Slike stranica

(of the Comitat, or district) of Temes (Hungary); Tashkent, stony castle (Russian Turkistan).

From village, and its equivalents, such as wich, wick, . ..hausen: Greenwich, Norwich, Middlewich, Sandwich, Warwick, Grossjägerndorf, as already mentioned, great village of hunters; Nordhausen, northern village, Mühlhausen, mill-village.

From bourg and burg, meaning city, from town, city: Queenborough, Edinburgh, Edwin's-burgh; Canterbury, city of the Cants; Newtown, Freetown, Capetown, and many others; Pura (in Gedrosia), and Cirta (now Constantine, in Algeria), and Patna, city, Great Salt Lake City, Virginia City, etc., Neustadt, new city (in many parts of Germany), and with the same meaning, Nystad (Finland), Novgorod (Russia), Naples, from Neapolis (Italy), Carthage (North Africa); Irkutsk, city on the Irkut river, Tobolsk, Yeniseisk, etc.

Many places take their names from God, from men and women. Such are Allahabad, city of God, Babylon (originally Bab-îlu), gate of God, Lasa, place of God (Tibet); Queenstown, Georgetown, Constantinople, Alexandria, Washington, Charlottetown, Annapolis, Adelaide, and many others.

Examples of names derived from animals are: Swansea, Buffalo, Schwerin, place of beasts, Singapore, city of lions, Stuttgart, garden of mares, Mazatlan, place of deer, Hirschberg, mountain of harts, Habsburg, castle of hawks, Nagpur, city of serpents, Aalborg, castle of eels, etc.

From plants there are many like the following: Oakland; Olynthus, place of figs; Figueras, fig-trees (Spain); Florentia, now Florence, city of flowers; Cracow, city of bushes.

We find also names taken from minerals: Coalbrookdale, Salzburg, salt castle, Esmeralda, emerald (Venezuela), Diamantino and Diamantina, rich in diamonds (Brazil), etc.

In treating the subjects of Physical and Mathematical Geography, the names and words, even though familiar, should not be passed over without an explanation made on the spot. It should be shown, for instance, that the Russian step (steppe) means " a wilderness," or grassy plain, like those of Central Asia and South-Eastern Russia in Europe. So pustina, a Slavonic word, means "desert," and from this word the pusztas in Hungary are named. Llano (Spanish) signifies "flat," and hence the Llanos, the treeless "plains" on the Orinoco. From the Spanish sábana, "a sheet," and figuratively "a wide plain," comes the term savanna, a grassy plain." The French prairie, adopted in English for the prairies of North America, means "a meadow." Pampa, a Quichua word, signifies "a plain," and is so applied in the Argentine Republic.

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The Greek opaîpa (Latin sphæra) means "a ball," "sphere," and "half." From these we have the word hemisphere for half the globe; and we speak of the eastern and the western, the northern and the southern Hemispheres.

The Latin stella (pl. stellæ) means "star," and fixus (fem. fixa) = fixed; (stellæ fixa), fixed stars are such stars as always retain nearly the apparent position and distance with respect to each other; λavaobai to wander; hence planets wandering stars, or such celestial bodies as revolve round the sun; кóμŋ hair, кoμýτηs = long-haired; comets = hair-stars,






distinguished from the planets (by their being visible only for a short period, and also) by a stream of light proceeding from them on one side, forming a tail; dorp star, doτnpocions star-like, asteroids star-like bodies; an asteroid is one of the numerous small planets whose orbits are situated between those of Mars and Jupiter, called also planetoids. like manner the English word spheroid, meaning "a globe flattened at the poles," as the Earth is, is formed from the Greek σpaipoeidńs = globe-like, having the form of a globe.


The Latin verb rotare, "to turn like a wheel," gives us the word rotation, the movement of the Earth on its axis; and the verb revolvere, to turn again, "to revolve," with the noun revolutio, gives us the meaning of the revolution of the Earth, i.e. its motion around the sun.

The foregoing examples sufficiently show how, by applying to the rich field of geographical nomenclature a method of intelligent explanation, the teacher may give to the study a truly living interest.

The interpretation of names will offer frequent occasion for suggestive comparisons. The words ocean and sea, for instance, have for their equivalents in other tongues Weltmeer, die See, Meer, Tóvтos, zee, more, hai; an island is Insel, isola, isla, ilha, île, ö, holm, jesira, dvipa; a mountain is õpos, mons, monte, mont, pen, gora, Berg, jebel, thabor, giri, tepetl; a city is cité, città, ciudad, ville, stadt, stad, dunum, gorod, pura, patna, nagara, abad, kert, etc.

In elaborating the plan of a method for facilitating and vivifying the study of Geography by an explanation of place-names-such as in the manner already shown-it would be of service to provide a survey and review of the teacher's work. In this way the facts, made fresher by repetition, would be more deeply impressed on the memory. It is a question for consideration whether it would be more advisable to explain all the names belonging to any given language, wherever they may be found, or to treat exhaustively those of one country at a time. There is, however, some danger of going too far, and so of losing sight of the main object.

