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Then the Conservatives conspired to overturn M. Thiers. They affected to understand the grounds of the authority of M. Jules Grévy, whose Presidency troubled their designs. His friends begged him to remain in any circumstances. But M. Grévy gave in his resignation. Some weeks later on, M. Buffet having succeeded M. Jules Grévy, the Conservative majority began their assault on M. Thiers. It is not known if M. Jules Grévy regretted greatly having hastened the fall of M. Thiers. But the Duc de Broglie, the strongest Ambassador that Government ever had, left London, returned to France, ascended the tribune, and there attacked with violence M. Thiers, whom he represented in London. On May 24, owing to the conspiracy of M. Buffet. M. Thiers was overthrown. In 1876, in the new elections, the majority became Republican, and M. Jules Grévy went with it. He ascended naturally to the chair. The 16th of May, 1877, sent him back to the Presidency of the Chamber. The day when M. Thiers died M. Grévy, who for seven years had played the second role in the Repable, found himself without effort invested with the first, and at the fall of Marshal MacMahon he was appointed Frealdent of of the Republic. It has been said that this post was offered to M. Dritares but this was not the same and M. Grésy, as President of the Republie, brought to his position his naturai
his natural fanie Hia nature, when did not love efort woome ! rather to the effort rive get to it by the Constitution wished it so, and be any
raised of the selling of decorations, in which M. Wilson was implicated, the egoism of the grandfather who adored his grandchildren and would not be separated from them overrode all other considerations, and, not wishing to leave them, it was only force that obliged him thereto. But those who were present on Dec. 1, 1887, in the couloirs of the Chamber were permitted to see the strange spectacle of an Assembly which desired to overthrow an old man, and which trembled before him because they supposed him capable of treason against the law, a rumour as ridiculous as it was false. The eagerness with which M. Grévy clung to the Presidency, after it had been made clear to him that no party was prepared to maintain him to the full, was an unexpected blemish in a career de voted to patriotism and the public good. His fall, however, was inevitable, and when he left the Elysée and once more resumed his private life, he was almost immediately lost to observation. For a short time he continued to reside at Paris, but each year his stay at his country house became prolonged, as he found himself more and more neglected by his old associates and supporters. He had lived perhaps too long, for none of the new Republican schools seemed anxious to secure his services. Ha was in no sense a great man, but he was eminently an honest one.
General Sir John Bloomfield Gough, G.C.B., who died at his residence, Knockeevan, Clonmel on Hept. 22, was the second son of the Very Rev. Inomas Banbury Gough, Dean of Derry, and nephew of Hogh Field Marshal Viscount Googh, and Benjamin, Lord Boomheid, 2 NE. KNOWI dip omat. He was bor in 1904, and entered the Army through the Royal Military Colege in 1220. were in the 22nd Voot and the 23rd Bora Wean Pailler, and exchanged de Cactain into the 3rd Ligna İmagpana, He proceed to India win his none, bir Hign Ong, wring on na itali tog teen matte INX
in Chica George, and tre kin He commantenatal h at the salt on A Wenn woh te a way way wounded
1876 G.C.B. He was appointed Colonel of the Royal Scots Greys in 1864. He married, first, in 1846, Margaret, daughter of Major-General Sir John M'Caskill, K.C.B.; and, secondly, 1850, Elizabeth Agnew, daughter of George Arbuthnot, of Elderslie, N.B.
Grand Duchess Paul, Princess Alexandra, the eldest daughter but third child of George I., King of the Hellenes, was born at Corfu Aug. 18-30, 1870, and was married June 17, 1889, to the Grand Duke Paul, youngest son of Czar Alexander II. In April, 1890, she had given birth to her first child, the Grand Duchess Marie Paulovna. On Sept. 15 a son was was born to her, but she never rallied, and died on Sept. 24 after some days of terrible suffering. The family party at Copenhagen was at once broken up, the Czar and Czarina hastening back at once to St. Petersburg, and all projected rejoicings on account of their silver wedding were postponed, the Grand Duchess Alexandra being especially beloved in her own family.
