Slike stranica

triumph and the victory were the work of the apostle.” A particular duty was imposed upon these Slavs, a duty which hitherto had probably been a burden upon the town. They were obliged to provide and defray the bourd and entertainment of all Imperiul officials who visited Patrue, and also of all foreign ambassadors who halted there on their way to and from Italy and Constantinople. For this purpose they had to maintain in the city a staff of servants and cooks.' Tho Emperor also made the bishopric of Patrae a Metropolis, and submitted to its control the sees of Methone, Lacedaemon, and Korone. It is possible that he sent military colonists froin

? other parts of the Empire to the Peloponnesus, as well as to the regions of the Strymon and other Slavonic territories," and if so, these may have been the Marunites, whom we find at a later perioil of the ninth century playing an important part among the naval contingents of the Empire.* We may iulso conjecture with some probability that this settlement was immediately followed by the separation of the l'eloponnesus from Hellas is a separato Theunc."

It would be too much to infer from this narrative that the Slavonic communities of Achain and Elis, which were doubtless concerned in the attack on Patrae, were permanently reduced to submission and orderly life on this occasion, and that the later devastations which vexed the peninsula in the

έχοντες ιδίους και τραπεζοποιούς και των κατά Πελοπόννησον στρατιωτών wayeipou's kth. The Slavs defrayed the και Μαρδαιτών, 311 των κατά Πελ. expense· από διανομής και συνδοσίας της Μαρδαιτών και Ταξατών.


As they ouados aútwr. The passage is interest. belonged to the marine establishment, ing, as it shows incidentally that, as they were probably sottled in the wo should expect, the ordinary routo coast towns. Soo Bury, Naval Policy, of travel from Italy to Constantinoplo 29, where their settlement in Grecco was by Patrae and Corinth.

is connected with the later subjugation · Nicolaus, Symodal Leller, cil.supru. by Theoktistos, and this secms to mo

* Theoli. 485 τα στρατεύματα πάντα rather more probable. ταπεινώσαι σκεψάμενος Χριστιανούς απ. • Sco above, p. 224. Michael I. apοικίσας εκ παντός θέματος επί τάς. pointed Leo Skleros stratégos of Pelo. Σκλαινίας γενέσθαι προσέταξεν (Α.Ι». ponnesis, Scr. Inc. 336. 809-10); 496 οι τον Στρυμώνα οικούντες probably attribute to Leo V. the erecμέτοικοι προφάσεως δραξάμενοι εν τοις tion of a watch-tower somewhero in ιδίοις φεύγοντας απανήλθον. (C. Kor, the Poloponnesin, to warn the city of 98, 120.) See next noto.

the approach of enemies, doubtless tho The western Mardaites (oi M. ons Saracens, recorded in the inscription disews) took part in the Cretan expelli. (Corp. Inscr. lir. iv. No. 8820): tion of A.D), 90%, and numbered with their ollicers 1087 men (Const. Porph.

αναξ Λέων έστησε πύργον ενθάδε

λύχνω προφαίνειν τους λόχους των Cer. ii. 14. p. 6.55). They had fought

βαρβάρων. against the Saracens in Sicily in the reign of Basil I. ; Cont. Th. 304 Cp. Hopf, 105.

We may 3 The foundation of monasteries and churches Wils one of the principal means by which the change was official. The christianization progressed rapidly under Basil I. and his successors.

We may,


roigns of Theophilus and Michael III. were wrought by the Sluvs of Laconia and Arcadia. It is more probable that the attack on Patrae was not confined to the inhabitants of a particular district; and thut all the Slavs in the peninsula united in another effort to assert their independence beforu the death of Theophilus. Their rebellion, which meant the resumption of their predatory habits, was not put down till the reign of his son, and we do not know how 800n. however, conjecture that it was the Empress Theodora' who appointed Theoktistos Bryennios—the first recorded member of a family which was long afterwarıls to play a notable part in history-to be stratêgos of the Peloponnesinn Theme, and placed under his command large dotachments from the Themes of Thrace and Macedonia, to put an end to the rapine and brigandage of the barbarians. Theoktistos performed efficiently the work which was entrusted to him. He thoroughly subjugated the Slavs throughout the length and breath of the land, iind reduced them to the condition of provincial subjects.” There weru only two tribes with whom he deemed it convenient to make special and extraordinary terms, These were the Milings, perched in places ditlicult of access on the slopes of Mount Taygetos, and the Ezerites in the south of Laconia. On these he was content to impose a tribute, of 60 nomismati (about £35) on the Milings, and 300 (about £180) on the Ezeritus. They paid these annual dues so long at least as

. Theoktistos was in charge of the province, but afterwards they defied the governors, and a hundred years later their independence was a public scandal.

