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as Patriarch, while the Emperor and eleven others dressed themselves in episcopal garments, as twelve prominent bishops. With citherns, which they hid in the folds of their robes and secretly sounded, they intoned the liturgy. They enacted the solemn offices of consecrating and deposing bishops, and it was even rumoured that they were not ashamed to profane the Eucharist, using mustard and vinegar instead of the holy elements. A story was current that one day the mock Patriarch riding on an ass, with his execrable cortège, came face to face with the true Patriarch Ignatius, who was conducting a religious procession to a suburban church. The profane satyrs raised their hoods, loudly struck their instruments, and with lewd songs disturbed the solemn hymns of the pious procession. But this was only a sensational anecdote, for we have reason to believe that Michael did not begin to practise these inumineries till after the deposition of Ignatius.? Mocking at the ecclesiastical schism, he is said to have jested “Theophilus (the Pig) is my Patriarch, Photius is the Patriarch of the Caesar, Ignatius of the Christians." ; How far mummeries of this kind shocked public opinion in Constantinople it is difficult to conjecture.

These mummeries are described by this connexion, I may refer to the curi. Constantine Porph. (Cont. Th. 244 ons (thirteenth or fourteenth century) $49.).. Thoy aro not roferred to by composition called the Mass of the Simoon, but aro mentioned in gonoral Sjuros (i.e. Boardless), a parody of the terms by Nicetas (l'it. Iyw , 210, rites of tho Chureh, and doubtless whoro the propor numo of Gryllus = connectod with Satanic worship. See the Pig is given a Theophilus), and Krumbachor, (1.B.L.. 809 879.; A. nro nttentoid by the 10th Canon of the Hoisonberg, in B.%. xii. 301. Council of 869-870, which describes and ? The anecdoto is told in Cont. Th. condemns them (Mansi, xvi. 109). In 244 (Vila Bas.), but not in Vit. Iyn. this canon Michael himself is not said where (loc. cit.) the profanities are re. to have participated in the parodies, corded as happening after the fall of which are attributed to "Jaymen of Ignatius, and Photius is blamed for senatorial rank under the lato Em. not protesting and putting a stop to peror." Theso men, urranging their them. The author also reports (p. hair so as to imitate the tonsure, and 247) that Simeon, & Cretan bishop arrayed in sacerdotal robes, with epis. (who had left the island on account copal cloaks, used to travesty the of the Saracen invasion), remonstrated ceremonies of electing, consecrating, with Michael, and begged him to and deposing bishops ; one of them discontinue his sacrilegious conduct. used to play the Patriarch. The canon The Emperor knocked his teeth out obviously insinuates that Photius had and haul him severely beaton for his not done his duty in allowing such temerity. In tho Madrid Skylitzes profanities to go on. But it does thero is a representation of the Patri. not speak of thio profination of the urch and the Synkellos standing in the Euclinrist, nor is this mentioned in portico of a church, outside which are Vit. Iyn. I thereforo think this must Gryllos and tho mummers with musibo rogarido as an invoutiou-un almost cal instruments (Beylik, op. cit. 91). inovitable audition to the genial. In s l'il, lyn. 246.

The Imperial pleasures were costly, and Michael's criminal generosity to his worthless companions dissipated large treasures. lle made it a practice to stand sponsor at the baptisms of children of his jockeys, and on such occasions he would bestow upon the father a present varying from £1296 to £2160, occasionally even as much as £4320-sums which then represented a considerably higher value than to-day. Not only was no saving effected during the eleven years in which he was master of the Empire, but he wasted the funds which had been saved by his father and by his mother, and towards the end of his reign he was in such straits for ready money that he laid hands upon some of the famous works of art with which Theophilus had adorned the Palace. The golden planctree, in which the mechanical birds twittered, the two golden lions, the two griffins hammered out of solid gold, and the organ of solid gold, all weighing not less than 200 pounds, were melted down; but before they were minted, Michael perished.” It seems probable that it was in the last year or two of his reign that his extravagance became excessive and ruinous. For there is no sigu that the Einpire was in financial difficulties during the governinent of Bardas, who seems to have been able to restrain his nephew within certain bounds.

The weak point of the position of the Caesar lay in the circuinstance that he had to share his influence over the Emperor with boon companions ; for there was always the danger that a wily schemer, concealing ambitiou under the mask of frivolity, might successfully use the opportunities of intimate intercourse to discredit him and undermine his power. The fact that he retained for ten years the unshaken, almost childish confidence of his nephew is a striking proof of his

I The sums mentioned are 30, 40, 50, 100 litrai, Cont. Th. 172. Sec further, Chapter VII. p. 220.