General Boulanger.-Georges Ernest Marie Boulanger was born on April 29, 1837, at Rennes, where his father practised as an avoué, and afterwards became the agent of an insurance company. His mother was Welsh by birth, a Miss Griffith, whose family had for some time resided in France. Their son, who had been destined for a military career, was admitted, after examination in 1855, as a pupil at the École Militaire de St. Cyr, and in the following year received his first commission as a Sous-Lieutenant in an Algerian regiment of Turcos, and before many months he had succeeded in attracting the favourable notice of his superior officers by his coolness under heavy fire in an expedition against the Kabyles. In 1859 he received a severe wound at the battle of Turbigo, for which he was rewarded by the Cross of the Legion of Honour, and in 1861 he found himself in Cochin China, where he was again wounded, this time by a lance thrust in the leg. In 1862 he was promoted to the rank of Captain, and from 1866 to 1870 held the post of Military Instructor at the Ecole St. Cyr. When the war with Prussia broke out, he was appointed chef de bataillon formed out of the debris of the Army of Sedan which had struggled back to Paris, and throughout the first part of the siege of Paris he showed great energy in reorganising his
At the battle of Champigny he held the grade of Lieutenant-Colonel and
was seriously wounded, a ball fracturing his shoulder whilst leading a charge. He recovered in time to take part in the second siege of Paris, and again was wounded, a ball striking him on the elbow at one of the last barricades. He became Colonel in 1874 and BrigadierGeneral in 1880; and, as is not uncommon in the French army, he applied for a command in an arm that was new to him, the cavalry, and exercised it for some months with much distinction.
In 1881 he was selected to be the chief of the mission sent by France to congratulate the Americans on the centenary of Yorktown; and there, it is said, that charm of manner which afterwards counted for so much towards his brief success as the head of a party was generally acknowledged. When he returned he went back to his cavalry command, but on May 16, 1882, he was nominated Director of Infantry at the War Office in Paris. This important appointment brought him to the centre of things, and gave him scope for the exercise of his very real energy, which at that time was directed to reforms that were generally applauded, some of which were subsequently attributed to the General's cousin, M. Clémenceau, afterwards his persistent opponent. He made himself almost indispensable at the War Office, and was retained at his post by successive and very dissimilar Ministers of War-Generals Thibaudin and Campenon.
In 1884 Boulanger was made General of Division, and went to command the army occupying Tunis. Here his energy was remarkable, and, not for the first time, he gave signs of that disposition to ignore the civil power which afterwards led to such serious results. An Italian who had struck a French officer was, as he thought, insufficiently punished; and Boulanger issued a fiery Order of the Day. M. Cambon, the French agent, protested, and General Boulanger soon afterwards resigned. But his retirement was brief, for on Jan. 7, 1886, he was appointed Minister of War in M. de Freycinet's new Cabinet, one of his colleagues, the Minister of Finance, being the M. Sadi Carnot who in 1888 was elected President to combat Boulangism.
Very soon his personality began to make itself felt. The Extreme Left were working in its favour, influenced in part by the relationship and friendship of M. Clémenceau towards the new Minister; and the reforms which the General was carrying out secured him a certain backing among neutral
people, who merely wished to see the French army strong. But what especially brought Boulanger to the fore was his conduct with regard to the expulsion of the Orleans Princes-conduct which made the subsequent behaviour of the Comte de Paris one of the almost incredible facts of contemporary history. General Boulanger was relentless in his action towards the Princes; and he fought a duel with Baron Lareinty in consequence of the strong language he used on this occasion. The discovery of some letters in which, years before, he had covered the Duc d'Aumale with fulsome praise only seemed to make him all the more popular with the mob; and his denial of the letters (which he was afterwards compelled to retract) made him the hero of the hour. He came-especially after the Schnaebele incident to be regarded as at once the General of la revanche and the organiser of democratic military reforms, and the music-halls re-echoed with songs in his honour. The law for imposing a universal term of three years' military service, instead of five, with exceptions, was also favourably received by the public; and when first the Freycinet Cabinet and then the Goblet Cabinet fell, there were loud and threatening demands for him to remain at the Ministry of War. When M. Rouvier became Premier, at Midsummer, Boulanger was not included in the new Cabinet; and the return of the General to the War Office became a question of street politics. Everywhere were seen pictures of him and his famous black horse; everywhere the song, "Il reviendra " was heard. It was soon after this that M. Jules Ferry, in a speech, called Boulanger "Un Saint-Arnaud de café-concert "-a mortal affront, which Boulanger was determined, if possible, to wipe out in the blood of a man whose destruction would have endeared him more than ever to the Parisian mob. The conditions of the duel which he insisted upon were so barbarous that M. Ferry's seconds broke off the affair.
