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years, while he destroyed their children by dashing them against stones.
llenceforward the hill on which Leo hud luin in ambush was mained the hill of Leo,' and the Bulgarians, whenever they piss that way, shake the head and point with the finger, unable to forget that great disaster."
The ensuring winter was so mild, and the rivers so low, that an army of 30,000 Bulgarians crossed the frontier and indvanced w Arauliopolis. They passed the river Erginus and
to nude many captives. But when they returned to the river, they found that it week's rain haud rendered it impussable, and they were obliged to wait for two weeks on the banks. The waters gradually subside, a bridge was made, and 50,000 (aptives were led back to Bulgaria, while the plunder was carried in Waggons, londed with rich Armenian carpets, blankets and coverlets, ruiment of all kinds, and bronze utensils, llis consorious critics alleged thut the Emperor Wils remins in not scizing the opportunity to attack the invaders during the enforced delay.
Shortly after this incursion, tidings reached Constantinople that it was destined soon to be the object of a grand Bulgarian expellition. Krumm was liimself engaged in collecting it great host; "all the Slavonias” were contributing soldiers; and, from liis Empire beyond the Danube, Avars as well as Slavs were summoned to take part in despoiling the greatest city in the world. Poliorcetic machines of all the various kinds which Now Rome herself could dispose of were being prepared for the service of Bulgarin. The varieties of these engines, of whirin it list is recorded, must be left to curious students of the poliorcetic art to investigate. There were "three-throwers” and " four-throwers,” tortoises, fire-burlers and stone-hurlers, rams, little scorpions, and “dart-stands," besides a large supply of balls, slings, long ladders, levers, and ropes (õpvas), and the inevitable "city-takers" (életróles).". In the stables of the king fed i thousand oxen destined to draw the engines, and five thousand iron-bound cars were prepared. The attempt which had been made on his life still rankled in Krum's
1 ο βουνός Λέοντος.
Scriptor Incertus, p. 317 'Apueria. τικά στραγλομαλωτάρια και νακοτάπητα ανώτε να και ιματισμών πολν
χαλκώματα εφόρτωσαν πάντα εις αμάξας. llo calls the Erginos the 'Pnyira.
memory, and he determined to direct his chief efforts against Blachernae, the quarter where the arrow had wounded him.
Leo had taken mensures for the defence of the city. He employed a large number of workmen to build a new wall outside that of Heraclius, and he caused a wide moat to be dug. But, as it turned out, these precautions proved unnecessitry; and, indeed, the work was not completed when the denth of Krum changed the situation. The most formid. able of the Bulgarian monarchs with whom the Empire had yet to dcul died suddenly through the bursting of a bloodvessel on the 14th of April 814, and his plan perished with him.
5. The Reign of Omurtag After the death of Krum, Bulgaria was engaged and distracted by i struggle for the throne. Of this political crisis we have no clear knowledge, but it appears that it ended by the triumph of a certain Tsok over one, if not two, rivals. The rule of Tsok is described as inhumane. He is said to have required all the Christian captives, both clerical and lay, to renounce their religion, and when they refused, to have put them to death. But his reign was brief. It
Son alove, fu 24.
of krum, and his pornocution of the dopátws opayraovels, stronms of Christinn captivos noticed (lars ii., blood issuing from mouth, noso, and cars Jan. 22, in Migno, P.li. 117, 270-277). (Ser. Incert. :348)The on 1186 of Attila's Loparov (op. 111. 348-319) thinks that sleuth wils similar. Thu dute, accord. Dukum, Ditrong, and Tsok were only ing to Roman captives who returned military lendler's who playoil an ini. from Bulgurii, was *the grout Fifth portnnt röle, 1
I am disposed to of Paschal," that is lloly Thursday = conjecturu that Ditsong (who is April 14, 814 (krug kritischer described as cruel and was slain) and Virsuch, 156 ; Loparev, Dvie Zamietki, Tsok wore one and the same. These 3:18). The dato 815 maintained by intermediate reigns are not mentioned Schalarik and Jireček cannot be in the Greek chronicles, and Theo. accepted in view of the data in Scr. Inc, phylactus (as well as Cont. Th. 217) (sce above, p. 357, n. 8).
represents Omurtagas Kirum's successor s In thu Slavonic l'rologue (ed. (Blist. xr, nurt. 19:2). The name Tsok Moscow, 1877, under Jan. 2, p. 42) occurs in the form TŠUKoS in an in. it is stuted that aftor Kruni's death scription found north of Aloba, and Dukum seized the throne, but dicd lated to the year 1. M. 6328 = A.D. 819. and succeeded by the cruel 820, but so mutilated that little can be Ditseng, who mutilated the hands of made of it (Aloba, 226-227). According Archbishop Manuel (see above, p. 356), to the Nenol. Bas. it was krum who and was siiccccleil by Omurtag. In mutilated Archbishop Manuel, who the Monologion of Basil II., TEOXOS (acc. to Cont. Th. 217) was put to • åtewratos is named as the successor death by Omurtag:
was possibly before the end of the year (A.D. 814) that he was slain, and succeeded by Omurtay, the son of Krum.'
