Slike stranica

Finally, after endless hardships we saw on January 6th, 1890, the lovely Lake Baringo at our feet, and on the 7th we reached Njemps, on the Guaso Tigerish. We thus left behind the perils of the Masai country. The country round Lake Baringo has been described by former travellers, Dr. Fischer and Joseph Thomson having already explored the country, whilst Teleki and Höhnel's expedition furnished the most exact particulars. The natives here belong to the Masai stock. They have been dispersed through warlike encounters with other tribes, for which reason they live on a hostile footing with their neighbours. The Masai round Lake Baringo carry on agriculture and cattle-raising, and are dependent upon the whites, trusting to us for protection against the Masai of the high-plains.

I have a few words to say concerning the geological formation of this part of Equatorial Africa. The whole is a region of past volcanic activity, the chief seat of disturbance lying probably round Lake Baringo. The entire district of Lake Baringo I regard as a great and very old crater, with a diameter of sixty English miles, as it extends from Donyo Gelesha to Elgeyo. Four mountainous formations, similar in structure, are ranged round this centre of volcanic activity: Kénia, the Subugu la Poron, the Tschibtscharagnani, and the Elgon. The high-plateau, which we began to ascend near Hargazo, gradually descends to within 4000 feet of the Victoria Nyanza. At its highest part, on the Leikipia plateau and at Elgeyo, it reaches 8000 to 9000 ft. in elevation. The whole is of an uniform formation, which very probably extends farther, to the other side of the Victoria Nyanza. I remained six days at Lake Baringo in order to afford my column, and particularly Herr Tiedemann, time to recover from dysentery, after which I continued my march westward. We next had to ascend Kamassia, which Mr. Thomson has already described. The people of Kamassia, as well as of Elgeyo, belong to the Masai stock; and I had to fight my way through both countries, as the natives would not let me pass without paying tribute. But in neither case did I have any difficulty in repulsing those who attacked me. Indeed, the warlike character of these tribes, and the danger thereby resulting to Europeans, seems to me to have been very much exaggerated. I think it very proper, for the development of Africa, to let the natives appreciate the superiority of our arms, seeing that they are so ready to harass and impede the progress of European caravans, and thus accustom them to offer no impediment to the progress of our traffic.

Having climbed the steep slopes of Elgeyo we come to the Angatana Nyuki, a district also formerly inhabited by the Masai, but which has been perfectly laid waste by other (Masai) tribes. It is over 8000 ft. above sea-level, perfectly devoid of trees, and, with its sharp outlines, has a weird aspect. Game abounds, however, especially immense herds of buffaloes, which traverse the steppes, and, besides, roebucks and antelopes of all kinds. I continued to advance without a guide, trusting solely to the compass for about the space of a week over these high-plains through the Surongai Hills in the direction of Kabaras. Kabaras is the most northerly part of the Kavirondo country, at the north-eastern corner of the Victoria Nyanza and is, in contrast to the bare steppes we

left behind us, richly cultivated and abounding in all kinds of food necessary to an exploring expedition. I learned in Kavirondo that a European exploring party had pitched their camp in Kwasundu. This was, as I afterwards ascertained, Mr. Jackson's expedition, who had orders to support Stanley's undertaking in the Equatorial Province. The expedition had, however, received news in Kavirondo of Stanley's march and had halted there. The members of this expedition were, during my presence in Kavirondo, absent on a march to the north to buy ivory and hunt elephants.

I was unable to obtain any authentic information from the chief of the station, the Somál Ali, concerning the fate of Emin Pacha. I was told expressly that Emin Pacha was still in the Equatorial Province, and that only his companion Casati had accompanied Stanley on his march to the Victoria Nyanza. In consequence of this I made up my mind to continue my advance to the north-west beyond Kavirondo, and to strike the Equatorial Province somewhere near Fauvera. On the 2d of February, therefore, I marched in a north-westerly direction from Kwasundu, again entering regions hitherto untraversed by white men. Here there are well-cultivated districts on all sides, governed by independent sultans. The natives beyond Kavirondo are called Walukuma, a harmless tribe closely related to the Wa-Kavirondo. To the north of these dwell the Walundu, who seem to have intermingled with the Masai and to be much feared by the neighbouring tribes. The western boundary of Kavirondo would appear to be a ridge of mountains, which, however, on nearer approach, are seen to form two mountain-groups, between which a plain twelve miles wide affords an easy passage.