By this time it was evident that Boulanger was ready for any kind of unconstitutional opposition to the existing state of things. Several groups of people began to regard him as a useful instrument for their schemes, avowed or unavowed; M. Déroulède and his "Ligue des Patriotes"; M. Rochefort and his miscellaneous "Intransigeants," and, behind, the more important elements of the Royalists and the money of their Prince. The struggle between M. Grévy's Ministers and the General
began by the latter being promptly ordered under close arrest at ClermontFerrand for thirty days. This gave strength and time to his friends, and "manifestations" became frequent. His return to Paris was dreaded by the authorities; but nothing happened, and the Presidential election took place without disturbance of the public peace. In February, 1888, came some partial elections, the country being then under the system of scrutin de liste. The Boulangists, reinforced with money from the Duchese d'Uzès and from the Comte de Paris himself, started their man in many constituencies. He was largely voted for, and in the Dordogne- an old Bonapartist department-was returned by 59,000 votes. Worse followed when in April, a vacancy occurred in the busy manufacturing department of the Nord, and when, after great efforts and great excitement, the General, with a "Revisionist" and "National " programme, carried the seat by 172,528 votes against a much smaller number for his antagonist. Three months of exciting intrigue and "demonstrations" followed, and then, in July, the career of the General was very nearly brought to an end. In the Chamber, on July 12, he used an "unparliamentary expression to M. Floquet and a duel followed. One of M. Floquet's seconds was M. Clémenceau ; the civilian got the better of the fight and dealt his adversary a dangerous wound in the neck, between the carotid artery and the jugular vein. For a moment his reputation in the eyes of the populace seemed also damaged. But he recovered from both wounds, the physical and the moral, and during the last months of the year his position became stronger than ever. At length, in January, 1889, came the vacancy in the representation of Paris. It was Boulanger's great chance, and he accepted it, but he did not know what use to make of fortune's favours. His opponent was M. Jacques, a Republican of the normal kind. The efforts made on both sides were prodigious. The whole of Paris was covered with posters; there were meetings everywhere. It was said, probably with truth, that 80,000l. of the Boulangist money was spent in this election alone. He polled 245,236 votes, against 162,875 for M. Jacques and 27,000 for other candidates. Why did he not at once march upon the Elysée? A little more of the money spent upon the guard would have secured his success. But the General did nothing. His friends shouted, and exulted, and conferred; but he had not the brains
and they had not the singleness of purpose to make their victory effectual.
The only result of the Paris election was the overthrow of M. Floquet's Government and the succession of M. Tirard, with the tacitly acknowledged programme of putting down Boulangism. M. Tirard had a strong colleague in M. Constans, the Minister of the Interior, who undertook the task. He began by suppressing the League of Patriots and prosecuting M. Déroulède and his friends, He followed up this successful stroke by another. He frightened Boulanger with the threat, very cleverly conveyed to him, of arrest, and perhaps of worse; and, to the bewilderment and disgust of all the party, on the night of April 2, 1889, the General disappeared. He had fled, some said in disguise, to Brussels. Almost at once the Senate was constituted into a High Court of Justice for the trial of General Boulanger, M. Rochefort, and others for high crimes and misdemeanours. The Procureur-General, M. Quesnay de Beaurepaire, presented a tremendous indictment, charging embezzlement, conspiracy, breaches of discipline, and many other crimes; and in due time the sentence was pronounced -imprisonment for life in a fortress. It was, in a sense, a brutum fulmen, for the General was safe in London, Jersey, or Brussels, among which harbours of refuge he passed his time and spent the relics of his friends' subscriptions. But the whole affair of the trial, the crushing demonstration of the prosecutor, and the wretchedly lame replies
that were offered by the General's friends had their effect, and the general election in the autumn of the year gave an overwhelming majority to the Republicans over the Boulangists and the Reactionaries combined. Later on the inevitable "revelations" came from within the camp of the conspirators, when a young Boulangist Deputy, M. Mermeix, published in the Figaro a series of articles called "Les Coulisses du Boulangisme." It was a miserable raising of the veil; and none of the revelations were seriously disputed. It involved the Bonapartists and the Royalists as deeply as the extreme Radicals; it showed the cynicism of Prince Napoleon in an only less unpleasant light than it showed the unscrupulousness of the Comte de Paris, who had advanced and rendered the return of the Orleans almost impossible. After leaving London in the early part of the year he retired to Jersey, in company with Mdle. de Bonnemaine, and thence went to Brussels, where she died rather suddenly. General Boulanger's mind seemed to have been completely unhinged by this loss coming so soon after the downfall of his hopes. He continued to live at Brussels in some style, but his spirits and his means of gratifying his love of luxury failed simultaneously, and on Sept. 29 he managed to elude the watchfulness of his friends, whose anxieties had been aroused, and shot himself on his mistress's grave, in the cemetery of Ixelles, near Brussels, where he was him. self interred without religious ceremony or political manifestation.
