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vain science of the archbishop, it is clear that he was not unimpressed.

But Leo the ustrologer escaped more easily than his kinsman John the Grammarian—the iconoclast Patriarchwho was believed to be i wicked and powerful magician.' His brother, the patrician Arsaber, had a suburban house on the Bosphorus, near its issue from the Euxine, a large and rich mansion, with porticoes, baths, and cisterns. Here the Patriarch used constantly to stay, and he constructed a subterranean chamber uccessible by a small door and a long staircase. In this “cave of Trophonius” he pursued bis nefarious practices, necromancy, inspection of livers, and other methods of sorcery. Nuns were his accomplices, perhaps his "mediums” in this den, and scandul said that time was spared for indulgence in forbidden pleasures as well as for the pursuit of forbidden knowledge. An interesting legend concerning his black magic is related. An enemy, under three redoubtable leaders, was molesting and harassing the Empire.” Theophilus, unable to repel them, was in despair, when Johın came to the rescue by his magic art. A threeheaded statue was made under his direction and placed among the statues of bronze which adorned the euripos in the Hippodrome. Three of immense physical strength, furnished with huge iron hammers, were stationed by the statue in the dark hours of the night, and instructed, at a given sign, simultaneously to raise their hammers and smite off the heads. John, concealing his identity under the disguise of a layman, recited a mayical incantation which translated the vital strength of the three foemen into the statue, and then ordered the men to strike. They struck; Cpu

: above, p. 60. His nick Xóyou transferred to the statue the namo Lekanomantis refers to the use δύναμις of the leaders ή μάλλον (to of a dish in magic practices, uni may speak more accurately) the oioar be illustrated by the lanx rolunula, πρότερον εν τω ανδριάντι [δύναμιν] ex diversis metallicis materiis fabri. καταβαλών εκ της των στοιχειωσάντων fucta, employed in tho operations Suvánews (which seems to imply that described by Ammianus, xxix. 1. 29. the image had been constructed out of 32. Michael Syr. 114.115 says thnt an old statue which had been origin. John worshipped idols and practised ally otoxawdév). This operation is magic “behind the veil'in tho illustrated by an occurrence in the sanctury."

reign of Romanus I. All itstronomer ? The in-durabilo nomy is als

' logo mediery is thio rest of the story, of a stilllie which was above the vault

Tho Circok writor (Cont. Th. 150) of the Xerolophos und facol towards explains that John by liis otoLXEIWTIKOI the west, in oriler to procure the death


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two hends fell to the ground; but the third blow wus less forceful, and bent the head without severing it. The event corresponded to the performance of the rite. The hostile leaders fell out among themselves; two were sluin by the third, who was wounded, but survived; and the enemy retreated froin the Roman borders.

That John practised arts of divination, in which all the world believed, we need no more doubt than that Leo used his astronomical knowledge for the purpose of reading the secrets of the future in the stars. It was the medieval habit to associato scientific learning withi supernatural powers and perilous knowledge, and in every man of science to see a magician. But the vulgar mind had some reason for this opinion, as it is probable that the greater number of the few men who devoted themselves to scientific research did not disdain to study occult lore and the arts of prognostication. In the case of John, his practices, encouraged perhaps by the Emperor's curiosity,' furnished it welcome ground of calumny to the image-worshippers who detested him. The learning of Photius also gave rise to legends which were even moro damaging and had a far more slender foundation. It was of the Bulgarian Txar Simeoni, auto which Meleager's liso olejunded on a γάρ εστοιχειώσθαι την τοιαύτην στήλης brand, or that of Dolphis on the dayús (Skylitzes = ('

