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portance, in addition to those already enumerated in this article. Conspicaous amongst these measures may be cited the improvement of the criminal laws of Canada; the consolidation of the statutes; the extension of the municipal system; military organisa tion; the establishment of a direct steam mail communication with Europe; the inspection of reformatories, prisons, penitentiaries, and asylums; the reorganisation of the Civil Service on a permanent basis; the construction of the Inter-Colonial and the Canadian Pacific Railways; the enlargement of the canals; the enactment of a stringent election law; the exten

sion of the franchise; the ratification of the Washington Treaty; and the extension and consolidation of the Dominion.

Sir John Macdonald was twice married-first, to Isabella, daughter of Mr. Alexander Clark, of Dainavert, Inverness-shire, who died in 1856; and, secondly, to Susan Agnes, daughter of the Hon. T. J. Bernard, member of Her Majesty's Privy Council of Jamaica. Amongst the numerous marks of esteem from all sides which were showered upon his widow, the most significant was the peerage under the title of Baroness Earnecliffe, conferred upon her in recognition of her husband's great services to the Empire.

On the 1st, at Hillside, Bracknell, aged 90, Sir Robert Pigot of Patshull, fourth Baronet. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge; sat for Bridgenorth, 1832-53. Was the owner of several well-known racehorses. Married, first, in 1826, Mary, daughter of William Bamford, of Bamford, Lancashire, and second, in 1850, Emily, daughter of Samuel Yates Benyon, of Ash Hall, Salop, and Stetchworth Park, Cambridge. On the 1st, at Onslow Gardens, aged 64, Lieutenant-Colonel Edmund D'Arcy Hunt, of 6th Inniskilling Dragoons. Served with 9th Lancers at Chillianwallah and Gujerat, and with the Inniskillings at Balaclava, Inkerman, &c. On the 2nd, at Croydon, aged 82, Admiral Robert Dawes Aldrich. Entered Royal Navy in 1824, and served for three years on the West African station; was attached to the Resolute discovery ship when engaged, 1850-51, in the search for Sir John Franklin, and led the sledge expedition to Somerville and Lowther islands. On the 2nd, at Liverpool, aged 79, William Cliff, a West India merchant and shipowner, who had devoted upwards of 100,000l. to charitable purposes, and was one of the three persons on whom the Liverpool City Council had conferred the honorary freedom of their city. On the 2nd, at Belgrave Mansions, S.W., aged 80, Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S., an eminent civil engineer, son of Henry Hawkshaw, of Leeds. Educated at Leeds Grammar School. Married, 1835, Ann, daughter of Rev. James Jackson, of Green Hammerton, co. York. Knighted, 1873. The great ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea, and the Severn Tunnel, were among his most important achievements. On the 3rd, at Barnwood, aged 77, Rev. William James Kennedy, youngest son of the Rev. Rann Kennedy, vicar of St. Paul's, Birmingham. Educated at the Grammar School there and at St. John's College, Cambridge; B.A., 1837. Appointed, 1848, one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools in the north-western counties, and held the post for thirty years. On the 4th, at Quetta, aged 53, Colonel Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry St. John, K.C.S.I., eldest son of Captain Oliver St. John, of Madras army. Born at Ryde, I.W.; educated at Addiscombe; Lieutenant, R.E., 1856; Superintendent of Persian Telegraphs, 1863–71; Boundary Commissioner of PersoKalet frontier, 1873-5; Principal of Mayo College, Ajmir, 1875-8; and subsequently as Political Agent in Afghanistan and elsewhere. Married, 1869, Janette, daughter of James Ormond, of Abingdon, Oxon. On the 4th, at Forest Hill, S.E., aged 78, General Samuel Netherville Lowder, C.B. Commanded a detachment of marines on board H.M.S. Arrogant in the Baltic, 1854-5; served in Mexico, and commanded at the joint occupation of Vera Cruz, 1861-2; afterwards Aide-de-camp to the Queen, 1863-8. On the 5th, at Ischl, aged 72, Dr. Leopold Hagner, one of the promoters of the Liberal movement in Austria in 1860. He subsequently became Prime Minister in 1870, holding the portfolio of Public Instruction, when he passed the Primary Schools Act, endowing Austria with a system of free and undenominational education. On the 6th, at Brighton, aged 83, Charles Kaye Freshfield, of Upper Gatton, Redhill, son of James William Freshfield. Educated at the Charterhouse. Admitted solicitor, 1831; and partner in the firm acting for the Bank of England till 1870. Sat as a Conservative for Dover, 1865-8, and 1874-85. Married, 1835, Elizabeth Sims, daughter of Daniel Stephenson. On the 6th, aged 85, Frederick Calvert, Q.C., younger son of General Sir Harry Calvert, G.C.B. Educated at Harrow, where he was head of the school and captain of the eleven, and at Christ Church, Oxford; elected Fellow of Merton; called to the bar, and eventually became one of the leaders of the Parliamentary bar. Sat as a Liberal