The reduction of the Peloponnesian Slavs in the reign of Michael prepared the way for their conversion to Christianity and their hellenization. The process of civilization and

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? The sole source is Constantine, op. cit. 220-221. The narrative, not suggesting that the revolt lasted long, is in favour of supposing that the Slavs word reduced curly in tho reign of Theodora and Michnol. Wo cannot go furthor than this. Tho dato (c. 849) given by Muralt and Hopf (licschichte, 127) rests on the luise identification of Theoktistos Bryennios with Thoo. keistos tho Lugotheto (cp. Hirsch, 220); but there is another consideration which renders the approximato

dating 847-850 plausible ; see above',

They retained their lands and customs, but their social organization under župans seems to have come to an end. (cp. Hopf, 127.) Tho wordt župan survives in Modern Greek, Tšou'ravis, in the sense of "herd."

blending required for its completion four or five centuries, and the rate of progress varied in different parts of the peninsula. The Milings maintained their separate identity longest, perhaps till the eve of the Ottoman conquest; but even in the thirteenth century Slavonic tribes still · lived apart from the Greeks and preserved their old customs in the region of Skorta in the mountainous districts of Elis and Arcadia. We may say that by the fifteenth century the Slavs had ceased to be a distinct nationality ; they had become part of a new mixed Creek-speaking race, destined to be still further regenerated or corrupted under Turkish rule by the absorption of the Albanians who began to pour into the l'eloponnesus in the fourteenth century. That the blending of Slavonic with Greek blood hand begun in the ninth century is suggested by the anecdote related of a l'eloponnesian magnate, Nicetas Rentakios, whose daughter had the honour of marrying it son of the Emperor Romanus I. He Wils fond of boasting of his noble Hellenic descent, and drew upon himself the sharp tongue of a distinguished grammarian, who satirized in ambics his Slavonic cast of features.” But the process of hellenization was slow, and in the tenth century the Peloponnesus and northern Greece were still regarded, like Macedonia, as mainly Slavonie.

! Ser Finlay, iv. 21, 22. It is ro- γαρασδοειδής όψις έσθλαβωμένη-. marhablo that in the Chronicle of Morris it is only in connexion with

evidently one verso of an mpigram on Slavonic regions ihat the word opórgos,

Nicoins. The meaning of gapao docions "ilulile," is used : 8. Twv Sklapwr

is a well-known puzzle. Finlay's 16305, ο δ. του Μελιγγού.4531, c». 2993,

μroposal, γαδαροειδής (from γάϊδαρος, ο δ. των Σκορτων 5026. But not with:

an ass), is unlikely, and the explanastanding, the rtymology is not the

tion of Sathas (sec Gregorovius, op. cit. Slavonic dragi, woorl," ins G. Meyer

150), " with the contenance of a would have it op. cit. 135); Spoggos

Zoroastrian" (%apáodas), is extremely is the wordt δροιγγος,

far-fetched. I suggested that the drungus, the Byzantine military

Slavonic proper namo Corazu may torm, which is derived from Gernianic.

underliv yapao do (Corazd, c.9., was the (Eng, throny). See J. Schmitt's el. of name of one of the pupils of the Chronicle of Jorra, pl. 005. There are

apostlu Methodius); this would suit very low Slavonic words in Jouern

the context (English llistorical Rcvicu, Grerk. Miklosich has counted 129

vi., Jan. 1891, p. 152). (“ Die slavischen Elemente im Nord- 3 See the tenth-century scholinst on griechischen," S.B. of l'ienna Acadd. Strabo 7. p. 1251 (ed. Amsterilum, Txiii., 1869).

1707), and, for Elis, 8. p. 1261 (ärauta ? Const. Porph. Them. 53 Eidhucov γάρ ταύτα Σκύθαι νέμονται). The cou εκείνον τον περιβόητον γραμματικών plicated question of ruce-blending in αποσκομαι εις αυτόν τουτοι το θρυλού. Greece requires still a thorougligoing μενον ιαμβείον

investigation, as Krumbacher oliscrves βουλον : τσέρβουλε). Tlie clief town | Tlie Tzankonian dialect perplexel in the Tzakonian district is Leonili. philologists and was variously taken Its extent is exhibited in the ethnofor Slavonic (kopitar, Hopit, Philippa graphical map in Philippisou, op. cit. non) and Albanian (Sathas). But ile Tho Tsékwves are mentioned in Con. studies of Dellner (op. his Zakonische stantine, Cor. 690. Grammatik, 1881) and Thumb ("* Die cthnographische Stellung der Za


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We can designate one part of the Peloponnesus into which the Slavonic clement did not penetrate, the border-region between Luconia and Argolis. Here the old population seems to have continued unchanged, and the ancient Doric tongue developed into the Tzakonian dialect, which is still spoken in the modern province of Kynuria.'