er. ii. 308, «p. Coni. of Simaitha. This wo read of a statue 78 111); Romantis followed liis advice which was tho oroixrior of ono l'hidulia and Simeon died instantly. The (Ellyuldos, a paginn? Putrict, 195). magic process of otoixeiwors was regne But we find the best illusiration in larly lined when status woro orertel. the story about tho Emperor Alexander, Legend waist that many of tho still00%. son of Basil I., who believed in sooth. in Constantinoplo hud bool thus an- mayors, and was told by them (Conl. chanted loy Apollonins of Tyang (who T). 379) that the bronzu image of a is called oroixerwuarıkús in Cedr. i. 310), wild boar in tho Hippodrome arouxcov sto Pirin, 191, 206, 221, Ho was saill autoll ein, which is explained by to have placed three stone 'images of the corresponding passage in Simeon storks αντιπροσώπως αλλήλοις όρωντας, (Leo Gr.) 287 το τού σναγρού στοιχείον Lo prevent storks from coming to the σοι και τη ση ζωή προσανάκειται. city (ib. 11). Thu Tyche of the city in Coniparo the use of oroixeib in modern the Milion was dotoixeiwuevov (ib. 160). Circok for spirit, bogey; and I my The l'allidion brought from Ronie oint out that στοιχείων του τόπου to Constantinopole is called a Otoixeior occurs in Digenes Akritas, vi. 3320 (in (ib. 171). Diels (Elementum, 64-57), Legrand's “Grotta-Ferrata" ed. 1892), in discussing the history of Oroixelov, in the senso of ghost or genius of the mentions the use of oroixeiw in the place. Mustrations of magic practices sense of “ bewitch" (and Dieterich, of this kind will be found in Dalzell, Rheinisches J/useum, 50, 77 899. 1901, The Darker Suprostilions of Scotlanul, is certainly right in connecting the 328 899. (1834). — The destruction of meaning with the use of the letters of the throc.leaded statuo ly Jolm is the alphabet in magie), but has not pictured in the Maulridd Skylitzes realised that it means only a special (Beylié, l'Habitation bysantine, 100). kind of bewitching--the sorcery ly Cp. Cont. Th, 121,0

related that in his youth he met a Jew who suid, “What will you give me, young man, if I make you excel all men in Grecian learning ?" ."My father,” said l'hotius, “will gladly give you half his estate." "I need not money," was the tempter's · reply, “and your father must hear nought of this, Come hither with me and deny the sign of the cross on which we nailed Jesus; and I will give you a strange charm, and all your life will be lived in wealth and wisdom and joy." Photius gladly consented, and from that time forth he devoted himself assiduously to the study of forbidden things, astrology and divination. Here the Patriarch appears as one of the forerunners of Faustus, and we may confidently set down the invention of a compact with the Evil One to the superstition and malignancy of a monk. For in another story the monastic origin is unconcenled. John the Solitary, who had been conversing with two friends touching the iniquities of the Patriarch, dreamed a dream. A hideous negro appeared to hiin and gripped his throat. The monk made the sign of the cross and cried, “Who are you? who sent you ?” The

. apparition replied, "My name is Lebuphas; I am the master of Beliar and the familiar of Photius; I am the helper of sorcerers, the guide of robbers and adulterers, the friend of pagans and of my secret servant Photius. He sent me to punish you for what was said cigainst him yesterday, but you have defented me liy the weapon of the cross." Thus the learning of l'hotius was hunoured by popular fincy like the science of Gerbert;? legend represented them both us sorcerers and friends of the devil.

The encyclopneulic learning of Photius, his indefatigable interest in philosophy and theology, history and grammar, are shown by his writings and the contents of his library. He collected ancient and modern books on every subject, including many works which must have been rarities in his own time and have since entirely disappeared. We know some of his possessions thrvugh his Bibliotheca, and the circumstances which suggested the composition of this work throw light on a side of Byzantine life of which we are seldom permitted to gain a glimpse'

| These stories about Photius are was probably à propos of the earth. told only by l’seudo-Simeon, 670 sqq. quake of A.l). 862, sec above p. 1998, lle mentions (673) thit Photius prene, on a sormon to show that ourth- " See Olleris, l'ie de Gerbert, 321 quickes are not a consequence of our

814. (1867). sing lout due to natural causes. This

II. 4.


. A nulect circle of friends seems to have been in the habit of assembling ut the house of Photius for the purpose of reading aloud literature of all kinds, secular and religious, pagan and Christian. His library was thus at the service of friends who were qualified to appreciate it. His brother Tarasius was a member of this reading-club, and when Photius was sent on a mission to the East, Tarasins, who had been unable to attend a number of the gatherings, isked him to write synopses of those books which had been read in his absence. Photius complied with this request, and probably began the task, though he cannot have completed it, before liis return to Constantinople.'