for Aylesbury, 1852-7, and for more than twenty years was the most active member of the Board for the Administration of Queen Anne's Bounty. Married, 1864, Lady Lucy Herbert, daughter of second Earl of Powis. On the 7th, at Vitie, aged 53, Colonel Lebel, the inventor of the rifle used in the French army. He had been taken prisoner at Sedan during the Franco-Prussian war. On the 9th, at Careggi, near Florence, aged 80, Padre Curci, a native of Naples, who in early life joined the Jesuit body, and distinguished himself by his readiness as a speaker and writer, especially in his reply to Gioberti's attack upon the Jesuits. After 1848, and still later after the absorption of Rome by Italy, he endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation between the Papacy and the Italian Government; but his pamphlets were placed on the Index of forbidden books. On the 10th, at Waterford, aged 52, Right Rev. John Egan, D.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. Educated at St. John's College, Waterford, and Maynooth; ordained, 1862; President of the Diocesan College, Ennis, 1876; Coadjutor Bishop of Killaloe; Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland, and a Commissioner of Intermediate Education. On the 10th, at Tetbury, aged 81, General Sir Archibald Little, G.C.B., son of Archibald Little, of Shabden Park, Surrey. Educated at Charterhouse; entered Army, 1831; served with 9th Lancers in Sutlej campaign, 1846, and held command in Indian Mutiny; Colonel of 11th Hussars, 1873-5, and of 9th Lancers since 1875. Married, first, 1854, Jane, daughter of Malcolm Orme, and second, 1870, Elizabeth, daughter of General W. F. Loftus and widow of Captain E. R. C. Shebden. On the 11th, at Robertsbridge, Sussex, aged 64, Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon, daughter of Benjamin Smith, many years M.P. for Norwich, and a banker at Hastings. Born at Watlington, Sussex, she started at an early age the Englishwoman's Journal. In 1866 she joined in an experiment for extending university education to women, first at Hitchin, and afterwards at Girton College, Cambridge, which was liberally supported by her. She was the author (1869) of "A Brief Summary of the Laws of England concerning Women," and was a watercolour artist of considerable power. She married, in 1857, Dr. Eugène Bodichon, a French physician and philanthropist, and, like herself, a resident in Algiers. On the 11th, at Hammersmith, aged 62, James Beal, L.C.C. By business an auctioneer and estate agent, he took a keen interest in politics. He was a vigorous opponent of the newspaper stamp duty, and was instrumental in securing the passing of the Metropolis Gas Act, and subsequently the London County Council, of which he was elected member for Fulham. He was the first to institute proceedings against the incumbent of St. Barnabas, Pimlico, for Ritualistic services. On the 11th, at Boultibrook, Presteign, aged 83, Sir Harford James Jones-Brydges, second Baronet. Educated at Merton College, Oxford; B.A., 1830. High Sheriff for Radnorshire, 1852. Married, 1850, at Barrie, Canada West, Mary S., daughter of Captain John Moberly, R.N. On the 14th, at Lennox Gardens, London, aged 65, Mary, Baroness De Lisle and Dudley, daughter and heir of Sir William Foulis of Ingleby Manor, co. York. Married, 1850. On the 15th, at Great Cumberland Place, W., aged 76, Morgan Hugh Foster, C.B., son of John Foster, of Brickhill, Bedfordshire. Many years Financial Secretary at the Treasury; employed on special missions in Turkey, 1861-3, and India, 1863-6; retired on a pension, and became manager of the Ottoman Bank at Constantinople. Married, 1838, Mary, daughter of George Flint. On the 16th, at Sydney Street, Chelsea, aged 91, The O'Gorman Mahon. Colonel James Patrick O'Gorman Mahon, M.P., was educated at the Monastery of Dublin, and subsequently took M.A. in the University of Dublin. Married, 1830, Christina, daughter of John O'Brien. Sat as a Liberal for co. Clare, 1830-1, but was unseated for bribery, his place being taken by Maurice O'Connell; Ennis, 1847-52; Clare co., 1879-85; and as a Nationalist for Carlow since 1886. He was called to the bar, but never practised, and in the intervals of political life served in the Peruvian navy, where he attained the rank of Admiral. On the 16th, at Clifton, aged 65, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Gustavus Hume, son of Rev. Robert Hume, of Dublin. Entered 38th Regiment, 1843; served through the Crimean campaign, 1854–5, and Indian Mutiny, 1857-8; Inspector of Volunteers, 1860-5. Entered the Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, 1872; Lieutenant, 1878. Married, 1857, Ellen Caroline, daughter of Charles Vernon, of Clifton. On the 17th, at Beningborough Hall, co. York, aged 75, Hon. Payan Dawnay, younger son of sixth Viscount Downe. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; High Sheriff for Yorkshire, 1851. On the 19th, at Elford Hall, Staffordshire, aged 75, Hon. Alfred W. Bagot, son of second Lord Bagot. On the 19th, at Horsham, aged 78, Sir Prescott Gardiner Hewett, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., first Baronet, son of W. N. W. Hewett, of Bilham Hall, near Doncaster. Studied medicine at St. George's

