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§ 7. The Warfare of A.D. 839-867 The disastrous events of the invasion of Mutasim, along with the steady advance of the African Moslems in the island of Sicily, not to speak of the constant injuries which the Arabs of Crete inflicted on the Empire, convinced Theophilus that the Empire was unable to cope alone with the growing power of Islam in the Mediterranean, and he decided to sock the alliance and co-operation of other powers.
lle sent an einbassy, which included a bishop and a patriciaa, to the Western Emperor, Lewis the Pious, asking him to send a powerful armament, perhaps to attack Syria or Egypt, in order to divert or divide the forces of the Caliph.' The envoys were welcomed and honourably entertained at Ingelheim (June 17, 839), but the embassy led to no result." Equally fruitless was the attempt to induce the ruler of Spain, Abd arRahman II., to co-operate with the Empire against his rival the Lastern Caliph. Spain wus in such a disturbed state ult, this time that it was impossible for him to undertake a distant expedition beyond the sous. His good-will was unreserved, and in reply to the Imperial Embassy he sent to Constantinople his friend the poet Yahya al-Ghazzal with promises to dispatch a fleet as soon as internal troubles permitted him.s But those troubles continued, and the fleet never sailed.
Meanwhile the fall of Amorion had led to no new permanent encroachment on Roman territory. The Emir of Syrin raided the Empire more than once with little success, and in A.D. 841 the Imperial forces took Adata and Marash, and occupied part of the territory of Melitene."
It was 1 αυλ. 72 χώρων τε και πόλεων τινάς ? Ann. Bori., ib. Σαρακηνικών των μεταξύ Λιβύης και 3 Makkari (ii. 115) says that Yahya 'Ασίας καταληίσασθαι.
If 'Aola means succeeded in forming an alliance leAsia Minor, this points to Syria. If
tween the two sovranis. Liliya means the realm of the Fitimids + The first raid of Abu Sail, and Idrisids, it may point to Egypt. governor of Syria and Mesopotamia, The chief avoy was the patrician was perhaps in the last months of Theodosius Babitzikos, according to A.D. 838 ; he was opposed by Nasr, Genesios ; but Prudentius (Ann. Bert. who lost his life. The next recorded 19) states that the envoys were Theo. were in a.l), 810-811 (Michael Syr. 96 dosius, bishop of Chalcedon, and Theo. 102). In A.D.338.839, Mamun's nephew phanes, a spatharios. Theodosius the Abbas ontered into treasonable compatrician had been sent at an earlier munication with Theophilus. The in. lato to Venice, and seems to have triglio was discovered, and he perished proceeded direct from thero to Ingel by torture and hungor (ib. 101). heim. Cp. Vasil'ov, 146.
* Ib. 102.
perhaps in the previous year that a Roman fleet appeared off the coast of Syria and pillaged the port of Antioch.' These successes inclined Mutasim to be grecious, when Theophilus again proposed an exchange of captives, and he displayed insolent generosity. “We,” he said, “cannot compare the
, values of Moslems and Christians, for God esteems those more than these. But if you restore me the Saracens without asking for anything in return, we can give you twice as many Romans and thus surpass you in everything." Aetius and his fellows were not included in the exchange, but a truce Was concluded (A.D. 841).?
It was only a truce, for Mutasim cherished the illusory hope of subjugating the Empire. He revived the ambitious designs of the Omayyad Caliphs, and resolved to attack Constantinople. The naval establishment had been suffered to decay under the Abbasids, and, as a powerful fleet was indispensable for any enterprise against the city of the Bosphorus, some years were required for preparation. The armament was not ready to sail till the year 842, when 400 dromonds sailed from the ports of Syria. Mutasim, who died in the silme month as Theophilus, did not live to witness the disaster which befell his fleet. It was wrecked on the dangerous Chelidonian islets off the south-eastern cape of the coust; only seven vessels escaped destruction.3.
Mutasim's unpopular successor, Wathik, was throughout his short reign (842-847) so embarrassed by domestic troubles —religious strife, risings in Damascus and Arabia, discontent in Baghdad--that he was unable to prosecute the Holy War.'
Michael Syr. 101. No precise dato against them, at Mauropotamon, is given ; we have only the limits, 838 Vasil'ov (155) supposes that thu Karn. and 811.
Su, a tributary of the Malys, north of 3 Ib. 102.