In the little work, elaborated by the writer, and entitled Definitions of Geographical Names, with Instructions for their Correct Pronunciation (for the Higher Schools), a commencement has been made with the Balkan Peninsula and its chief Greek names; and, that this expedient, as a companion to every School Geography, may be employed in geographical instruction, every European country is treated as a whole. Only in the case of Slavonic and German names has the method been somewhat varied. In the case of foreign political divisions, the larger portions have been considered together. Definitions in physical and mathematical geography form the conclusion.

As the principle of facilitating the study of Geography must always be kept in view, at first only such foreign names should be given as can be easily understood. In the "guide" for pupils separate words with their equivalents should be printed in the order already given; and, after this, in larger type, the compound names with their equivalents. A note, if necessary, should be in parentheses; and the derivation of a name from a distinguished person or from a particular incident should


be given in smaller type. Names explained in different ways, or the meaning of which is in dispute, should be excluded.

This detailed outline of a plan for explaining geographical names opens up a subject of the highest interest in itself, and has been elaborated by the writer under the conviction of its value and usefulness. It will, as he believes, draw teachers and scholars more closely together in their common object by relieving the mind of a burden of dead sounds, and replacing these with living and significant terms. It cannot but contribute to exalt the dignity and widen the scope of geographical study, and must, ultimately, add largely to the progress made in this branch of education.

In conclusion, I may mention that the above treatise, though in part originally contributed to the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, has been entirely remodelled, and adapted for English readers.



A MEETING of the Glasgow Branch of the Society was held in the Hall of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow on the evening of Thursday, 23d April, Dr. Thomas Muir presiding. Mr. W. B. Blaikie read a paper on "How Maps are Made," which was illustrated by a number of models of his own construction and by specimens of instruments used in survey-work, etc.

Mr. Blaikie repeated his lecture in Edinburgh, at a meeting of the Society held on Thursday, 30th April. Colonel Dods presided. At the close of his lecture, Mr. Blaikie was awarded a hearty vote of thanks on the motion of Dr. Hugh R. Mill.



Finland. The growth of the population in Finland is referred to in Fennia (III., 2). Since 1749 fairly accurate statistics have been available. The relative yearly increase was greatest in the five years ending 1800, namely 1.87 per cent. ; and it was least in the five years ending 1810 (101 per cent.) and 1870 (0.82 per cent.). In single years the increase was greatest in 1797 (2·44 per cent.); but since 1800 the yearly increase has never exceeded 2 per cent.

The Tcheremis.-Herr P. von Stenin has given a description in Globus, Bd. lviii. No. 12, of this Finnish race. The details are taken from a monograph written by Professor Smirnoff, of Kazan University, who visited this people in the spring of 1888. The main body now dwells between the Volga and Viatka; they are also found on the Kama, the Bielaja and its tributaries. Their country falls into two distinct divisions-the "Mountain Land," stretching from Vassilssursk on the west to Ilyinka on the east, and the "Meadow Land," much larger in extent, bounded on the west by the Vetluga and its tributaries, the Yuronga and the Usta, on the north by the Viatka, on the east by the Ilet, and on the south by the Volga and the Lower Kama. The number of the Tcheremis is given by Smirnoff as 312,591. The mountain-land is well clothed with woods of fir and pine, and possesses a very fertile soil, and its inhabitants, who are taller, more powerful, and handsomer than their lowland brethren, follow agricultural pursuits, while the meadow-land Tcheremis, 70 per cent. of whose territory is covered with forest, maintain them

selves chiefly by the chase. Little in the villages of the Tcheremis is of native origin. Their houses, clothing, dishes, etc., are copied from their Russian or Tatar neighbours. A hut of thin planks, roofed with shingles and used as a summer dwelling, is a peculiarity of the Tcheremis' farmhouse, and the woman's dress shows some marks of originality. Polygamy still prevails among the pagan Tcheremis. Professor Smirnoff believes that it was not introduced through Mohammedan influence, but is a modification of hetairism, under which system all the women of the tribe were common property. In some districts it is still the practice to carry off a wife by force, and in others the customs observed at the marriage indicate its former existence. The purchase of wives succeeded to rape, owing to Turkish influence, the price being at first regarded as an expiation, as is indicated by the name it bears. The Tcheremis believe in a life after death, and credit the dead with the power of returning to the world. Accordingly, they place food and drink in the coffins, and on certain festivals prepare feasts for their departed relatives. In a child's coffin they place a string, on which is measured the height of the father or mother, at the same time expressing a hope that the child will grow up to be an efficient workman; and they lay bridal garments in the coffin of a girl. From the ranks of the dead are recruited a vast host of evil spirits: e.g. various kinds of fever are caused by the spirits of spinsters. The gods of the Tcheremis are also very numerous. There are the God of Heaven, the God of the Dawn, the Ruler of the World, the Mother of the bright Sun, and many others. All those deities, which stand in close relation to men, such as the gods who give rain, guard the cattle, and protect fruit and fish, are propitiated with sacrifices. At the present day, however, the Tcheremis offer part only of the victim-the head or heart-and in some districts substitute cakes made in the shape of a horse. The place of sacrifice is usually a grove, and is chosen by a supposed sign from the gods, such as the bursting forth of a new spring. Among the mountain Tcheremis the Greek Church has made considerable progress.