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Hospital, London, and in Paris; admitted, 1836; became Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, and subsequently President of the Royal College of Surgeons; SerjeantSurgeon to the Queen, and was a distinguished watercolour artist and an honorary member of the R.W.S. Married, 1849, Sarah E., daughter of Rev. J. Cowell, of Todmorden. Created a Baronet, 1883, on his retirement from active practice. On the 20th, at Malmesbury, Wilts, aged 84, Isabella Catherine, Dowager Countess of Suffolk and Berkshire, daughter of Lord Henry Molyneux Howard, and niece of the twelfth Duke of Norfolk. Married, 1829, Charles, seventeenth Earl of Suffolk. On the 20th, at Upper Norwood, aged 49, Alexander Charles Ewald, of H.M. Record and State Paper office, and the author of several historical works, including "Life and Times of Algernon Sidney" (1877), "Sir Robert Walpole (1878), "Studies Restudied" (1885). On the 21st, at St. James's Place, S.W., aged 52, John Henry, fourth Earl of Clonmell. 1st Life Guards, 1857-67. Elected a representative peer for Ireland, 1874. On the 23rd, at Berlin, aged 58, General Bronsart von Schellendorff, commander of 1st Army Corps. Attached to the Grand General Staff during the Franco-Prussian war, he received the surrender of Sedan. Minister of War, 1881-3. He was of Huguenot descent, and was born at Dantzic. On the 24th, at Mentone, aged 81, Sir George Macleay, K.C.M.G., of Pendell Court, Bletchingly, son of Alexander Macleay, F.R.S., Speaker of the Legislative Council, N.S.W. Educated at Westminster. Returned to Australia, where he became a leading colonist, and the promoter of several expeditions into the interior of the continent. Married, first, 1842, Barbara St. C., daughter of James Innes, of Thrumster, Caithness, and second, 1890, Augusta A., daughter of William Gardner Sams, of Launceston, Tasmania. On the 25th, at Kensington, aged 72, Richard Henry Major, F.S.A., for many years keeper of the department of Magna Charta in the British Museum, and the editor for the Hakluyt Society of numerous works on travels and voyages, for which he was decorated by the Sovereigns of Portugal, Brazil, and Italy. On the 27th, at Derby, aged 81, Anne Mozley, daughter of Henry Mozley, of the Friary, Derby, and sister of Canon Mozley, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, with whom she co-operated in his church work, and became his literary executor. Cardinal Newman bequeathed to her the duty of giving his life and letters to the public. On the 30th, at Ditchling, Sussex, aged 89, Charles Stewart, second son of Major Philip Stewart, of Brighton. Called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1838, having contested the borough of Penrhyn at the time of the Reform Bill. He was defeated in 1830, elected in 1831, and defeated in 1832.


