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the basin of the Don, it reached westward to the banks of the Dnieper, and extended into the Tauric Chersoirese. In this empire were included peoples of various race-the Inner Bulgariaus, the Magyars, the Burdās, and the Goths of the Crimea ; while the Slavonic state of Kiev paid a tribute to the Chagan. The Caucasian range divided the Khazars from Iberia and the dependencies of the Caliphate; towards the Black Sea their neighbours were the Alans and the Abasgi; the Dnieper bounded their realm on the side of Great Bulgaria ; in the north their neighbours were the Bulgarians of the Volga, and in the east the Patzinaks. All these folks came within the view of Byzantine diplomacy; some of them were to play an important part in the destinies of the Eastern Empire.

The capital of the ruling people was situated on the Caspian Sea, at the mouths of the Volyil, and was generally known as Itil.' It was a double town built of wood. The western town was named Saryg-shār, or Yellow City, in which the Chagan resided during the winter; over against it was the eastern town of Chamlich or Khazarān, in which were the quarters of the Mohainmadan and the Scandinavian merchants. Chamlich seems to have lain on the eastern bank of the eastern branch of the river, while Saryg-shār was built on the island and on the western shore of the western mouth, the two portions being connected by a bridge of boats; so that Itil is sometimes described as consisting of three towns." The island

" was covered with the fields and vineyards and gardens of the Chagan.

Three other important towns or fortresses of the Khazars lay between Itil and the Caspian gates. Semeniler' was situated at the mouth of the Terek stream at Kizliar.3 It was a place rich in vineyards, with a considerable Mohammadan population,

i The name of the Volga. The three towns are mentioned : in the western arm of the delta was called largest of them is the Queen's palace, Uyru (Westberg would read Ulug), the in the smallest the king's palace, beeastern Buzau. Sec Westberg, K. ween (? around) whose walls tlows the analizu, ii. 41.

river. See Marquart, Streifzüge, xlii. ? Ibn Rusta and Ibn Fadhlan speak Saryg-shār was called al . Baidhū of two towns or parts of the town (the (“the white ") by older Arabic writers former designates the vastern as Habu (Westberg, op. cit. ii. 14). Westberg Dalys). Masudi (Sprenger, 106-407) has shown that the later name of speaks of three parts, and places tho Itil was Saksin (ib, 37 sq., and Pci. King's palace in the island. This triye, ii. 288 847.). agrees with the Letter of Joseph, where 3 Westberg, Kuli:il, ii. 11 $74.


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who lived in wooden houses with colivex l'oofs.' The fortress of Belenjer, which lay on the lower course of the Sulek, on the road which leuils southward from Kizliar to l'etrovsk," seems to have played some part in the earlier wars between the Khazar's and the Saracens. Further south still was the town

” of Tarku, on the road to Kaiakend and the Caspian gates.*

The Arabic writers to whom we owe much of our knowledge of Khazaria suggest a picture of agricultural and pastoral prosperity. The Khazars were extensive sheep-farmers;' their towns were surrounded by gardens and vineyards ; they were rich in honey and wilx; and had abundance of fish. The richest pastures and most productive lands in their country were known als the Nine Regions, and probably lay in the modern districts of Kubin and Ter." The king and his court wintered in Itil, but in the spring they went forth and encamped in the plains." According to one report, the Chagan hud twenty-live wives, cach the daughter of a king, and sixty concubines eminent for their beauty. Bacli of them had it house of her own, it qubba covered with teakwool, surrounded by a large pavilion, and euch was jetlously guarded by it eunuch wlio kept her from being scen." But at a later period a Chagan boasts of his yleen, her maidens, and eunuchs, and we are left to wonder whether polygamy hail been renounced or was deliberately concealed."

The Chagann himsell' seems to have taken no direct share in the administration of the state or the conduct of war. llis sacred Hron Wils almost inaccessible; when he role abrou, all those who sitw him prostrated themselves oli the ground and alid not rise till he had passed out of sight. On his death, it great sepulchin was built with twenty chambers, suspended


i Ibu laukul and Istiroliri describe it; see Marquirt, Storij: nyo, xlii. 1. 3, il 1-2. Istinchiri ninys that it was governed by a firiver who was a Jew and related to the Changan. This retirs to a period in floop be conversion tu Judiisin.