? There is an inconsistency hero bot woon the l'ilu Basilii and the l'ita Michaelis in Cont. Th., but it is not so sorious as Hirsch thinks (244). According to the former sourco (257) Michael melted down the plane-troc, lions, etc., and the gold on the Imperial au senatorial state-robes ; according tu the latter (173) the plano-true, etc., were molted, but the robus were found still untouched on Michael's death

(ταύτας rofers to στολάς). 1irscli did not observe this distinction, and thought that the contradiction was completo. Basil rescued the robos, but coinod tho melted gold, and called the nomisma of this coinage a senziiton. The name, I supposo, was given be. callso the lions, plane-tree, etc., woro ev tu oévrów (Constantine, Cer. $69). The Vita Bas. was a source of tho Vila Mich. ; hore the author of the latter seems to correct an inaccuracy of Constantino VII., the author of the former.

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talent and tact; and when at last he was overthrown, his supplanter was one of the two ablest men who arose in the Eastern Empire during the ninth century.

Basil the Macedonian, who now comes on the stage, is the typical adventurer who rises from the lowliest circumstances to the highest fortune. His career, wonderful in itself, was made still more wonderful by mythopoeic fancy, which converted the able and unscrupulous upstart into a hero guided by Heaven. He was born about A.D. 812,' of poor Armenian parents, whose family had settled in the neighbourhood of Hadrianople. His Armenian descent is established beyond doubt," and the legend that he was a Slav has no better a foundation than the fiction which claimed Slavonic parentage for the Emperor Justinian." But his family was obscure; and the illustrious lineage which his descendants claimed, connecting him through his grandfather with the Arsucids and by his grandmother with Constantine the Great and Alexander, was an audacious and ingenious invention of the Patriarch Photius.“ In his babyhood he was carried into captivity, along with his parents, by the Bulgarian Krum, and he spent his youth in the region beyond the Danube which was known as “ Macedonia.”

In the reign of Michael I. (811. that Basil's father would beget a son 813), Cont. Georg. 817. Pankulo was named Beklas, whose description un. his mothor's nane (Constantine, Cer. mistakably pointed to Basil, and who 648).

would have a long and happy reign. ? It is now generally admitted : the Photius gavo this document to a con. most decisivo ovidence is a pulssage in federate, one of tho palaco clergy, who tho Vila Euthymii, od. do Boor, p. 2. deposited it in the palace library and The whole question has recently beon thön seized an opportunity of showing discussed fully by Vasil'ev (Prois. it to the Emperor as an ancient book kihozhulenie, etc., scu Bibliograply). full of secret lore, which no one but

The solo foundation of the Slavonic Photius could interpret. Photius was theory is the fact that Arabic writers summoned. His explanation usily designato him as a Slav. But this is imposed on the Emperor's simplicity explained by the Arabic viow that and vanity. How could Basil resist Macedonia was Slavonic ; "Slav" is the interpretation of Bcklas · as simply tho equivalent of “Maco. mysterious acrostich containing the donian" (ep. Vasil'ov, op. cit. 15). initial lottors of the name of himself,

+ Vita Ignatii, 283. This case of his wife, and his four sons (Basil, a fictitious genealogy is interesting. E-udocia, K-onstantino, L-eo, A-lex. l'hotius after his deposition cast about ander, S-tephen)? The genealogy was for ways of ingratiating himself with accepted by Basil's house ; it is reBasil, and conceived the idea of pro. corded in Gen. and Cont. Th. viding this son of nobody with an • See below, p. 370. When Simeon illustrious lineage. Ho invented a speaks of Hadrianople as in Macedonia, lino of descendants from Tiridates, it is only to explain Basil's designation king of Armenia, stopping at Basil's as the Macedonian.

It is in passages father. He widto this out in uncial whero Basil is in question that the characters (γράμμασιν 'Αλεξανδρίνοις) οι geographical term Maceilonia was ex. old purchment, and added a prophecy tended to include Thracc.


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We may conjecture that he derived his designation as Basil the Macedonian, from his long sojourn in this district, for " Macedonian" can hardly refer to his birthplace, which was in Thrace. He was twenty-five years old when the captives succeeded (11s is related in auother Chapter ') in escaping from the power of the Bulgarians and returning to their homes. Basil obtained some small post in the service of a strategos, but seeing no hope of rising in the provinces he decided to seek his fortune in Constantinople. His arrival in the city has been wrought by the storyteller into the typical form of romance. On a Sunday, near the hour of sunset, he reached the Golden Gate, a poor unkuown adventurer, with staff and scrip, and he lay down to sleep in the vestibule of the adjacent church of St. Diomede. During the night, Nicolas, who was in charge of the church, was awakened by a inysterious voice, saying, “ Arise and bring the Basileus into the sanctuary.” He got up and looking out saw nothing but a poor man asleep. He lay down again, and the same thing was repeated. The third time, he was poked in the side by a sword and the voice suid, “Go out and bring in the man you see lying outside the gate.” He obeyed, and on the morrow he took Basil to the bath, gave him a change of garments, and adopted him as a brother."

