family, and probably to the representations of Methodius, she mnde it a condition of her consent, that the council which she would

| The old date was in itself impos. μακαρίτης σοφίας αρκούντως εξείχετο και sible: the change coulid not have ουδέν των δεόντων αυτώ ελελήθει' και been accomplished in the time. The πώς των εκείνου διαταγμάτων αμνημονή. right date is furnished by Sabas, Vit. σαντες εις ετέραν διαγωγήν εκτραπείημεν ; Joannic. 320, where the event is + The chief mover was, I have no definitely placed a year after the doubt, Theoktistos. His name alone accossion of Michael. This is con- is mentioned by the conteni porary tirmed by the date of the death of George Mon. 811 (cp. l'ita Theulvrae, Methodius, who was Patriarch for four 14). In Gen. he shares the credit years and died June 14, 847 (Vit. with Manuel (78), and in Cont. Th. Joannic. by Simcon Met. 92 ; the same (148-150) Manuel appears alono as date can bo inferred from Thcophanes, Theodora's adviser. But the part De ex. S. Niccph. 164). All this was played by Manuel is mixed up with shown for the first time by de Boor, a hagiographical tradition, redound. Angrill

" der Rhos, 450-453 ; the proofs ing to the credit of the monks of have boon restated by Vasil'ev, Viz. Studion, whose prayers were said to i Arab., Pril. iii. ; and the fact is havo saved him from certain death now universally accopted by savants, by sickness, on condition of his promis. though many writers still ignorantly ing to restore image - worship when repeat the olid dito.

ho recovered. (For the connexion of Her hesitation comes out clearly Manuel with the Studites, op: also in the tradition and must be accepted Vitu Nicolai, 916, where Nicolaus is as a fuct.

said to have heirlo llelena, Manuel's 3 Gen. 80 ο έμός ανήρ γε και βασιλεύς




have to summon should not brand the memory of Theophilus with the anathema of the Church.'

Our ignorance of the comparative strength of the two parties in the capital and in the arıny renders it impossible for to understand the political calculations which determined the Empress and her advisers to act in accordance with her religious convictions. But the sudden assassination of Theophobos by the command of the dying Emperor is a significant indication ? that a real danger menaced the throne, and that the image- worshippers, led by some ambitious insurgent, would have been ready and perhaps able to overthrow the dynasty. The event seems to corroborate the justice of their fears. For when they re-established the cult of pictures, iconoclasm died peacefully without any convulsions or rebellions. The case of Theoktistos may be adduced to illustrate the fact that many of those who held high oflice were not fanatical partisiins. He had been perfectly contented with the iconoclastic policy, and was probably a professed iconoclast,' but placed in a situation where iconoclasm appeared to be a peril to the throne, he was ready to throw it over for the sake of political expediency.

Our brief, vague, and contradictory records supply little certain information is to the manner in which the government conducted the preparations for the defent of iconoclusin."

5 It is evident that istute management was required; and a considerable time was demanded for the negotiations and intrigues necilful to facilitate a smooth settlement.

We may


This is an inevitable inference from the trailitions,

? Ch. Uspenski, ib. 19.

3 The story of Cirnesios (77-78) that Manuel aliiressed the assembled people in the Hippodromo, and clo. inander a declaration of loyalty to the government, and that the prople--jrecting that he woulil himself nisur iho throne-- were surprised and dis. appwinted when he cried, "Long life to Michael and Theoclura," soenis to be also significant.

(78) sitys of him that he wavored (81d μέσου τινός παρεμπεσόντος διώκλασεν), but this scoms to imply that ho at first shared the hesitation of the Empress,

• 'We must assume that Thcodora, before a final decision was taken, liela a silention at which both the Senato and ecclesiastics wero present. Such a meeting is recorded in Theophanos, De er. N. Nicrph. 164, and in Skylitzen (Codrenus), l. 112. The assembly

• The interest of the Studitos in Manuel (so alove, l 145, 1, 1) argues that he was at lienrt an imge. worshipper, as the other relatives of Thcodorn seem to onyo leon. Cion.

ii declared in favour of restoring images, and ordered that puissages shoulil to selected from the writings of the l'nthers to support the doctrino. Tho foriner source also assorts that Thoo. dora uddresscod. a manifesto to the lieople.


take it for granted that Theodora and her advisers had at once destined Methodius (who had lived for many years in the Palace on intimate terms with the late Emperor, and who, we may guess, had secretly acted as a spiritual adviser to the Imperial ladies) as successor to the Patriarchal chair. To him naturally fell the task of presiding at a commission, which met in the official apartments of Theoktistos ? and prepared the material for the coming Council.8

Before the Council met, early in March (A.D. 843), the Patriarch John must have been officially informed by the Empress of her intention to convoke it, and summoned to attend. He was not untrue to the iconoclastic doctrine which he had actively defended for thirty years, and he declined to alter his convictions in order to remain in the Patriarchal chair. He was deposed by the Council,' Methodius was elected

Cp. Uspenski, op. cit. 33. That Council supplied the Conimission with Methodius took the leading part in its material. the proparations, and that the success In the sources there is some varia. of the Council was chictly due to his tion in the order of events. Theo. influonce and activity is a conclusion phanes, De ex. S. Niceph., represents which all the circumstances suggest ; the deposition of John (with the without the co-operation of such an measures taken against him) as an act ecclesiastic, tho government could not of the Council which restored ortho. have carried out their purpose. But doxy. George Mon. (also a contom. u hagiographical tradition confirms porary) agrees (802), and the account the conclusion. It was said that of Genesios is quito consistent, for ho herinits of Mount Olympus, Joannikios, relates the measures taken against who lind the gift of prophecy, and John after the Council (81). According Arsakios, along with ono Esaias of to Coni, Th. John recoivod an ultimatum Nicomedia, woro inspired to urgo from the Empress bofore the Council Methodius to restore images, and that met (150-161), but this version cannot at their instigation he incited the be preferred to at of Genesios. After Empress (Narr. de Theophili absol. 25). the act of doposition by the Council, This story issumes thut Mothodius Constantine, the Drungary of the playoil an important part. According Watch, was sent with some of his to l'it. Mich. Sync. A 249, tho ollicers, to removo Johın from tho Empross and Senatu sent a message

l'atriarcheion. He made excuses and to Joannikios, who recommended would not stir, and wlien Burdas went Methodius, The same writer says to inquire why he refused, hie displayed (ib.) that Michael the synkellos was his stomach pricked all over with designated by popular opinion as sharp instrunients, and alleged that Jolin's successor. But the hagio the wounds wero inflicted by the graphers are unscrupulous in making cruelty of Constantino (an Armenian) statenionts which exalt their herocs and his officers, whom ho stigmatized (sco below, p. 148, n. 1). Ho scens Ay pagans (this insult excites the wrath to havo been made abbot of the Chora of Gonosios who was a descendant of convont (ib. 250); ho died January 4, Constantine). But Bardas saw through 8:10 (op. Vailhé, Saint Michel, 314). the trick. Genesios does not expressly 2 Gen. 80.

say that the wounds were self.inilicted, The preparation of the reports for but his vaguo words suggest this in. tho Council of A.). 816 had ocu- forence to the roadlor (op. Hirsch, 163), pied early a year (sce abovo, p. 60). In Cont. Th. the story is olaborated, and The Acts of the Seventh Ecumenical the manner in which John wounded

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