Mount Arguios, the Meas of Strabo, licorgo Mon. 801 (copied in l'it. in the Mauropotamos lere meant. Thcolorile, 11). Schlosser (550 11.) The weight, however, of MS. authority thinks that this was an expedition of is in favour of το Μαυροπόταμος, 24 the Moslems of Crete. But in that place (of course on a river), not • case it would not have been wrecked Mavporotapos, a river. Cp. do Boor, off Cape Iliera (Selidan-Burnu), which ib, n. 1. Theoktistos was also unlucky is far away from the course to Com. in an expedition, by sea, against the stantinople. The commander was Abu: Abouginns; the feet wils wrecked. Dinar (Atrodeivap).
Cont. Th. 203. From this passage it + There seems to have been only would appear that the into was prior ono campaign, viz. in A.1). 813 or to the Cretanoxpedition, which Simooni 811 (Simeon, Add. Gcorg. 815). The (Cont. Georg.) 814 puts in spring A.D. Saracens invaded Cappadocia and
Acc. to Cont. Th. there were defeated Theoktistos, who was sent two solar eclipses before the Abasgian
The two powers exchanged their prisoners, and, though no regular peace was made, they desisted from hostilities for several years.
The exchange of prisoners from time to time was such a characteristic feature of the warfare between the Empire and the Caliphate, that the formal procedure by which such exchanges were conducted is not without interest. A full account has been preserved of the redemption of captives in the year 845. In response to an embussy which the Roman , government sent to Baghdad, a plenipotentiary arrived at Constantinople in order to obtain exact information as to the number of the Mohammadans who were detained in captivity. They were estimated as 3000 men, and 500 women and children ; according to another account, they were 4362 in all. The Greek prisoners in the Saracen prisons were found to be less numerous, and in order to equalise the numbers, the Caliph bought up Greek slaves in Baghdad, and even added some females who were employed in the service of his palace. The place usually chosen for the interchange of prisoners of war was on the banks of the river Lamos, about a day's march from Tarsus and close to Soleuciu. Iero the Greeks and the Saracens inet on September 16. The two Greek officers who were entrusted with the negotiation were alarmed to see that the other party was attended by a force of 4000 soldiers. They refused to begin business till the Saracens consented to an armistice of forty days, an interval which would permit the redeemed prisoners to return to their homes without the risk of being recaptured. There were preliminary disputes as. to the method of exchange. The Romans declined to accept children or nged persons for able-bodied men, and some days were wasted before it was agreed to purchasо man with man. enterprise.. There was a total eclijise might possibly have been seen in in 840 (April 5) visiblo at Cple., and in Asia Minor. See Oppolzer, Canon der 811 (Oct. 18) an annular eclipse, which Finsternisse (1). 196 and) Blutt No. 98 an astronomer could have well observed for the tracks of those obscurations, at Khartum, and which might havo
· Tabari, 47 879. been just partially visiblo at Cplo. ? Bur.llcbr. 104. After the diath These dati are obviously not satis: of Mutisim, Michael Syr. has no factory. If the expellition belonged information about the Saracen wars, to the reign of Theophilus, the ouly and very little about anything else eclipses I can find which might come till the reign of Romanis 1. Ilis under consideration are the total of source, the chronicle of Dionysios (who A.I). 833 (Sept. 17) and the annular died A.V. 845), came to an end at this of 834 (March 14), of which the latter point.
Two bridges were thrown across the river, and at the same moment at which a Christian passed over one, a Mohammadan traversed the other in the opposite direction. But the unfortunate Mohammadans were subjected to a religious test. The Caliph had appointed a commission to examine the theological opinions of the captives. Himself an adherent, like Mamun and Mutasim, of the pseudo-rationalistic school which denied the eternity of the Koran and the visible epiphany of Allah in a future life, he commanded that only those should be redeemed who denounced or renounced these doctrines. Many refused to sacrifice their convictions, and the application of the test was probably not very strict. The exchange was carried out in four days, and more than 4000 Saracens were redeemed, including women and children, as well as Zimmi, that is, Christian or Jewish subjects of the Caliph.
