Slike stranica

persons come in from the country to settle in London every day. Stop these people en route. Kidnap them and ship them off to the Antipodes. These countrymen will make far better emigrants than townsmen. In other words, do all that can be done to discourage immigration into large towns, and tell Hodge that if he is dissatisfied with his own parish he will do best to cross the seas."

Seven chapters are given to the consideration of medical statistics, with reference to the cause of death, to summer diarrhoea, to various fevers, phthisis, bronchitis, and pneumonia, and hydrophobia. But we must conclude.

This is not a book to be obtained from a circulating library, but ought to find a permanent place upon the shelves of statisticians, philanthropists, medical practitioners and economists.

A Visit to the Summer Home in the Sætersdal and Southern Norway. By ALICE OGILVIE. With an Introduction by R. M. BALLANTYNE. Edinburgh: Macniven and Wallace, 1891. Pp. 104. Price 1s. 3d.

This is a pleasantly written account of a tour in Norway by the author and her friends. If the reader will put it in his pocket and follow in the footsteps of the lady, we can assure him he will see some of the finest "show parts" of the land of fjelds and fjords; though, if he is a gentleman, he cannot expect to repeat the experience of the author of the little book, whom " one bright, blue-eyed peasant youth of seventeen fairly surprised by making an offer of his hand and heart"! There are some characteristic illustrations and a clearly printed map, besides an appendix containing a list of phrases and other useful information.



ELB-UND EIDERMÜNDUNGEN, Die Marschen zwischen, von Dr. R. HANSEN. Massstab, 1:275,000. (1) Um 1500; (2) Eingedeichte Marschen um 1750; (3) Eingedeichte Marschen bis 1890.


Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen, Jahrgang 1891, Tafel 8.
Gotha: Justus Perthes.

JULISCHEN ALPEN, Skizzen zur Entwickelung der Wasserscheiden im Gebiet von Dr. O. GUMPRECHT. (1) Die Julischen Alpen, Schematische Skizzen; (2) Die Wasserscheide von Ratschach, 1: 40,000; (3) Die Wasserscheide von Saifnitz, 1: 40,000. Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen, Jahrgang 1891, Tafel 7. Gotha: Justus Perthes.

MONTE SOMMA AND VESUVIUS, Geological Map of, with an accompanying Explanation, by H. JOHNSTON-LAVIS, M.D., M.R.C.S., B. ès S., F.G.S., etc. London: Philip & Son, 1891. Pp. 21. Price, £2, 2s.

Although many small physical maps and models of Vesuvius, all of them necessarily much generalised, have appeared from time to time, the present publication is the first and only large-scale geological map of the world-renowned volcano. It is on the scale of 1: 10,000, or 6:33 inches to one mile, and Dr. Johnston-Lavis vouches for the accuracy of the topographical details. The author's long residence in the neighbourhood has afforded him unique opportunities for the study of volcanic phenomena, and the structure of Somma-Vesuvius in particular, and of these opportunities he has fully availed himself. The result is this admirable map, which will be welcome alike to geographers and geologists.

It is in six sheets, and the various products (lava and fragmental materials) of the several phases in the volcanic activity of the mountain are clearly indicated by colours and signs. Thus the ejections from Monte Somma can be distinguished at a glance from those of the younger cone of Vesuvius, while, by means of coloured stippling, the areas covered by lapilli, and the degrees of increase in the quantity of loose materials, soils, etc., which conceal or partially conceal the lavas, are indicated. We can well believe that the preparation of this detailed map has occupied much time and labour, and only those who have tried geologising on the slopes of Vesuvius during the hot summer months will fully appreciate the selfdenying enthusiasm of the author. We heartily commend the work to all who are interested in the important region which it portrays. The explanation which accompanies the map is short and concise, but sufficient for the purpose.


EASTERN CAUCASUS. Map of the Basadjusi District, Daghestan, illustrating the Travels and Ascents of Mr. G. P. Baker. Scale 1:316,800.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, June 1891. MINDANAO, Fluss-und Völkerkarte des mittleren Gebiets der Insel Professor Dr. Ferd. Blumentritt. Massstab, 1:1,000,000.



Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen, Jahrgang 1891, Tafel 9.
Gotha: Justus Perthes.

TIAN-SHAN, NAN-SHAN, AND EASTERN TIBET, Route Map of the Expedition to of the brothers Grum Grijimailo, to 9th October 1889. Scale, 1 : 2,000,000. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, April 1891. TONG-KING AND SOUTHERN CHINA, Part of -, illustrating the Journey of Mr. A. R. Agassiz. Scale, 12,534,400.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, May 1891.

WESTLICHEN KLEINASIEN, Specialkarte vom nach seinen eigenen Reisen und anderen grössenteils noch unveröffentlichten Routenaufnahmen bearbeitet von H. Kiepert. Massstab, 1:250,000. Zweite Lieferung. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

The first part of this excellent Map of Western Asia Minor, which we noticed favourably in last year's Magazine, on page 447, has now been followed, after an interval of several months, by the second part, containing the sheets-Ismid (3), Adramyti (4), Balikesri (5), Alaschehir (8), and Kos (13). Through Aslan Effendi, chief of one of the Topographical Departments in Constantinople, Professor Kiepert obtained access to fresh sources of topographical information, in particular, plans of several new roads which have been constructed in recent years and a map of the vilayet Aïdin (Smyrna), in 1: 200,000, showing the position of places formerly unknown, as laid down by Turkish officers. The letterpress which accompanies the present part contains-besides the authorities used for this issue -a list of a few additions and corrections for the maps already published, which can easily be inserted by the subscriber. The execution of the maps is in the same superior style as in the first part.