6 τα εννέα κλίματα της Χαζαρίας, from which was derived ņ mãoa Świn kal dylovla tñs X.; they were on ile sillo Lowards the land of the Alius (sco below). Const. De alm. imp. 80.

C. Gurdizi, p. 98 (tr. Barthold). See also der chu;. königsbrief, 80.

? Westberg, ib.

3 for the evidence seo Marquart, op, ril. 16.17. The wrongly identities Torkil with Semender + Wasileras, ib.'

Westberg, op. cil. ii. 13.

Cp. Ibn Fadhlan (Pet. Mem.), 592; Marijuart, xlii. n. 2. When the Chagan wished to embrace one of his consorts, her illmuch took hier in an instant to his qubba, waited outsiile, ini theu reconducted her.

9 per churr, huniislırics, 79.

over it stronin, so thut neither devils nor men nor worms might be able to penetrate it. The mausoleun was called paruulise,

' and those who deposited his body in one of its recesses were put to deuth, that the exact spot in which he was laid might never be revealed. A rider who passed it by dismounted, and did not remount until the tomb could be no longer seen. When a new Chagan ascended the throne, a silk cord was bound tightly round his neck and he was required to declare how long he wished to reign ; when the period which lie mentioned had clapsed, he was put to death. But it is uncertain how far we can believe the curious stories of the Arabic travellers, from whom these details are derived."

We have no information at what time the active authority of the Chagan Wils exchanged for this divine nullity, or why he Wils exilted to a position, resembling that of the Emperor of Japan, in which his existenco, and not his government, Wils considered essential to the prosperity of the State. The labours of government were fulfilled by a Bey or viceroy," who communded the army, regulated the tribute, and presided over the administration. He appeared in the presence of the Chugan

llo with naked fect, and lit a torch; when the torch had burnt out he wils permitted to tike his seat at the right hand of the monarch. When evil times befell, the people held the Chagan responsible and called upon the Bey to put himı to death; the Beg sometimes complicad with their demand, The commander of an army who suffered defeat wils cruelly treated : his wife, chillren, and property were solel lefore his eyes, and he was either executol or degraded to menial lank.

The most remarkable fict in the civilisation of this Turkish people was the conversion of the Chagan and the upper ruk of society to Judaism. The religion of the Hebrews had exercised it profound influence on the creed of Islam, and it had been a basis of Christianity; it had wou scattereil prose


! Ibn laillilan, ib. 692-593. lo is called by Arabic writers tho ishäil (Gurvizi, tr. Bartholi, 120 ; ishu, Ibu Rustil ; =:il-shad, ep. Marquart, op. cit. 21). But he was probably also known as the lul-khun, seo below, p. 100, 11. 1.

* Const. De alm. imp. 178., gap

χαγάνος εκείνος και ο πεχ Χαζαρίας
(loxt ò kai rex erroneously, which we
coulil correct oven without the right
reading in Cont. Th. 122). Ibu Faithe
lan, ib. 592. Cp, Masudi (Sprenger),

3 Masudi, ib. 411.
+ Thu Fulllan, ib. 583.

lytes; but the conversion of the Khazars to the undiluted religion of Jehovah is unique in history. The date of this event has been disputed, and the evidence variously assigns it to the first half of the eighth centuiy or to the beginning of the minth. There an be no question that the ruler was actuated

! luy political motives in adopting Judaism. To embrace Mohammadiinism would have made him the spiritual dependent of the Caliphs, who attempted to press their faith on the Khazars, and in Christianity lay the danger of his becoming ali (cclesiastical vassil of the Roman Empire. Judaism was a reputable religion with sacred books which both Christian and Mohammadan respected; it elevated him above the heathen birbirians, and secured him against the interference of Caliplı or Emperor. But he did not adopt, along with circumcision, the intolerance of the Jewish cult. Jle allowed the miss of his people to abide in their heathendom and worship their idols."