On the 1st, at Blackheath, aged 74, Edward Sydney Williams, a publisher and foreign bookseller. Born at Beeston, Notts. Educated at Hamburg. Established in London the well-known firm of Williams & Norgate, and for many years was the agent in this country of Baron Tauchnitz in his dealings with English authors, On the 1st, at Richmond, aged 70, Hon. Adolphus E. P. Graves, third son of second Lord Graves. Captain 59th Regiment. Page of Honour to William IV. Married, 1858, Caroline, daughter of Captain Wreford, R.N. On the 1st, at Ashford Hall, Ludlow, aged 50, Robert Melville, County Court Judge. On the 2nd, in Bruton Street, London, aged 75, Lady Caroline Charteris, youngest daughter of Francis, seventh Earl of Wemyss. On the 2nd, in London, aged 58, Sir Philip Le Belward Grey. Egerton, eleventh Bart. Educated at Eton. Entered the Coldstream Guards; served with the Rifle Brigade in the Crimean campaign, 1854-55. Married, 1861, Hon. Henrietta E., daughter of first Earl of Londesborough. On the 2nd, at Shepherd's Bush, London, aged 76, Ferdinand Praeger, an eminent musician, born at Leipsig. He was the son of Heinrich Aloysius Praeger, a violinist and composer of merit; studied at Lübeck, and for a short time under Hummel. Came to London in 1834. and was the author of numerous works on music, and a composer of sonatas, symphonies, &c. On the 3rd, at Grittleton House, Chippenham, aged 86, Sir John Neeld, first Baronet, son of Joseph Neeld, of Fulham and Hendon. Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Represented Cricklade as a Conservative 1835-59, and Chippenham, 1865-68. Married, 1842, Harriet, daughter of MajorGeneral William Dickson. On the 3rd, at Brighton, aged 74, Captain Arthur John Loftus, only son of Captain Arthur Loftus, R.N. Served with 10th Hussars in the Crimea, and with 18th Hussars throughout the Indian Mutiny. Appointed, 1878, Gentleman Usher to the Queen, and in 1883 Keeper of the Crown Jewels.
