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settlements, but it is absurd to give the title of game ' reserve' to a bit of land only six miles broad in any direction. A very useful work has, however, been started by the Hon. Oliver Howard, sometime British Resident at Bornu. This capable official has established a reserve, twenty-five to thirty-five miles wide, along the whole western shore of Lake Tchad. We can only hope that the reserve is not neglected.

The officials of the British South Africa Company declare that game of all kinds is strictly preserved under the Game Preservation Ordinances, and that the laws are on the whole well observed by the white population. But they would, probably, not deny that large quantities of animals are yearly destroyed by the natives, who are not deterred by penalties. Two reserves at least have been established.* But more are needed; and, above all, watchers are required.

Under the new rule in South Africa the need of game preservation is fully recognised by the British officials and the more intelligent Dutch farmers. Even under Mr. Kruger's rule there was a nominal close time from September 15 to February 1, and elephants and hippopotami were absolutely protected. In the Orange Free State the close time was from September 1 to January 20. Both cases show how easy it is to make regulations too late and to countenance their constant evasion. In the Transvaal Colony a reserve has been established in the angle between the Oliphant's River and the Portuguese frontier near Barberton. The penalty for killing any game within the reserve is 100%. fine, or six months' imprisonment in default. The chief occupants of the reserve, it is interesting to learn, are described as :

'One old rhino (full of lead), one small herd of elephants, a fair stock of ostriches, five to nine giraffes, a nice stock of wildebeest, a great lot of impala, two or three nice lots of a dozen or so each of buffalo, a nice stock of Burchell's zebra, a nice stock of klipspringers where there are kopjes, plenty of waterbuck, a nice stock of kudu, a few sassaby, a few roan antelope; sable antelope doubtful, eland doubtful if any left.'

We believe that the Transvaal reserves are the best managed of any in Africa. There is now a Transvaal Game Protection Association, and though the game suffered

* Government Notice No. 51 of 1903. The second is in the Luangwa district of North-east Rhodesia, and dates from December 31, 1904.

fearfully during the war, there is a good prospect of saving what remains, though many beasts have been almost exterminated.

In Cape Colony, steps were taken to save what survived of the game whilst the Boers farther north were still shooting everything they could; and there was a time when there was probably more game five miles from Cape Town than 600 miles up country. In the Colony regulations were made by which elephants, hippopotami, buffaloes, zebras, koodoos, hartebeests, and other large antelopes, might only be shot by those who held a Government permit. We regret to hear of an agitation in the Cape Press to destroy the last of the elephants in the Addo Bush, which ought to be turned into a national park and preserved from settlers. A large tract of country in Bushmanland has been already set aside as a reserve. The last reports from the Cape show that buffaloes and gemsbok are reduced in numbers and koodoos only just holding their own. On the other hand, bonteboks show a slight increase, and blesboks in the Steynsburg district form a herd of over 600 head. Zebras are said to be more numerous, and gnus are becoming fairly abundant again in Bechuanaland and Griqualand West. The elands are now reduced to a herd of ten, preserved on private property in the Graaf Reinet district.*

The big game of Natal has never been so harried as that of Cape Colony. In the Drakensberg even a few elands and mountain zebras have been preserved by the Government. Mr. A. D. Millar, of Durban, has organised a Natal Game Protection Society, and the authorities are fully alive to the duties which they owe to posterity.

To sportsmen one might appeal with frankness not to waste the game, lest there should soon be none for them to hunt. Herr Schilling's book, which contains some very remarkable instantaneous photographs of big game, shows that a sportsman may employ himself with a camera as well as a rifle. But the love of killing, and the value of the animals when killed, are great, and we have no hope or wish that photography may supersede shooting.

Although Great Britain was the last of the nations to awake to the scramble for Africa, she has been to the fore in preserving the precious fauna. It has been well known that the preservation of big game is a subject in which Mr. E. N. Buxton takes an interest, and it is mainly

* See The Field,' February 11, 1905.