The circumstances of the conversion are as uncertain is the date. Joseph, the Chagan whose llebrew letter to the Rabbi Chiselni of Corlovin in the tenth century is preserved, states thut the Roman Emperor iind the Caliphi, whom ho respectively styles the King of Edom and the King of the Islimaelites, sent. emissies laden with rich gifts and accompanied by theological suges, to induce his ancestor to embrace their civilisations, The prince found a learned Israelite and set him to dispute with the foreign theologians. When he saw that they could

For the former dato, our authority in the accounts of that mission thu is the khazar tradition preserved in Chayan is not represented as a Jew. the Letter of Joseph; it is supported But the Arabic accounts of the Khazars ly Westlerg, Kiwal. ii. 3i. For (Ibn Rusta, etc.), which depend on an The latter (reign of Harun), Masudi older source prior to a.1). 850, assume the .(Sporringer), 107. According to Josepili, Judaism of the Khavary at that time, thie e of the king who was con Maruurt endeavours to oxplain away vosterd was putail, who paitsee through thiin aviolence iny assuming that it is the linter of Diriel send reached the it later addition of an intermediate Tioned of Arilebil. Waknow from Arabic sourco, Gailuni. The punongo which and Armeniilll Olrecs that mich an lo citos from the commentilly on Splition was conducted loy tulkihuen Matthew by Druthmar (on Matt. 24, in a... 7:31. Bulklan was the major: 14, Hor. bibl. veterum putrum Lugdun. domo (m(x), as Westberg say:t; illud xv. 158, 1877), who was writing soon we may suspect that this was luistitle, after the conversion of.the Bulgarians, 1101 loin . Marmart (who dlenics porovn's nothing, as to the chronology, the Dillonesg of Joseph's Litter) oxcrjit that the coll version of the paces the conversion to Juliaisan ini Khazars was prior to Ad). 860, the the second half of the ninth century, date of the conversion of the Bul. after the mission of Constantine garians. C. Westlors, op. cit. 36. (Streif;uye, 6-17), on the ground that . So Gurdizi ana Ilin Rusta.

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not agree on a single point, he said, “ Go to your tents and return on the third day.” On the morrow, the Chagan sent for the Christian and usked him, " Which is the better fuitli, that of Israel or that of Islam?" and he replied, " There is no law in the world like that of Israel." On the second day the Chugan sent for the learned Mohammadan and said, “Tell me the truth, which law seems to you the better, that of Israel or that of the Christians ? ' " And the Mohammadan replied,

Assuredly that of Israel.” Then on the third day the Chagan called them all together and said, “ You have proved to me by your own mouths that the law of Israel is the best and purest of the three, and I have chosen it.” !

The truth underlying this tradition—which embodies the inctual relation of Judaism to the two other religions--seems to be that endeavours were maule to convert the Chayans both to Christianity and to Islam. And, its a matter of fact, in the reign of leo III, the Caliph Murwan attempted to force the faith of Mohammind upon the Khazars, and perhaps succeeded for a moment. He invaded their land in A.D. 737, and murching by Belenjer and Semender, advanced to Itil. The Chngan way at his mercy, and oltninei peace only lwy consenting to embrace Islam.” As Irene, who mried the Emperor Constantine V., inust have been the daughter or sister of this Chagan, it is clear that in this period there were circumstances tending to draw the Khazır's in the opposite directions of Christ and Mohammad. And this is precisely the period to which the evidence of the Letter of Joseph seems to assign the conversion to Judaism. We may indeed suspect that Judaism was first in possessione conclusion which the traditional

Der chu:. Königsbrief, 74 sq4.. In tradition, recorilee liy Josophi

, luids its main tenor this story coincidos been modified, in the Arabic source, with that toled loy Bakri (whose sourco in il senso unfin vourable to Christianity here: Marquart considers to bu Musudi, and favourabletu Islam. In the twelah Stroisiy, 7). TheChngan had adopted contury the Spanish poot Juda Haleri

, Christianity, but found it to load wroto ii curious philosophical religious corrupt religion. llo sont for a work in the forni otan dinlogue between Christinn bisliop', who, questionod by it king of the Khazar's and to Jewisha it Jewish dialectician in the king's rabili. It has been translated into presence, admitted that the Louw of English loy II. Hirschitelel (Juduh Moses way trio. lle ilso sent for a Julleri's hitub al kiusuri, 1905). Mohammadlien ingo, but the Jew con. Buludhuri, apud Marquart, sirrif. trived to have him qoisoned on his ilye, 12. The invasion of Marwan was. journey. The Jew then succeeiled in a reprisal for an expedition of Khazars, converting the king to the Mosaic who in d.1). 730 junetrated to Allarreligion. It is clear that the same biyan.

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