le numerates more than 270 volunes," and descriles their contents sometimes very brietly, sometimes at considerable length. As some of these works are long, and as many other books must have been l'eul when Tarusius Wils present, the read. iny slunces must have continued for several years. The lange of reading was wide. llistory wils represented by author's from the earliest to the latest period; for instance, Herodotus, Ktesias, Theopompus, Dionysius of Jlalicarnassus, Appian, Josephus, Arrian, Plutarch, Diodorus, Dion Cassius, Herodian, Procopius, to name some of the most fumiliar names. Geographers, physiologists, writers on medicine and agriculture, grainmuriang," us well is crutors und rhetoricians, furnished entertainment to this omnivorous society. All or almost all the works of the ten Attic orators were recited, with the exception of Lycurgus, whose speeches, we are expressly told, there wils no time to read. We may note also Lucian, the life of Apollonius the Wonderworker by Philostratus, the lives of Pythagoras and Isidore, and a work on Persian magic.? Fiction was not disduined. The romances of Iamblichus, Achilles Tatius, and Antonius Diogenes were read, as well as the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, which Photius highly appreciated. The theological and ecclesiastical items in the list largely preponderate; but it mny gratify us to note that their proportion to the umber of pagan and secular works is not more than double; and we mny even suspect that if we could estimato not by the tale of volumes but by the number of words or pages, we should find that the hours devoted to Hellenic literature and learning were not vastly fewer than those which were occupied with the clifying works of the Fathers and controversial theologians. We are ourselves under a considerable debt to l'hotius for his notices of books which aro no longer in existence. His lony analysis of the histories of Ktesins, his full descriptions of the novel of lamblichus and the romance of Thule by Antonius Diogenes, his ample suminary of part of the treatise of Agatharthides on the Red Sen, may specially we mentioned. But it is a matter for our

I See liis l'refatory dedication to issumption. A critical edition of the Tarasjuls, which shows that he begilll work is much wanted, and the ground ther work when he was alread. lle is being prepared by E. Martini, who had some illiculty in finding a in his Prijeschichte der bibliotheke Scretary, and die implies that he iles Pulr. Photios ron kpl., I. Toil wrotu prom l'mory.

The articles (albharullungen der phil..hisi. kl. der viry greatly in length: the first 60 ki sürhs. Gius, eler l'iss. xxviii. No. 6, Occopy less than 19 pages out of 54.1 in 1911), studies tho MSS., and concludes Biktir's colition; the last 60 extend that the textual trailition depends 10 1368 pages. There are many of the mainly on the Couel. Murciani 150 long analyses which we cannot suppose

anit 451. l'hotius to have written without the ? 279 accoriling to his l'roface. bortis before him; and we may (01)- There aro uctually 280 articles, but clude that lie drew up the whole list there is no inconsistency, as vol. 208 and wrote the short articles at the (p. 496), the Orations of Lycurgus, was beginning from memory, and continued not read. But there are a number of the work on a larger scale when he doublets : several works are enumerreturneul. Iu determining the length atel twice though dilli-rently described of his articles he was indeed guided by (IPhilostratus, Vilu puollonii; Josephus,

s another principle, which loc notes in Archneologia ; Isocrates; Hierocles, his l'refiucc. Ilo intended to treat moro tepla povolas ; Dionysius of Argic; brielly those books which he might Diodorus ; Hlimerius). Evidently in assiline his brother would have read the drafting of the list, some repeti. himself (xarà orautóv). Krumbacher tions crepit in ; and, as the work was has suggested that the l’reface may probably composed at intervals, Phot. be entirely a literary fiction, but it coulil casily have forgotten one notico seemis quite explicable without that when he came to write the second.

be regret, and perhaps for wonder, thunt ho seems to have tnken no interest in the Greek poets. The Bibliotheca is occupied exclusively with writers of prosu.

Photius gave an impulse to classical learning, which ensured its cultivation among the Greeks till the full of Constantinople. His intluence is undoubtedly responsible for the literary stulies of Arethas, who was born at Patrae towards the close of our period, and became, curly in the tenth century, archbishop of Cruesitren.& Arethas collected books.


Several lexicons and glossaries wore road to the patient audience (articley 1415 syy.).

By the heretic Theodore of Mopstestia.

On Arethas see Harnack, Joie i'berlieferung der yr. Apoloyrten des 2sten Juhrh., in Terte 16. Intersu. chungen, i. pp. 36-46, 1883. Cl also Krumbacher, C.B.... 524.


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