The first important act of the sublimo Khan Onurtug was to conclude a formal treaty of peace with the Roman Empire (A.D. 815-816). It is probuble that a truce or preliminary agreement had been arranged immediately after Krum's death," but when Krum's son ascended the throne negotiations were opened which led to a permanent peace. The contracting parties agreed that the trenty should continue in force for thirty years, with a qualification perhaps that it should be confirmed anew at the expiration of each decennium.” A fortunate chance has preserved a portion of what appears to be an ollicial abstract of the instrument, inscribed on a marlıle column and set up in the precincts of his residence at l'liskit ly oriler of the Bulgarian king." Provision was maile for the interchange and ransom of captives, and the question of the surrender of deserters, on which the negotiations between Krum and Michael I. had fallen through, was settled in a manner satisfactory to Omurtag. All the Slave who bad been undoubtedly subject to the Bulgarians in the period before the war, and had deserted to the Empire, were to be sent back to their various districts. The most important articles concerned the delimitation of the frontier which
| That Omurtag was son of krum expiration (συνεπλήρουν σχεδόν, Gen. is directly allirmed by Theophylactus loc. cit.). Jireček dutes the treaty A.1). (loc. cit.); and would be probable from 815, Loparev and Zlatarski 816. I the fact that Omurtag's son Malamir am inclined to believe that 815-816 calls krummiy grandfather "(inscrip- is right (not 814, as I argued op. cit.). tion in 1boba, 23:3)-the alternative We must not press too far the oxedov being that Omurtag was kirun's son-in- of Genesios ; and othor evidence makes Jaw.
it likely that the twentieth year of ? The true form of the natie, attested the proriod determined c. 830, and the loy liis inscriptions ('Nuovprag), in thirtieth c. 810. renerved in Latin sources (Omoring). • This wrums to bo impliod in the Theophylantils (llist. dr.marl. 152) callo pensage of lienenion. huim 'Omispirayos, the Grook chronicles • The inscription of Suleiman-keui διave Μορτάγων or Μουτράγων.
(Abuba, 220 899.): Unponaki proposed if I have conjectured (Bulgarian to refer it to the beginning of the Truly of 1.1). 814, 1'p. 280-287) that a reign of Michael II. 'I have shown fragment of such an agreement may (op. cit.) that it contains a text or be preserved in the inscription of abstract of the Thirty Years' Treaty. Eski.Juma (Abobu, 226).
common people (private + Cont. Th. expressly ascribes the soldiers) wero to be interclunged, treaty to Omurtng (058 #pos airov), inan for inan. A ransom of so much s Cienesios (11 apos autoús) leaves it open. head was to be paid for Roman officers. For the further evidence of the in- A special arrangement was wade for scription of Malamir see my article on the redemption of Greeks who had the treaty (op. cit.). in 823 the first been found in forts which the com.. decenniuni of the thirty years was near manders hail deserted.
divided Thrace between the two sovrans.1 The new boundary ran westward froin Develtos to Mukrolivuda, a fortress situnted between Huurianoplo and Philippopolis, close to the junction of the Hebrus with its tributary the Arzus. At Makrolivada the frontier-line turned northward and proceeded to Mt. I[aenius. The Bulgarians, who put their faith in earthworks and circumvallations, proposed to protect the boundary, and give it a visible form, by a rampart and trench. The Imperial governinent, without whose consent the execution of such in work would have been impossible, agreed to withdraw the garrisons froin the forts in the neighbourhood of the frontier during the construction of the fortification, in order to avoid the possibility of hostilo collisions.
The remains of the Great Fence, which marked the southern boundary of the Bulgarian kingdom in the ninth iind tenth centurios, can be traced across Thraco, and ille locally known as the Erkesiia." Some parts of it are visible to the eye of the inexperienced traveller, while in others the line hus dlisupaared or hus to be investiguted by the diligent attention of the antiqunrinn. Ils custern extremity is near the ruins of Develtos,' on that inlet of the Black Sea whose horns were guarded by the cities of Anchialus and Apollonia. It can be followed ensily in its westwurd course, past Rusokastro, as far as the river Tundzhn, for about forty miles; beyond that river it is more difficult to trace,' but its western extremity seems to have been discovered at Makrolivada, near the modern village of Trnovo-Seimen. The line roughly
" It is possible that some small district was conceded to the Bulgarians. Michael Syr. 28 HLAUCH that Loo maile puncu with them, wur: Doudoring to thoi thu maralı for which they fouglit.