Kwa Telessa is the principal place of this region, where the peculiar costume of the Waganda first attracts notice. Kwa Telessa lies on the frontier of Usoga, and is the principal market town for the exchange of the products of Kavirondo and of the powder and arms carried by the Arabs to Uganda and Unyoro and from thence to Kavirondo to be sold. Here I learned that two white men were said to be in Eastern Unyoro, whose description seemed to be that of Emin Pacha and Casati. I sent letters in advance to these white men, and crossed the mountain ridge bounding Usoga on the north, and to which I gave the name of Wissmann Hills. The country, after crossing the "Wissmann Hills," assumes quite a different character. Banana groves appear, the whole region seeming to be one great banana grove, among which very tastefully built villages were scattered. The region is rich in cattle, and all kinds of grain are cultivated. This is the country of Usoga, the northern part of which is also called Wachore, belonging to Uganda. I found on my arrival in Usoga a number of Waganda fugitives who had crossed the Nile to escape the horrors of the civil war in that country, and who begged me to espouse their cause (the king and the Christians then living on one of the islands of the Victoria Nyanza) and to conduct them back to Uganda. One of these Waganda, Mario by name, informed me that Amdallah, of the Equatorial Province, had gone off with Stanley, and that there were no more whites in Unyoro. At his suggestion I sent a missive to the whites on the islands of the Victoria Nyanza, and to King Mwanga, to

inquire whether Emin Pacha had really left, or was still in the Equatorial Province; and in the meantime I continued my march.

News came sooner than I had expected. As early as the 13th of February I received a missive, written by Mr. H. M. Stanley, briefly informing the English in Kavirondo that he had arrived with Emin Pacha and Signor Casati as early as the end of August 1889 at the south end of the Victoria Nyanza. Thus, all was clear to me: I should have to give up proceeding farther in a north-westerly direction, although within six days' march of my goal; and I now had to decide whether I should return, which I could do with honour and a clear conscience, as the object of my search was found, or whether, yielding to the entreaties of the Waganda, I should aid the Christians in their contest against the Arabs. After brief deliberation, I decided to adopt the latter course; and the morning of February 14th found me on the march in a south-westerly direction, in order to reach the Nile at Jinja (at the Ripon Falls), and to cross the same. On the 17th of February I lay encamped near Ukassa, on the spot where Bishop Hannington had been murdered five years before. We, indeed, found a number of skulls

and bones, bearing witness to the catastrophe.

On the 18th of February I saw for the first time the waters of the sacred Nile at my feet-for me an entrancing sight, when I considered what troubles and exertions it had cost me to march from the mouth of the Tana to the head-source of the Nile. I crossed the river the next day and entered Uganda, whereby I was enabled to benefit the Christian cause and the cause of humanity. My expedition was, as your distinguished countryman, Dr. Felkin, can bear witness, the first expedition of whites starting from the Indian Ocean to reach Uganda from the East. The time that it had taken us, not counting the stay in Oda Borru Ruva, was about 4 months. But I scarcely think this route will ever prove practical for traffic in East Africa. The Tana, in spite of the fact of its being navigable for 260 miles, bends too much to the south and leads through too many inhospitable districts for it ever to be used in the development of the Baringo trade. I think that the route from Mombaza or Pangani will remain the best in future. But I do believe that the valley of the Tana, and the regions of Thagga and Kikuyu are, under European management, likely to experience great development in the future; and this is the task that has devolved upon the British, as all the countries through which I passed on my march to Uganda have been brought within British jurisdiction. I, for my part, wish the British "God speed" in this work of civilisation, a work also in the general interests of humanity; and I shall greet with great satisfaction all progress which your countrymen make in those regions.