Hon. Algernon Fulke Egerton, third son of Lord Francis Egerton (created first Earl of Ellesmere), was born in 1825, and educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford; B.A., 1849; Fellow of All Souls, 1851; D.C.L., 1857. Sat as a Conservative for South Lancashire, 1859-68, and for South East Lancashire, 1868-80. Was Secretary to the Admiralty, 1874-80. In 1880 he was defeated in his former constituency, but in 1882 was returned for Wigan, retiring in 1885. In 1890, on the death of his nephew, he contested the Eccles Division of Lancashire against Mr. Roby, but was defeated. He was Honorary Colonel of the Lancashire Yeomanry Cavalry and of the 4th Volunteer Battalion of the Manchester Regiment. He married, 1863, Alice Louise, daughter of Lord George Cavendish, M.P., and died in Belgrave Place on July 14 from a paralytic stroke after ten days' illness.

The Earl of Westmorland.-Francis

William Henry James, the third son of the eleventh Earl of Westmorland, was born 1825, and after some years at Westminster, entered Sandhurst and passed into the Army, serving through the Punjab campaign, 1846. On his return from India he exchanged into the Coldstream Guards, with whom he served with distinction in the Crimea, bringing home the despatches announcing the victory at the Alma. He was appointed Aidede-camp to H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, 1856-60, when, having succeeded to the peerage, he retired from the Army with the rank of Colonel. Married, 1857, Lady Adelaide Ida Curzon, second daughter of first Earl Howe, G.C.B. In 1860 Lord Westmorland first began to run horses, trained in Goater's stable; but he never won any of the great threeyear-old prizes. Marigold, who won the Stewards' Cup at Goodwood, and afterwards became the dam of Doncaster; and Rama, who won the Goodwood Stakes and beat Lord Lyon for the Doncaster

Cup, were among his best horses. He died on July 31.

The Earl of Wicklow.-The Right Hon. Cecil Ralph Howard, Earl of Wicklow, who died at Shelton Castle, co. Wicklow on July 24, was the second son of Rev. the Hon. Francis Howard, Vicar of Swords. He was born in 1842, educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1867), and entered the 60th Rifles, in which he was Captain when, in 1881, he succeeded his brother as sixth Earl of Wicklow. He married,

first, 1876, Francesca, second daughter of Thomas Chamberlayne, of Cranbury Park, Hants; and second, 1880, Fanny,. daughter of Richard R. Wingfield, of Fairy Hill, Bray. In 1881 he was elected a Representative Peer for Ireland. He descended from Dr. Ralph Howard, President of the College of Physicians in Ireland and Regius Professor of Medicine, 1674, attainted by James II.'s Parliament, 1688, who purchased the family-seat near Arklow from the Duke of Ormonde.