owing to his efforts that a meeting was held in December 1903 at the Natural History Museum. The result of this meeting was the formation of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire,* a body which numbers among its members a small but distinguished company of naturalists and sportsmen. It is much to be hoped that the Society will be vigilant and active, for the present moment is an excellent one for advancing the objects they have in view. The civilised world has been shocked by the appallingly rapid destruction of animals. The conference held at London shows that the support of foreign Powers can be hoped for. Pro-consuls and lesser officials, in different parts of the Empire, are mostly willing to turn sympathetic ears to remonstrances against the unrestricted butchery of animals in their provinces. Much may be done by bringing the public opinion of persons at home to the notice of officials on the spot. At the Foreign Office in London Sir Clement Hill was always ready to help. But now, since April 1, 1905, the Colonial Office has taken over the last remaining African Protectorates which hitherto were under Foreign Office rule. A deputation of persons interested in saving the big game waited upon the Colonial Secretary in February last. He listened with sympathy, but dismissed them without any hope that money would be spent on watching the reserves, or even that the reserves would be protected from the depredations of settlers. Africa is a big country. It does not seem much to ask that, out of the ten million square miles in that great continent, a few thousands should be set aside, even at some inconvenience to settlers and some cost to the national exchequer, to preserve for a few centuries longer the splendid African fauna.

* Mr. Rhys Williams, of 2 Temple Gardens, Temple, E.C., is the honorary secretary of this Society.

VOL. CCII. NO. CCCCXIV.

F F

ART. VII.-THE STUDY OF GREEK.

1. Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts auf den Deutschen Schulen und Universitäten &c. Von DR. FRIEDRICH PAULSEN. Leipzig: 1885.

2. Geschichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Von ADOLF HARNACK. 4 vols.

Berlin: 1900.

3. First Report of the Studies and Examinations Syndicate. Cambridge University Press. 1904.

4. Discussion of the First Report of the Studies and Examinations Syndicate. Cambridge University Press. 1904. 5. Greek and its Humanistic Alternatives in the Little-Go.' By KARL BREUL. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. 1905.

THE HE recent decision of the Senate of the University of Cambridge to retain Greek, as a subject to be taken by all candidates for a degree, might well seem to portend the shelving of the entire question for another fourteen years. The enthusiastic supporters of the non-placet demonstration have, however, already become aware that the Syndicate whose recommendations they have rejected has not been dissolved, but has been invited to continue its labours, with the co-operation of four new members, until June 1906. It is consequently by no means improbable that the grievance which has been distinctly recognised by a majority of the resident voters may yet be redressedpossibly by the expedient which has already been suggested in more than one influential quarter, a modification of the requirements of the Little-Go' and the creation of a new bachelor's degree.

But whatever may be the immediate result of further deliberations at Cambridge, it is scarcely probable that either of our ancient Universities will be able much longer to maintain that uncompromising attitude in relation to the requirements of non-classical students which the recommendations of the Syndicate were designed to modify; and while the widespread interest excited by the recent contest at Cambridge is still fresh in the minds of many-an interest almost unprecedented as displayed in connexion with a purely academic question-it may be not inopportune to place before our readers some account of the remarkable

changes which Greek as a study has undergone during the past four centuries. However imperfect as an historical outline, the retrospect may yet serve to suggest considerations calculated to qualify or illustrate some points in the controversy recently waged with so much ardour and such sincerity of conviction by the contending disputants.

The value of the study of a language and its literature, it must be borne in mind, cannot be looked upon as a constant quantity, an unchanging asset, in every scheme of education. It is otherwise with mathematics. So long as science and civilisation continue to advance, we can conceive of no condition of society wherein it would not seem desirable that geometry, trigonometry, and algebra should form part of the mental training of each rising generation. The utility of such studies is too obvious to be gainsaid; the mental benefit derived from their pursuit is attested by long experience. The same, although in a less degree, may be urged on behalf of logic. And originally, the study of the two classic languages stood on very much the same footing. On the direct use of Latin to the monk, the priest, the chronicler, and the educator in mediæval times, it is unnecessary here to enlarge; while we have to remember also that it eventually became the medium of intercourse between the educated class throughout Europe. But it is not until the Renaissance of learning, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, that we find Greek beginning to assume in Western Europe an importance at all comparable to Latin; while with respect to both languages their value, like that of every other language, was necessarily a variable quantity according as they came into competition with other acquirements, and more especially with those which, while also affording a large amount of mental training, were essentially progressive in their tendency, conducing to fresh theorisation and developements in fields of research of which Aristotle never dreamed. But while, by the Latin races, Latin itself could hardly be regarded as a foreign tongue, it was otherwise with Greek; and when we consider how the study which had once shone with a certain lustre in both Ireland and France in the ninth century subsequently died out, there seems little probability that it would have revived again had not the estimate of its value become materially enhanced. To put it as concisely as the case admitsancient Greek was again studied in Western Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries mainly because it was believed that its newly discovered literature enshrined nearly all that

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