Married, 1863, Lady Catherine, daughter of second Marquess of Ely. On the 5th, in Paris, aged 63, Elie Delaunay, a distinguished painter, born at Nantes. Studied under Lamothe and Hippolyte Flandrin. Decorated numerous churches and public buildings. Carried off first Prix de Rome, 1856. On the 5th, at Barnes, aged 87, Sir Hugh Owen Owen, second Baronet. Sat as a Liberal for Pembroke Borough, 1826-38, and from 1861-8. Colonel of Pembroke Artillery Militia, 1872-75. Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, 1872-89. Married, first, 1825, Angelina, daughter of Sir C. Gould Morgan, 2nd Baronet; and, second, 1845, Henrietta, daughter of Captain the Hon. E. Rodney, R.N. On the 5th, at Badenweiler, aged 55, William Maxwell Alexander, son of Boyd Alexander, of Ballochmyle, Ayrshire. Educated at Harrow and Haileybury. One of the Indian civilians who endeavoured to hold the Indian mutineers in check at Fort Agra until the arrival of the British troops. Married, 1871, Emma, daughter of Rev. William Thorp. On the 6th, at Bow, aged 76, Charles Jamrach, a well-known naturalist and dealer in wild animals, birds, &c., which he bred and exported for the supply of menageries, &c. He was born at Memel, and greatly extended the business founded by his father in London and Antwerp. On the 7th, at Munich, aged 73, Professor Heinrich Graetz, of Breslau, born at Xions, Posen. After completing his studies in Hebrew, he was sent to the Gymnasium at Oldenburg, and in 1840 to the University of Breslau. Was appointed teacher of Biblical exegesis at the Jewish seminary in 1853, and Extra Professor of History in the University of that place, 1870; at the expense of the State he visited Asia Minor and Egypt. He was author of "Gnosticism and Judaism " (1846), a "History of the Jews" (1875), &c., and the editor of a Jewish literary magazine. On the 8th, at Antello, aged 70, Signor Ubaldino Peruzzo, a distinguished Italian and a member of an old Tuscan family. Educated at the Ecole des Mines at Paris, and in Germany. Elected a member of the Tuscan Assembly in 1859, after the flight of the Grand Duke. Minister of Public Works in Cavour's Cabinet, 1861, and Minister of the Interior, 1862-64, under Farini, representing Florence in the Italian Assembly, and largely contributing to the foundation of the Kingdom of Italy. On the 9th, at Douglas, Isle of Man, aged 73, Vice-Admiral Arthur Wilmshurst, C.B. Entered the navy in 1839; served in the Black Sea during the Russian war as lieutenant on H.M.S. Trafalgar, and held a command in China in 1857. On the 9th, at Penzance, aged 65, Sir George Abercrombie Robinson, third Bart., eldest son of Sir George Bert Robinson. Educated at Sandhurst. Entered 22nd Regiment. Served in India and NorthWest Frontier, 1853-54. Married, 1873, Harriet Rose, widow of Lieut.-General Young and daughter of Lawrence Gwynne. On the 9th, at Longwood, Hants, aged 48, Right Honourable George Carnegie, ninth Earl of Northesk. Served in the Scots Guards 1862-74. Succeeded to his father's title, 1878. Elected a representative peer for Scotland, 1885. Married, 1865, Elizabeth, daughter of Admiral Sir George Elliot, K.C.B. He was a well-known antiquary, and had formed a valuable collection of prehistoric weapons. On the 10th, at Rutland Gardens, S.W., aged 77, Henrietta Eliza, Dowager Viscountess Galway, daughter of Robert Pemberton Milnes, of Fryston Hall, co. York. Married, 1838, her cousin, George, sixth Viscount Galway. One of the few peeresses present at the Queen's coronation, and also at the public ceremony. On the 10th, at the Grange, Uxbridge Road, aged 73, William Partridge, J.P., one of the metropolitan police magistrates. Educated at Winchester and Christchurch, Oxford. Called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1834. For some time sat on the Brighton Borough bench; appointed stipendiary magistrate at Wolverhampton, 1860; transferred to the metropolis, 1863, and sat until within ten days of his death, which happened on the day after his formal retirement from the bench. On the 11th, at Colombo, aged 69, Augustin Théodule Ribot, born at the Department of the Eure. Studied under the elder Glaize. First exhibited in the Salon, 1861, "The Cuisiniers," and several pictures now in the Luxembourg. He was known as the French Ribera. On the 11th, at Hampstead, aged 69, Rev. Thomas Sadler, Ph.D., a prominent Unitarian preacher and divine, and the editor of Crabb Robinson's Diaries." On the 12th, at Cusworth Park, Doncaster, aged 91, Richard Heber Wrightson, J.P., third son of William Wrightson, M.P. Called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1824. Married, 1832, Hon. Eliza Augusta de Grey, eldest daughter of Thomas, fourth Lord Wallingham. The last survivor of an ancient family. On the 13th, at Strawberry Hill, aged 75, Paul Jacob Naftel, a distinguished water-colour painter, and one of the oldest members of the Royal Water Colour Society. He married a daughter of Mr. O. Oakley, a member of the Society, and herself an accomplished artist, as was also their daughter, Miss Maude Naftel, who predeceased them. On the 13th, at