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heresy. The virtue of the saint proved efficacious; the young man recovered ; but the repentance was hollow, he returned to his error; then retribution followed and he died. This is one of the numerous stories invented to glorify the abbot of Studion, the bulwark of image-worship.'

One of the gravest offences of Theodore in the Emperor's eyes was doubtless his attempt to excite the l'ope to intervene in the controversy. We have two letters which he, in conjunction with other image-worshippers, addressed to Pope Paschal I. from Bonita.? His secret couriers maintained communications with Rome, where some important members of the party had found a refuge," and Paschal was induced to send to Leo an argumentative letter in defence of images.

The rigour of the treatment dealt out to Theodore was exceptional. Many of the orthodox ecclesiastics who attended the Synod of April A.D. 815 submitted to the resolutions of that assembly. Those who held out were left at large till the end of the year, but early in A.D. 816 they were conducted to distant places of exile. This hardship, however, was intended only to render them more amenable to the gentler method of persuasion. After a few days, they were recalled to Constantinople, kept in mild continement, and after Easter (April 20), they were handed over to John the Grammarian, who presided over the monastery of Saints Sergius and Bacchus. He undertook to convince the abbots of their theological error, and his efforts were crowned with success in the case of at least seven.

Others resisted the arguments of the seducer, and among them were Hilario

them were Hilarion, the Exarch of the Patriarchal monasteries, and Theophanes the Chronographer.

1 Theso details about Theodore's nople (Ep. 277, Cozza-Luzi). banishment are derived from Theo. Methoilius, abbot of Chênolakkos dore's Letters, from Michael's Vita (afterwards Patriarch of Constanti. Theodori, and a few from the Vita noplo); John, Bishop of Monembusia Nicolai.

(Ep. 193, Cozza-Luzi). Theodore, Epp. ii. 12 and 13. Part of this epistle is preserved in Paschal was elected in Jan. 817, and a Greek version and has been edited by the letters belong probably to 817 and G. Mercati, Note di letteratura biblica 818 respectively. Jolin of Eukairia, a e cristiana antica = Studi į Testi, 5). signatory of the first letter, did not 227 sqq., 1901. It contains some argusign the second ; he had in the mean. ients which appear to be new. time joined the iconoclasts (ib. ii. 35). 0 Our chief source here is Theo.

3 Dionysios who was in Rome at steriktos, Vit. Nic. xxx. sq. Nicetas, the beginning of 817 ; Euphemian (ib. abbot of Medikion, was taken to ii. 12); and Epiphanes, who was Masalaion (possibly in Lycaonia, cp. caught and imprisoned at Constanti. Ramsay, Asia Minor, 356), where he

Theophanes, whose chronicle was almost our only guide for the first twelve years of the ninth century, had lived a life unusually ascetic even in his own day, in the monastery of Ayros, at Sigriane near Cyzicus. He had not been present

" at the Synod nor sent into exile, but in the spring of A.D. 816 the Emperor sent him a flattering message, couched in soft words, requesting him to coine "to pray for us who are about to march against the Barbarians." Theophanes, who was suffering from an acute attack of kidney disease, obeyed the command, and was afterwards consigned to the custody of John. Proving obstinate he was confined in a cell in the Halace of Eleutherios for nearly two years, and when he was mortally ill of his inalndy, he was removed to the islund of Samothrace where he expired (March 12, A.V. 818) about three weeks after his arrival.

When we find that Leo's oppressions have been exaggerated in particular cases, we shall be all the more inclined to allow for exaggeration in general descriptions of his persecutions. We read that "some were put to death by the sword, others tied in sucks and sunk like stones in water, and women were stripped naked in the presence of inen and scourged.”• If remained for only 6 dnys. llo alle. north of the estuary of the Rhyndukos. cumbed to the argumoints of Jolin, Sigriane is to bucarefully distinguished but afterwards repented, and was from Sigrôno near the river Granikos, banished to the island of St. Glyceria with which Ramsay (alsia Minor, 102) "in the Gull," which Biittner: Wobust and others liavo identiliud it (Purgoiro, (1.2. vi. 08 sq.) identities (unconvinc. ib. 46-47). ingly, with Niandro. See also Theo. Nicephorus Blach. Vil. Theoph. dore, kr. 79, Cozza-Luzi, and Ep. ii