On the 2nd, at Paris, aged 81, Prince Vladimir Dolgoroukow, Aide-de-camp to the Czar. Served with distinction in the Caucasus, and was Governor of Moscow, 185690. On the 3rd, at Malvern, aged 88, Theodosia, Dowager Baroness Monson, daughter of Major Latham Blacker, of Newent, co. Gloucester. Married, 1832, Frederick, fifth Baron Monson. On the 3rd, at Paris, aged 90, Janet Macintosh Waddington, née Chisholm, mother of the French Ambassador to England. Born in Scotland. Married Thomas Waddington, son of an English merchant settled in Paris and afterwards. a cotton spinner at Rouen. On the 4th, at Kalocsa, aged 75, Cardinal Louis Haynald. Created Bishop of Siebenbürgen, 1852; resigned his See in 1862, and went into exile on account of a disagreement with the Austrian Government on Transylvanian affairs; appointed by the Pope Archbishop of Carthage in partibus, and an establishment of dualism; returned to Hungary and appointed Archbishop of Kalocsa, spending a large portion of his revenues and private fortune on educational purposes. Pius IX. refused him the Cardinal's hat for having kissed the hand of Victor Emmanuel, but he subsequently received it on the strong representations of the Austro-Hungarian Government. On the 4th, at Berkeley Square,. aged 50, William Henry Gladstone, eldest son of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. Sat for Chester, 1865-8; for Whitby 1868-80, and for East Worcestershire, 1880-5; Junior Lord of the Treasury, 186974. Married, 1875, Hon. Gertrude, daughter of twelfth Lord Blantyre. On the 7th, at Long Ditton, aged 70, General Sir Orfeur Cavenagh, K.C.S.I., son of James Gordon Cavenagh. Educated at Addiscombe; served through the Gwalior campaign,. where he lost a leg in Sutlej campaign; had political charge of the Nepaulese Embassy to England, 1850; commanded at Calcutta during the Mutiny and frustrated the design of the mutineers to seize Fort William; Governor to the Straits Settlements, 1859-67. Married, 1842, Elizabeth, daughter of James R. Moriarty. On the 9th, in London, aged 53, Robert Reece, a writer of numerous popular burlesques produced at the Gaiety Theatre. On the 11th, at Eastbourne, aged 66, General Sir Charles Cureton, K.C.B. Served in the Sutlej campaign, 1845-6; Punjab campaign, 1848-9; Indian Mutiny, 1857-9, when he was in charge of the Intelligence. Department, and commanded Oude Division, 1879-84. Married Margaret S., daughter of Rev. W. H. Holmes, D.D., of Templemore. On the 14th, at Norwood, aged 79, John Sutherland, M.D., a distinguished sanitarian, frequently employed by the Board of Health, the Foreign and Colonial Offices, 1848-55, on commissions and inquiries; was sent to the Crimea to inquire into the sanitary condition of the British troops, 1855, and into that of the Army, 1858, and of the Indian army, 1863, and was a member of the Barracks and Hospital Improvement Commission, 1865-88. On the 17th, at Eastbourne, aged 63, Willoughby Smith, chief electrician and manager of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co. Superintended the manufacture of the first submarine cable, 1848; electrician in charge of Atlantic cable on board the Great Eastern, 1866, when he also recovered and completed the cable lost in the previous year; President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1883, and a successful inventor. On the 19th, at Hyde Park Gardens, aged 79, Lewis Loyd, of Monks Orchard, Surrey, an eminent banker of the firm of Jones Loyd, and brother of Lord Overstone; son of Edward Loyd, of Coombe House, Surrey. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. Married, 1845, Frances H., daughter of Admiral the Hon. Frederick Paul Irby, C.B., of Bayland Hall, Norfolk. On the 20th, at Chideock Manor, Dorset, aged 67, Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld, G.C M.G., second son of Humphry Weld. Educated at Stonyhurst and Freiburg (Switzerland).