Between the religious bigotry of rulers of Islam like Wathik and Mutawakkil and that of Christian sovrans like Theophilus and Theodora there was little to choose. For the persecution of the Paulicians, which inust be regarded as one of the greatest political disasters of the ninth century, Theophilus as well as Theodora was responsible, though the crime, or rather tlie glory, is commonly ascribed entirely to her. This sect, widely diffused throughout Asia Minor, from Phrygia and Lycaonia to Armenia, had lived in peace under the wise and sympathetic iconoclasts of the eighth century. They have been described as “the left wing of the iconoclasts”; their doctrines—they rejected images, pictures, crossos, as idolatrous—had undoubtedly a great intluence on the generation of the iconoclastic movement; it has even been supposed
I llostilities were resumed in A.D). Anazarbos. D. MacRitchie's Account 851. In that year, and the two follow. of the li ypsies of Trulia (Lomlon, 1886) ing, Saracen raids are recorded. In contains a translation of an article by 835 the Greeks attacked Anazarbos De Goejo on the history of the Gipsies in Dorthern Cilicia, and took captive (published in the Memoirs of the the Litts or Gipsies who had been Amsterdam Acvlemy of Sciences, settled there since ... 835. The
1875). See also Bataillard, Sur les Caliph Muawia had settled in Syria origines des Bohémiens ou 7'siyanes these emigrants from India. Walid (Paris, 1876). Vasil'ov, 177-178.
, anid Yazid II. assigned them settle- Conybeare, key of Truth, cvi. For ments at Antiochi and Mopostestia. Sergius the leader, who was active in In the ninth century the Zatts behaved propagating laulicianism in the first as if they were an indopendent people, quarter of the ninth century, sou iů. and were suppressed with dilliculty lxviii., Ixix. by Vjais. They were then moved to
that Constantine V. was at heart a Paulician.' We saw how they had been favoured by Nicephorus, and how Michael I. was stirred up by the ecclesiastics to institute a persecution. Michael committed the execution of his decree in Phrygia and Lycaonia to Leo the Armenian, as stratégos of the Anatolic Theme;' while the suppression of the heresy in Cappadocia and' Pontus was enjoined on two ecclesiastics, the exarch or visitor of the Patriarchal monasteries in those parts, and the bishop of Neo-Caesarea. The evidence leaves us in doubt whether Leo, when he came to the throne, pursued the policy of which he had been the instrument. Did the reviver of iconoclasm so far desert the principles of his exemplar, Constantine V., as to pursue the Paulicians ? It is not incredible that he may have adopted this course, if it were only to dissociate himself from a sect which the Church maliciously or ignorantly branded as Manichaean ; for it is certain that the Paulicians were persecuted by Theophilus. It was either in the reign of Theophilus or during the earlier persecution that Karbeas, a Paulician who held an office under the general of the Anatolic Theme, led 5000 men of his faith to the region beyond Cappadocia, and placed himself under the protection of the Emir of Melitene. He is said to have been moved to this flight by the news that his father had been hanged. It is probable that there were already Paulicians in Conybeare, ib. cxvi. 899.
Theophilus, meets there some“ Pauli. Thcoph. 495. Photius (c. Man. c. anasts or Manichacans" coudemned to 24 = Peter Sic. 52) says that Michael death. And it is suggested by the eviand Leo his successor sent to all parts denco relating to karbeas ; sce next of the Empire and put heretics to note. death. This naturally implies that
Cont. Th. 166. It can now bo Leo persecuted as Emperor ; but we shown that there is a grave chrono• cannot be certain, for the statement logical error in the account of this may have urisen from the fact that writor. The tlight of Karbeas is Loo was associated with Michael's reprosouted as a consequence of the persecution.
persecution of Theodora. But a docue Photius, il. Parakondakes, the ment dating from A.D. 845-846 (aleta exarch, was, of course, not the Patri. 4. Mart. Amor. I' 29) shows that at the archal exarch, but a provincial in. end of the reign of Theophilus, or im. spector (cr. Ducange, s.v. Eapxos). mediately aftur, karbeas and his people Afterwards some Paulician killed him, were already settled in the East under and the bishop was slain by the Saracen protection. Wo learn there kynochoritao (the position of Kynos. that Kallistos, appointed !y Theochora, a l'aulician stronghold, is philus governor of the district of unknown).
kolonciu (Kıra-hissar), tricol to convert + We have an incidental proof of somo of his officers who were laulicians. this in the lilu Mucurii, 159. They betrayed him to the l'aulicians Mukarios, abbot of Pelekete (op. above, of Karlheas (τοίς υπό την εξουσίας του p. 139, 11.4), thrown into prison by τριτάλανος Καρβέα τελούσι--αποστάταις).