. 23. Thcophanes haid stone in iho 9; Salus, l'il. Jucar. 164 (Makarios bladder. of Polakete was one of those who died 3 For the day uco Anon. B. Vil. not yield); and the l'ilne of Theo. Theoph. 397 (and Anon. C. 293). For phanics. John Wils assisted in his the year neo l'urguire, op. cit. 73 899., work by Joseph, famous as the subject who fixes 818 by a process of exclusion. of the Mocchian controversy. Theo. Note that Anon. A. (p. 12) and Theod. core Stud. wrote to Theophanes Prot. Eakomio 816, say that Theo(while he was in 88. Sergius and phanes roceived 300 strokes before his Bacchus), congratulating him on his removal from Constantinoplo ; if this firmness (Ep. 140, Cozza-Luzi).

were true, the other biographer would · Sigrinne has been located in the not have failed to mention it. environs of Kurchunlıl, at the foot of • Ignatius, l'il. Nic. 200. The best Karadagh, between the mouth of the ovidence for the severity of tho porseRlyndukos and Cyzicus. See T. E. cution is in Theodore Stud.'s letters Eugelides, Η Μονή της Σιγριανής ή to Pope Paschal and the l'atriarch of του Μεγάλου Αγρου (Alli 115, 1895) 11 Alexandrin (tipp. ii. 12, 14). lle 8117. ; L'argoire, op. cit. 112 899. Tho mentions deaths fronn scourging and island of Kulonymos (ancient Besbikos, drownings in enchy (elol od ot xal modern Emir Ali Adisse), mentioned σακκισθέντες θαλασσεύθησαν άωρία, ώς in the biographies of Theophanes, who σαφές γέγονεν εκ των τούτους θεασαμένων, Pondel i mionitstory on it, lics duo li 1150).


such atrocities had been frequent, we should have heard much more about them. The severer punishments were probably inflicted for some display of fanatical insolence towards the Emperor personally. His chief object was to remove from the capital those men, whose influence would conflict with the accomplishment of his policy. But there may have been

" fanatical monks, who, stirred with an ambition to outstrip the boldness of Theodore of Studion, bearded the Emperor to his face, and to them may have been meted out extreme

i The statements about the suffer. beon thrown into porison. (Theod. ings of individuals' in hagiographical Stud., writing to him in A.]). 824, literaturo (in which the principle that Epp. ii. 213, p. 1641, asks hin, hulloring for orthodoxy enlianced merit “Wly, when you had intended to guided the writurs) cannot be accepted yo ulsowhere, were you compelled to without more ado. It is said that full into tho shares of tliose who Leo scourge Euthymios of Sardis and govern here?") It is not clear why banished him to Thasos (Acta Duviilis, he did not return to Jerusalem under 229). George the bishop of Mytilene Michuel II. ; ho is said to have lived was sent to Cherson, and replaced by then in a convent noar Brusa. Theo. Leo an iconoclast; he excited this dore and Theophanes were contined Emperor against the holy Simeon of by Leo in a fortress near the mouth of Lesbos, who, imitating his namesako the Bosphorus (sce Vailhe's study, tho Stylito, livod on a pillar at Molos, Saint alichel lc Syncellc). For the a harbour in the south of the island, Jersecution of Makarios, abbot of lele. huving fastened his culves to his kêtê (near Ephesus) seo l'it. Macarii thiglis with chains. The inhabitants

157-159, sq.