So much is probable that Basil found shelter in St. Diomede, and that through Nicolas he was enabled to place his foot on the first rung of the ladder of fortune. The monk had a brother who was a physician in the service of Theophilus Paideuomenos, or, as he was usually called, Theophilitzes, a rich courtier and a relative of the Empress Theodora. The physician, who saw Basil at St. Dioinedo, and admired his enormous physical strength, recoinmended him to · See p. 371.

with a portion of the name of Diomed ? Tzantzes, Strat. of the Theme of

were employed." Simeou rightly de. Macedonia, Sinieon, ib. 819.

signates Nicolas as caretaker, i poo : A parochial church situated be. μονάριος (= παραμονάριος, sexton), and tween the Golden Gate and the sea, carefully explains that the church was at Yedikule. Sonie remains have then parochial (xaodexń). Genesios been found which are supposed to miscalls hini kaonyoúuevos. St. Diomedo mark its site. See yan Millingen, was converted into a monastery, almost Walls, 265 : “The excavations made certainly by Basil, but as in many in laying out the public garden beside other cases the foundation was attri. the city walls west of the Gas Works at buted to Constantine (cp. largoire, Rev. Yerli Kouli, brought to light sub. des questions historiques, lxv. 73 899.). structures of an ancient editice, in the εποίησεν αδελφοποίησιν, Simeon, ιο. construction of which bricks stamped 820. Simcon tells the whole story with the monogram of Basil I. and more dramatically than Genesios.

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his employer, who hired him as a groom.' Basil gained the fuvour of Theophilitzes, who was struck by the unusual size of his head ; and when his master was sent on a special inission to the Peloponnesus, Basil accompanied him.” Here he met with a singular stroke of good fortune. At Patrue he attracted the attention of a rich lady, who owned immense estates in the neighbourhood. Her name was Danelis. When Theophilitzes had completed his business and prepared to return, Basil fell ill and remained behind his patron. On his recovery Danêlis sent for him, and gave him gold, thirty slaves, and a rich supply of dresses and other things, on the condition of his becoming the “spiritual brother” of her son. The motive assigned for her action is the conviction, on the strength of a monk's prophecy, that he would one day ascend the throne; and Basil is said to have promised that, if it ever lay in his power, he would make her mistress of the whole land. But whatever her motive may have been, there is no doubt that she enriched Basil, and she lived to see him Emperor and to visit his Court.

It is said that the munificence of the Greek lady enabled Basil to buy estates in Thrace and to assist his family. But he remained in his master's service, till a chance brought him under the notice of the Emperor. Michael had received as a gift an untamed and spirited horse. His grooms were

* Gen. 109 says nothing of the youths, and thero was rivalry between physician, and makes Theophilitzes them and tho youths in the employ. visit tho monastery himsolf.

mont of the Emperor and the Caesar επίσγουρον και μεγάλην κεφαλήν Ono day Theophilitzes gave an entes. exovta, lienco ho cailod him Kophalus tuinment for tho purposo of it wrestling (Cont. Ccory. 820).

match ; Bardas was not present, but The Poloponnosinu episolo comos was ropresented by his son Antigonus, from Constantino's l'ita Bus., Cont. Th. The champions of the Emperor and 226 899. If the author is accurate in the Caesar defeated the others, until saying that Theopili: litzes was sent by Basil who had not taken part was Michael and Barda:1, wo may place it summoned to wrestle with the strongest in A.D. 856, when Easil was about 44. of the adversaries. Constantine the He returned from captivity, about Armenian (Drungary, of the Watch) A.D. 837, but wo have no evidence as intervened to sprinkle the floor with to the dute of his arrival at Constanti. chair, foaring that Basil might slip. uople.

Basil threw his opponent by a grip πνευματικής αδελφότητος σύνδεσμος which was called by the Slavonic term ib, 228.

polresa. Antigonus reported this • So Simcon, ib. 816 (followed by achievement to his father, who told Cont. Th. 230). Gen. 110 connects tho Michael, and Basil was summoned to entry into the Emperor's service with the Emperor's presence. Constantino another exploit of Basil in the capacity Porph. gives a different version of the of wrestler. Theophilitzes maintained story and places the event before the & company of strong and comely taming of the horse (which Genesios


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