Deep-Sea Exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean.—The Kölnische Zeitung reports that the investigations which the expedition sent out by the Vienna Academy of Sciences has been carrying out in the eastern portion of the Mediterranean have been very successful, and have given important results. In all, the investigations concerning the depth and general characteristics of the sea, and the presence of life in it, were carried out at 72 distinct points. The greatest depth (3700 mètres, or over 2 miles) was found near the great depression which runs between Mola and Cerigo—a deep valley running in a north and south direction, and with a depth varying from 3500 to 4000 mètres, the descent being much more abrupt on the Greek side than on the Italian and Sicilian side. Experiments as to light showed that the waters are more transparent near the African coast than in the northern portions. There, white metal plates were discernible at a depth of nearly 144 feet. Sensitive plates were still found capable of being acted upon by light at a depth of nearly 550 yards, at a point 200 nautical miles north of Benghazi: on being drawn up they were found to have been blackened. The acid constituents of the sea-water seem to be the same at the greatest depth as near the surface, nor is any difference in the quantity of ammoniacal constituents perceptible between the upper and the lowest levels, with the exception that everywhere close to the bottom the quantity of ammonia is notable. The deep-sea region of the Eastern Mediterranean is very poor in animal life. A dredge at a depth of 3000 mètres brought up no animal specimens at all; but at a depth of 2000 mètres leafformed algae were discovered similar to those found at the same depth in the Atlantic by the Plankton Expedition.-Times, 30th March.


Corea. The climatic conditions in Corea are imperfectly known; but the Annalen der Hydrographie (1., 1891) publishes some valuable meteorological observations that were made at the Corean ports of Chimulpo, Juensan, and Fusan. The two latter lie on the east coast of Corea, and the former is on the west coast. The chief features of the Corean climate-if one may judge from observations extending over only three years-appear to be the following:Atmospheric pressure at the three stations, mentioned above, is comparatively high from November to February (winter), and low from May to September (summer). Whilst the west coast is somewhat cooler than the east coast, the temperature of the air is rapidly lowered from south to north. The mean annual temperature is much the same as that of places on the same latitude on the east coast of North America. The summer temperatures at the three stations are much the same; but the winters at Chimulpo and Juensan are much colder than at Fusan. At Chimulpo the mercury fell below the freezing-point during the months of October to April; in Juensan, from October to March; in Fusan, from December to May. The mean temperature of the warmest months (July or August) was 26°2 C. in Chimulpo, 26°-8 C. in Fusan and Juensan; and of the coldest months (January or February) 5° C. in Fusan, -4°4 in Chimulpo, and 5°1 C. in Juensan. The prevailing winds are of a monsoon character: on the east coast, easterly; on the west coast, south-westerly. The rainfall decreases from south to north, and is heavier on the east than on the west coast. The rainy season is in summer, the dry season in winter. In Juensan the rainfall was nil in January and February of the three observed years. There was no snowfall in Fusan.

Burma.-Major A. B. Fenton has sent us some corrections to the Note we published in February. The Indaw Chaung, he says, is deep enough, but the channel is hard to find when the country is flooded, as it always is in the rainy season. It is its tributary, the Nantein Chaung, which was only waist-deep (about a mile above its mouth), and it is owing to the influx of the waters of this stream in time of flood that the Indaw Chaung flows backwards into the lake. Major Fenton also states that hardly any Shans are found on the Upper Irrawadi, but that this country is the home of the Kachins.

British North Borneo.-Last year Mr. H. R. J. Dunlop traversed North Borneo from the Kinabatangan River to the Padas River, his route lying further to the south than that of any former travellers who have crossed the territory. Leaving Pinungah on the Kinabatangan on July 26th, Mr. Dunlop ascended the Melian to its tributary the Pinga, and, employing small boats, navigated the latter for some distance. The stream was 30 to 40 feet broad, but its numerous rapids soon rendered navigation irksome; so the party commenced its overland march. As they marched north-westwards, the land gradually rose, and on August 6th the aneroid indicated a height of 1800 feet. Further on they found the country level. They passed a swampy hollow, and at the end of the day's march they perceived, at a distance of 10 or 12 miles towards the north, the large chain of hills known as the Tadus si Madi, which runs in a north-easterly direction, and contains the sources of three large rivers,—namely, the Melian, the Labuk flowing to the east coast, and the Pagalan running into the Padas on the west. A few days later, Mr. Dunlop entered the great Limbawan plain, and, crossing the Pagalan, came to a muchfrequented road leading to the Kimanis River. On the 22d he arrived at Mempakol.-Petermann's Mitt., Bd. xxxvii, No. 2.

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