(Cp. Theodore Stud. weru ordered to bring wood to the Ep. 38, ul." Cozza..., p. 31.) Jolin, foot of the columu; when the tire was abbot of thu kathnroi nionistery (E. of kindlod, Simeon allowed himself to be thollarbour of Eloutherios), is said to takou down, and was bunished to have sullerul stripes and been banished Longusao, an island off the Troud (ib. first to a fort pour Lampo (Phrygin) 227 84'). Theophylactus of Nico

. and then to another in the Bukollariun mmodlin is said to have been struck in Themo (11.8. April 27, t. iii. 490). the fuce by the Emperor and banisi od to llilarion, abbot of the convent of Strobilos in the kilyrrhacot Theme (sce Dalmatos (or Dalmatoi ; 11. of the Synox. Ecc. Chl. 519-620, cp). Loparev, Forum Arcadii), was tortured by hunger Viz. Vremn, iv, 355). Michael, the Syn by the latriarch Theodotos, and then kellos of Jorusalem (born c. 761, maile confined in various prisons (4.8. Juno Syukellos 811), his friend Job, and 0, t. i. 759). Others who were mal. the two Palestinian brothor's Theodoro trouted, exiled, etc., were Aemilian, and Theophanes (see below, p. 136), bishop of Cyzicus (Symur. Ecc. Ch.875, were persecuted ly Leo. But the Vila cpr. 619), Eudoxios of Amorion (ib. Mich. Sync, is full of errors and must 619), and Michael of Symada (ib. 703, bo used with great caution. Theodore cp). Pargoire, Echos d'orient, iv. 347 und Theophanes seoni to have been 849., 1903). The last-nanied died in ilmong thoso monks who fled in the

A.1). 826. Joanncs, abbot of Psichî reign of Michael I. (on account of (ut Cple.); suffered according to his Molanmadan persecution : A.P, 812 biographier (l'it. Joann. lsich. 114 monusturies and churches in Palestino 899.) particularly harsh treatment, woro plundered) to Constantinople, He was flogsed, contined in various whiero the monastery of Chora was prisosis, and then tortured by one paced at their din produl. Michael ** who ontdid Jannos." This must seems to have been sont by the l'utri. moun not, ils the editor thinks, Jolie arch of Jerusalem on a mission to the Grammarian, but Thoodotos. (p. Rome in Lco's reign, ilu, tarrying on the story of the treatment of Hilarion. his way in Constantinople, to have

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penalties. Again, it is quite possible that during the destruction of pictures in the city, which ensued on their condemnution by the Synod, serious riots occurred in the streets, and death penalties may have been awarded to persons who attempted to frustrate the execution of the imperial commands. We are told that "the sucred representations "' were at the mercy of anyone who chose to work his wicked will upon them. Holy vestments, embroidered with sacred figures, were torn into slireds and enst ignominiously upon the ground; pictures and illuminnteil juismuls were cut up with axes and burnt in the public squares.

Some of the baser sort insulted the icons by smearing them with cow-dung and foul-sinelling ointments?

1 Ignatius, it. Nic, εκτυπώματα. 2 Ιοβολβίτους και αλοιφαίς και οδμαϊς αηδιζούσαις κατεχραινον.



(A.D. 820-829)

§ 1. The Accession of Michael (4.D. 890). The Coronation

and Marriage of Theophilus (A.D. 821) WHILE his accomplices were assissinating the Emperor, Michael lay in his cell, awaiting the issue of the enterprise which meant for him death or empire, according as it failed or prospered. The conspirators, as we have scen, did not bungle in their work, and when it was accomplished, they hastened to greet Michael as their new master, and to beur him in triumph to the Imperial throne. With his legs still encased in the iron fetters he sat on his august sent, and all the servants and officers of the palace congregated to full at his feet. Time, perhaps, seemed to fly quickly in the surprise of his new position, and it was not till midday that the gyves which so vividly reminded him of the sudden change of his fortunes were struck off his limbs. The historians tell of a. difficulty in finding the key of the fetters, and it was John Hexabulios, Logothete of the Course, who remembered that Leo had hidden it in his dress.

About noon, without washing his hands or making any other seemly preparation, Michael, attended by his supporters, proceeded to the Great Church, there to receive the Imperial crown froin the hands of the Patriarch, and to obtain recognition from the people. No hint is given as to the attitude of the Patriarch Theodotos to the conspiracy, but he seems

According to Cont. Th. (41), or broken with a hammer (uodis howover, the key was not forthcom. θλασθέντων). ing, and the futters were loosened * At the seventh hour, Gen. 30.



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