(With a Map.)

CARTOGRAPHY probably originated in Asia, some centuries before it was known in Europe, but it has never flourished in the land of its birth. In Asia there is to-day really more unsurveyed country than there is even in Africa. This is partly attributable to the inherent conservatism of the Asiatic nations, which is opposed to the adoption of an alien or progressive civilisation. Now, however, Asia is practically becoming a continent under European influence. The superior civilisation of European nations is gradually bringing it under greater control; and it is in this way that we are now acquiring a more accurate knowledge of its geography. It is true that the Chinese and other peoples have long had their own native maps, but they are of a very rudimentary character. The art of scientific surveying and accurate mapping all over the world seems only to be practised by Europeans, and, consequently, we have surveys and good maps outside of Europe only in countries that are European possessions, or where it is in the interests of Europeans to survey them for military, scientific, or commercial purposes. A glance at the accompanying map will fully illustrate this. It will be seen that there are British surveys in India, Burma, Persia, Palestine, etc.; French surveys in Tonquin; Russian surveys in Siberia and Central Asia-in fact, at the present day, the surveyor is the pioneer of settlement, just as is the explorer of immigration.

Up to the close of the thirteenth century Asia beyond the Caspian Sea and Persia was a more or less mythical region, but at about that time the wonderful travels of Marco Polo revealed to Europe the riches of the great empires of China, Japan and India, and of the East Indies. European merchants, allured by the glowing accounts of the wealth of those countries, then began to direct their energies eastward; and thus our knowledge of these countries steadily increased, while, at the same time, our influence over them became stronger. At length, the Dutch settled in the East Indies, the British in India, and the Russians controlled the plains of Siberia. Then came the period of exploration and of more accurate knowledge: the countries became more open to travellers, routes were mapped, trading companies initiated land-surveys, and navigators undertook sea and coast surveys. In 1802 the great survey of India was commenced at Madras. The Survey Office is now a large and important department of the State, annually producing great numbers of maps

of India and the surrounding countries. The Russian Government is equally busy, especially along the Chinese frontier and the route of the projected Trans-Siberian railway. The Dutch and the Germans are at work in the East Indies, and the French are mastering the topography of the frontiers of China and Siam. Unlike other Asiatic nations, Japan, instead of being Europeanised and perforce surveyed, herself took the lead, and decided to employ European assistance in that direction. China still maintains her hermit-like independence, but in the present age of active progress that will probably not last long.

The following is a general summary of the amount of geographical survey work accomplished in the continent, which corresponds with the colouring on the map :

Area of Detailed Topographical Surveys,

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(Scale 1:500,000 and larger.)
General Topographical Surveys,
(Scale 1:63,360 and larger.)

Geographical Reconnaissance Surveys,
(With Travellers' Route-Maps, etc.)

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General Geographical Sketch-Maps,
(Largely approximate.)

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1,500,000 sq. miles.

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In classifying the maps according to their topographical value, I have adhered to the arrangement already adopted in my Map List for Africa-viz.:

A. Detailed Topographical Surveys.

B. General Topographical Maps, compiled from reliable surveys.

C. Detailed Geographical Maps, compiled from travellers' itineraries, supplemented by data which are only approximate and hypothetical.


Maps marked with an asterisk cannot rank as original compilations;
they are mostly reliable reductions from the best
maps, corrected

to date and published for popular use.

Maps which are simply itineraries.

(The latest published map is in each case mentioned first.)

N.B.—The maps published by the Intelligence Branch of the War Office in London are not for sale, but most of them may be consulted at the Geographical Societies' Rooms. It may also be explained that many of the maps in our list are only to be had in books of travel and in publications of Geographical Societies.

I have again to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. F. Bosse for his invaluable assistance in compiling the lists of maps from the numerous and varied sources that had to be investigated.

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