BONIN-UND VOLCANO INSELN-Dr. O. WARBURG'S Reise nach den Bonin-und Volcano Inseln.

Massstab, 1:3,750,000.

Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin,

Band xviii., No. 425. Berlin: W. H. Kuhl.

SOUTH AFRICA. Soshong, en 1890.


Itinéraire du Vicomte de Montmort de Kimberley à
Revue de Géographie, Juin 1891. Paris: Ch. Delagrave.

UGANDA, A Map illustrative of Mr. F. J. Jackson's Expedition to 90. By ERNEST GEDGE. Scale, 1: 1,000,000.


Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, April 1891.


BRASILIEN, Ethnographische Karte von


Massstab, 1:20,000,000.

Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen, Jahrgang 1891, Tafel 6.
Gotha: Justus Perthes.


HISTOIRE ET GÉOGRAPHIE, Atlas Vidal-Lablache, Maître de Conférences de Géographie à l'école normale supérieure.

SCHWEIZ, Topographischer Atlas der

24 Livraisons, 137 Cartes, 248 Cartons. Paris: Armand Colin et Cie., Éditeurs.

im Massstab der Original-Aufnah

men nach dem Bundesgesetze vom 18 Dezember 1868 durch das eidg. topogr. Bureau gemäss den Directionen von Oberst Siegfried veröffentlicht.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

THE SCHOOL HAND ATLAS. A Series of Fifty-four Maps, illustrating Physical, Political, Commercial, and Classical Geography. By J. G. Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. London, Edinburgh, and New York: T. Nelson and Sons.

THE UNIVERSAL ATLAS, complete in 28 parts, including Index. Published by Cassell & Company, Limited, London, for the Atlas Publishing Company, Limited.

This atlas is an English translation of Dr. R. Andree's Hand Atlas, of which two editions have been sold in Germany. A large number of entirely new maps has been added-for instance, a four-page map of England and Wales, a doublepage map of Scotland, maps of Canada, Australia, of the Indian Frontier, and a map showing the trade of the British Empire, which bring the number of pages in the English edition up to 117 instead of 96. Three parts have already been issued, containing a general map of Europe, Egypt, South Africa, a general map of France, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Eastern and Western Canada, Spain and Portugal, England and Wales (southern part), and a general map of Italy. All these maps are very well executed, but the map of England and Wales is overcrowded with names and hills, and does not at all compare favourably with the others.






(With Diagrams.)


IT is natural that in any scheme of federation among members of the British Empire the question of closer commercial union should take a prominent place. The importance of commercial interests to the life of any country at once suggests the idea of a Customs Union as an accompaniment of political federation. The idea is likewise supported by historical examples. The federation of the United States brings with it internal free-trade for a population of more than sixty millions over an unbroken area of more than three millions of square miles. In the smaller Swiss Confederation there is the same commercial unity. The European empire which, if not properly a federation, as Professor Freeman tells us, most closely simulates one is nearly conterminous with the German Customs Union. There is a common Customs barrier also for the loose confederation of Austria-Hungary together with Bosnia, Herzegovina, and the principality of Liechtenstein. Internal free-trade. likewise holds good in the great federation already existing within the British Empire-the Dominion of Canada; and it is one of the most important articles in the scheme drawn up as the basis of the proposed federation of the Australasian colonies.

A Customs Union for the British Empire is therefore, at least, an aspiration naturally associated with the first suggestion of Britannic Confederation. Whether such a union is practicable is a question for the future. That it is essential to any scheme of confederation few, I


2 F

think, would contend. In the case of the British Empire, as pointed out by Sir John Colomb in the first paper of this series, there are undoubtedly great obstacles in the way. Whether these can be met by any practicable tariff arrangement (either in the way of increased freedom or increased restriction of trade) it is fortunately not my business to consider, since the question of Tariffs, as they affect international commerce, falls to be dealt with by another of the contributors to this series. I would only say here that any attempt on the part of the mother-country to bring about closer commercial relations with the self-governing colonies by artificial means, contrary to their real interests, would be a vain endeavour. It would have no permanent tendency to promote federation. If political federation demands any sacrifice on the part of either the mother-country or the colonies, the nature and extent of the sacrifice must be fully understood and fairly recognised on both sides.

In this paper, accordingly, I propose to consider in the briefest manner possible the salient features of the commerce of the principal members of the British Empire as that commerce exists at present,1 and to draw attention here and there to such indications as seem to me to be afforded of the present tendencies of the commercial development. To a solution of the problem of knitting the Empire together in closer commercial bonds, this is only a small contribution; but such an examination of the actual facts appeared to me the best preparation I could make for the further consideration of the question. In this survey, I have, of course, included India, for, whatever place may be assigned to that dependency in a scheme of Britannic Confederation, its commercial relations must certainly be a matter of the greatest importance.

In Plates I.-III. are three diagrams, which I have drawn up to show the proportion which the trade of the United Kingdom with the colonial and other possessions in the aggregate, as well as with certain groups of these possessions, has borne to the whole trade in each year since 1861. For comparison, I give here the average annual value in millions and decimals of millions of pounds of the total trade of the United Kingdom, under various heads, for the six periods of five years embraced by the thirty years to which the diagrams relate:—

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

It must be remembered that these figures do not show the growth in volume of British commerce in the period. The great rise in prices.

1 As, from want of space, many points of interest with regard to the trade of the Empire are here passed over, I should like to take this opportunity of drawing attention to a paper on Inter-British Trade and its Influence on the Unity of the Empire, by C. E. Howard Vincent, C.B., M.P., read at a meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute on the 12th of May last, in which details of importance are given concerning the trade of each of the colonies.

« PrethodnaNastavi »