It is interesting to note that on the promontory of Taenaron in Laconia a small Hellenic community survived, little touched by the political and social changes which had transformed the Hellenistic into the Byzantine world. Surrounded by Slavs, these Hellenes lived in the fortress of Maina, and in the days of Theophilus and his son still worshipped the old gods of Greece. But the days of this pngan immunity were numbered ; the Olympians were soon to be driven from their last recess. Before the end of the century the Mainotes were baptized.”

§ 2. The Conversion of Bulgaria Christianity had made some progress within the Bulgarian kingdoin before the accession of Boris. It is not likely that the Roman natives of Moesia, who had become the subjects of the Bulgarian kings, did much to propagate their faith; but we un hardly doubt that some of the Slavs had been converted, and Christian prisoners of war scem to have improved the season of their inptivity lwy attempting to proselytize their masters. The introductiou of Christianity by captives is a phenomenon which meets us in other cases,' and we are

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(B.2. 10. 368). Meanwhile consult

presents dificulties, Thumb liolis A. Philippson, "Zur Ethnographie that the loss of I was a rule in the des Peloponnes," i. and ii., iu Peter. Tzakonian dialect, and suggests the

Milleilungen J1181113 «tymology : είς Λακωνίαν, 's Aκωνία(ν), Perthes' geographischer Austull, vol. Carwria, Toatwria (comparing odpxxxvi., 1890

. In the reign of Basil I. Sec Con. koncni," in Tiuloyermuinische Forschunte

strutine, De uilm. imp. 221; llopil;

129. gen, iv. 195 899., 1894) have donion. strated that the Tzakones and their 3 E.y. the Goths (Wullilas) and the linguagı ire Greck. Tho




not surprised to learn that some of the numerous prisoners who were carried away by Krum made efforts to spread their religion among the Bulgarians, not without success. Omurtuy was deeply displeased and alarmed when he was informed of these proceedings, and when threats failed to recall the pervert.s to their ancestral cult, he persecuted both those who had fallen away and those who had corrupted them. Amongst the martyrs was Manuel, the archbishop of Hadrianople. The most illustrious proselyte is said to have been the eldest son of Omurtag himself, who on account of his perversion was put to death by his brother Malarnir.

The adoption of Christianity by payan rulers has generally been prompted by political considerations, and has invariably il political aspect. This was eminently the case in the conversion of Bulgarin. She was entangled in the complexities of it political situation, in which the interests of both the Western and the Eastern Empire were involved. The disturbing fact was the policy of the Franks, which aimed at the extension of their power over the Slavonic states on their south-eastern frontier. Their collision with Bulgaria on the Middle Danube in the reign of Omurtag had been followed by years of peace, and a treaty of alliance was concluded in A.). 815. The efforts of King Lewis the German were at

I Theodore Stud. (l'urra Cut. Ixiij. Pf. 2205179.) relates that the Bulgarian rulur, whose name, unfortunately, lie does not mention (and the date of this catechesis is unknown), issued a deeper that all Christians should eat Wat in Lent on join of death. Four. borli resisted the orier. One was prit to death, and his wifi and children givenainy slaves to Bulgarian masters, its in oxilmple; but the others held ollt, in were also executed. The hhian has been supposed to be krum; cf. Auray's note, l. 6:17. Theophy. Tartus (llist. mart. 192) relates that one of krum's capitives, kinament, was itssigned to Omurtig, who becamo greatly attached to him, and tried to induce him to apostatize. As lie was obstinate, he was thrown into a foul prison, where lie remainedd till after Omurtig's death,

? Coul. Th, 217. According to the Menlogimni busilii, l'ar's ii., Jan. 22, Mign, 117, 276, krumput

Manuel to death, cutting off his arms
froin his shoulders, then cleaving him
in twain with a sword, and throwing
the remains to wild beasts, It is
added that Krum's act caused such
disgust among the Bulgarians that
they strangled him witli ropes. All
this is evidently a sensational and
impudent invention. For the pressccu.
linn of Tsuk, sie above, p. 359.

: Theoplıyl. op. cii. 1933 8414 Malamir released the captive Kinamon from prison at the request of liis brother Euravõt:is. Kinamon con verted Euravótas, who was put to death by Malamir ils an apostato. Malamir, according to this narrativo (197).clied throo years later; this would give 818-819 for the death of Enravótas. We have an earlier instance of apostasy on the part of a royal Bulgarian in Teleriy, the refugee who rccepted bap. tism at the court of Leo IV. (Theophi. 451).

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