Emigrated to New Zealand, 1843; appointed member of Executive Council, 1854; Minister for Native Affairs, 1860; Prime Minister, 1864–5; appointed Governor of Western Australia, 1869; of Tasmania, 1874, and of the Straits Settlements, 1880. Married, 1859, Filomena, daughter of Ambrose Phillippe de Lisle. He was the first to explore some of the uninhabited districts of the Middle Islands, N.Z. On the 20th, at Newburgh, N.B., aged 69, Sir William Fettes Douglas, P.R.S.A., son of James Douglas, accountant. Educated at the Southern Academy and Edinburgh High School; clerk in the Commercial Bank, 1836-46. He first exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1845, and for ten years devoted himself to landscape painting. Was elected an Associate in 1851 and a Full Member of the Scottish Academy in 1854. He subsequently took to figure-painting, and produced some very successful historical and subject pictures; acted in 1869 as Secretary to the National Gallery, Scotland, and was its Curator from 1877-82, when he was elected President. Married, 1870, Marion, daughter of Baron Grahame of Morphie, Kincardine. On the 24th, at Horsham, aged 37, Sir Harry Hammerton Hewett, second Baronet, only son of Sir Prescote Hewett, the eminent surgeon, whom he survived only a few weeks. On the 26th, at Queen Anne's Gate, aged 75, Sir Charles Forster, Bart., M.P., only son of Charles Smith Forster, of Lysways Hall, Rugeley. Educated at Worcester College, Oxford; joined the Inner Temple and called in 1843; sat as a Liberal for Walsall from 1852 until his death; for many years Chairman of the Committee on Public Petitions. After addressing the House on the Railway Rates Bill he was suddenly taken ill, was conveyed home, and died within forty-eight hours. He married, 1840, Frances C., daughter of John Surtees of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and a niece of Lord Eldon. Was created a Baronet in 1874. On the 26th, at Grenville Place, South Kensington, aged 66, Jasper Wilson Johns, only son of Thomas Evans Johns, of Cardiganshire, an architect and engineer. Married, 1855, Emily Theresa, daughter of James Bird, M.D., of London. Returned as a Liberal for the Nuneaton Division of Warwickshire in 1885, but defeated in the following year. On the 27th, at Richmond, Surrey, aged 64, General Francis Adam Ellis, C.B. Educated at Addiscombe; entered Bombay army, 1844; served through the Punjab campaign, 1848-9; Indian Mutiny, 1857-8, and Abyssinian War; Commandant of the Scinde Frontier Force and Political Resident at Aden, 1877-82. Married, 1861, Catherine Gordon, daughter of Major-General A. T. Reid, C.B. On the 28th, at Berne, aged 40, Miss Jessie Fothergill, the author of "The First Violin," 1878, and several other novels, the first of which ("Healey ") was published in 1875. She was born at Cheetham Hill, Manchester, the daughter of Mr. Thomas Fothergill, merchant; related by marriage to the Bright family of Rochdale; educated at Düsseldorf. Her first contributions were to Temple Bar, in which most of her subsequent novels, chiefly relating to Lancashire life, appeared. -On the 31st, at Baden-Baden, aged 64, Prince Nicolas Borrissvich Coosoopoff, Privy Councillor and Marshal of the Russian Court. In 1854 he raised, equipped, and maintained two battalions of infantry for the Crimean campaign. He was a patron of many charitable institutions, a great musical amateur and a distinguished art collector.


The Earl of Dartmouth.-William Walter Legge, fifth Earl of Dartmouth, was born on Aug. 12, 1823, and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A., 1844. He sat as a Conservative for South Staffordshire, 1849-53, when he succeeded to the earldom. He married, 1846, Lady Augusta Finch, daughter of fifth Earl of Aylesford, and was appointed, 1887, Lord-Lieutenant Staffordshire. Lord Dartmouth, although a very keen politician, seldom spoke in the House of Lords; he was a warm supporter of the Established Church and a liberal subscriber to the


leading Church societies. As a magistrate, a landlord, and a neighbour, he was devoted to Staffordshire, and loved and respected by Staffordshire folk of all ages and classes. He warmly supported the middle-class schools of the district, and contributed liberally to the support of those whom, on careful investigation, he discovered to be worthy of help. Lord Beaconsfield on more than one occasion urged him to accept political office, and expressed his regret at his refusal, saying of him, “A man who, as befits his name, can ride well, reason well, and rule well, and his only faults are that he is a little too churchy

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