Meydan ooúda, Codrellis, ii. 372. :: So called from the Turkish jerkrsen, a cutting in the carth. Thu onstoru part of its course is described by Jireček, Fürstenthum, 505 sq. Sur. viving legends as to the origin of the structiiru aro mnentioned by Jirodek (Arch..wp. Milch. x. 137) and Shikorpil (Aboba, 542). Jireček heard at Ruso. kastro the tradition that the rampart Was sinor (o úvopov) -
---a boundary between the dominions of two brothers : Slikorpil); it was wronghit, by a tsar's
orders, ly men and women, and so pressing was tho work that only one wom was left at homo tu taku caru of nino childron. The Millio story in told ulsowhero among the Slovn, otthon uruction of great buildings
+ Colonia Fluviu l'ncis Doultiusium, or Doultum, founded by Vosqusian, was called in Byzantine timos sepedrós. Thu traces of the "wall" begin at the west end of the lagoon of Mandra.
• Tlie length of the westeru section from the Tundzha is 0.1 kils, a littlo loys than the eastern.
• Near the junction of R. Hebrus and R. Arzus, now called Sazly.dere. The Roman station Arzus is doubtless to be identified with the ruins at Teke. Musachevo, and here the rampart was
corresponds to the modern boundary between Turkey and Bulgaria. The rampart was on the north, the ditch on the south, showing that it was designed as a security against the Empire; the rampart was probably surmounted, like the wall of Pliska, by timler palisades,' and the Bulgarians maintained a constant watch and ward along their boundary fences.? In the eastern section, near the heights of Meleona, the line of defence was strengthened by a second entrenchment to the south, extending for about half a mile in the form of a bow, and locally known as the Gipsy Erkesiin, but we do not know the origin or date of this fortification.' It would seem that the Bulguriaus contented themselves with this fence, for no signs have been discovered of a siinilar construction on the western frontier, between Makrolivada and the mountains.
Sanctity was imparted to the contract by the solemn rites of superstition. Omurtag consented to pledye his faith according to the Christian formalities, while Leo, on his part, showing a religious toleration only worthy of a pagan, did not scruple to conform to the heathen customs of the barbarians, Cirent was the builndul caused to pious members of the Church when the Roman Emperor, "peer of the Apostles," poured on the earth a libation of water, swore upon a sword, sacrificed dogs, and performed other unholy rites." Creater, if possible, was their indignation, when the cut by the great military road from iCp. Theoph. 490, the of Hadrianople to Philippopolis. The Eulera oxupwuara.
ξύλινα οχυρώματα. Western section was cut by another ? Nicolaus, liesponsil, 25. roiall which branchend off from the 3 Abbie, 642-5-13.
Tradition says militry roail at Letke and led over that the Tsar's soldiers were called the Balkans to Nicopolis on the away before they had completed the Jantra ; and also boys the road from chief ontrenchment, and ordered the Havdrianople to Kabyle (Sliven), which gipsies to finish it. The gipsies de followed the right bank of the flected the line to the south, and the Tundzha (albuba, 6:39.510). Shkorpil soldiers when they returned continued thinks that the frontier continued their entrenchment in its previous Westward (no traces of the wall are direction. fou leyond Toke Musachevo) to • Ignatius, l'il. Nic. p. 206. This Constantin (S. Kustenots) in the passage is ignored by Bulgarian his. northorn foothills of Rhodopac, and torians, though it points to some thence northward to the piss of Succi curious and obscure customs. als (Βουλγαρική κλείσις) ear Iclatina ; (συμβάσεσι) ην οράν τον βασιλέα Ρωμαίων woence beyond the montains it fol. εκ κύλικος ιδωρ κατά γης επιλείβοντα, lowed the line of the middle entrench- επισάγματα ίππων αυτουργώς αναστρέmellt of West Bulgaria (from Khairuddin φοντα, ιμάντων έντρίτων απτόμενον, και tu kilere bair-kale on the Danube). χόρτον εις ύψος αίροντα και διά πάντων But Constantin, which is mentioned τούτων εαυτων επαρώμενον. For the in the inscriptions as on the frontier, sacrifice of dogs seo Conl, Th. p. 31; was probably a different place.
Jireček, Geschichte, p. 132.