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2. The Controversial Course. 3. Dogmatic Theology. 4. Moral Theology and Sacred Eloquence. 5. Sacred Scripture. 6. Canon Law. 7. Ecclesiastical Procedure and Discipline, as used in Churches in the East. 8. Ecclesiastical History. The eight lecturers in this faculty were Dominicans. There were thirty students.


Faculty of Jurisprudence: 1. Metaphysics. 2. Spanish Literature. 3. Constitutional History of Spain and Natural Law. 4. Canon Law. 5. Political Economy. 6. Ecclesiastical Discipline. There were six Dominicans and nine other professors teaching in this faculty. The students numbered 405.

"Faculty of Law: In this faculty one Dominican and eleven other professors lectured. There were sixty students.

"Faculty of Medicine: 1. Physics. 2. Chemistry. 3. Mineralogy and Botany. Three Dominican and thirteen other professors lectured in this faculty. There were 277 students.

"Faculty of Pharmacy: There were eighty-nine students. In the schools of practical pharmacy there were 216 students. Three Dominicans, who lectured in Chemistry, Zoology, Mineralogy and Botany, and seven other professors taught in this faculty."1

Conference of Librarians at St. Gall.-An international conference of librarians was held September 30 and October 1, 1898, at St. Gall, in Switzerland. Its purpose was to examine the dangers which threaten the preservation of old Greek and Latin MSS., and to study the method of protecting them. Father Ehrle, prefect of the Vatican Library, who was the instigator of the conference, published an article recently on the same problem. In it the author treats the causes of danger not only to the palempsist MSS. on which chemicals have been used to bring out the first text, but as well to the others injured by the action of ink used by copyists.

The following resolutions were adopted by the conference:

1. That a list of the old and important MSS. be made which are in danger of being destroyed.

2. That photographs of them be made to determine their actual condition.

3. That a committee be formed whose purpose it will be

(a) To prepare the list indicated. (b) To take care that the photo

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1 Evidently there are some errors i his report, but we have at hand no other source of information.

2 Sur la conservation et la restauration des anciens MSS.; Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, 1898, t. XV.

The article was translated into French by M. Dorez in the Revue des Biblio thèques, t. VIII, and copied in the Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, t. LIX.

graphs be made as soon as possible. (c) To study the means of preserving the MSS. and suggest those which seem best. (d) To publish at once methods suggested during the conference. (e) To establish relations with librarians and technical experts in order to facilitate the execution of these resolutions. (f) To seek subsidies from governments to aid the work.

4. That pending the study of the committee (at least till autumn, 1899) only such methods be employed in particular cases as offer the greatest certainty and as will not hinder the adoption of new methods which may later be recommended. Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, September, October, 1898.

French University Publications.-In the Revue internationale de l'Enseignement, M. F. Lot gives a view of the periodical publications of the state provincial universities of France. He concludes: "The final impression one gets from this rapid review is that though much has been done in France, there is still much to be done."

The Religious Movement in France.-A striking proof of the religious vitality of France is seen in the Congress of Young Catholics held at Besançon, beginning November 17th. A remarkable feature was Brunetière's discourse on the "Need of Faith." It was published later in the Revue des Deux Mondes. About the same time the twenty-fifth general assembly of the Catholics of the Nord and du Pas de Calais took place.

In the same month the National Catholic Congress was held in Paris, on the 27th. Among the papers presented we mention in particular that of M. Senderens, director of the Ecole Superieure des Sciences in the Institute of Toulouse, on the means of developing the study of the sciences among the younger clergy.

NECROLOGIES (for 1898.)1

ROSELLY DE LORGUES died in Paris January 3, 1898, at the age of 93. He is best known through his studies on the life of Columbus, written rather from an apologetical than critical point of view. "Christophe Colomb, histoire de sa vie et de ses voyages, d'aprés les documents authentiques tirés d'Espagne et d'Italie," 2 vols., 1852; "L'ambassadeur de Dieu et le Pape Pie IX," 1 vol. in 8, 1874; "Satan contre Christophe Colomb ou la pretendue chute du serviteur de Dieu,” 1876, 1 vol. in 8; Christophe Colomb, serviteur de Dieu son apostolat, sa sainteté," 1884, 1 vol. in 8; "Histoire posthume de Christophe Colomb," 1885, 1 vol. in 8.

GUISEPPE OTTINO died at Turin January 12. He was an eminent bibliographer. He published a "Manuale di Bibliografia" and the "Bibliotheca bibliographica Italiana." In the latter work he was assisted by Fumagalli.

OLLÉ-LAPRUNE, master of conferences in the Ecole Normale Supérieure at Paris, died February 13. He was a man of deep religious convictions and an eminent philosopher. His chief works are: "Philosophie de Malebranche," 1870, 2 vols in 8; "De la certitude morale," 1880, 1 vol. in 8; "Essai sur la morale d'Aristote," 1881, 1 vol. in 8; "Les sources de la paix intellectuelle," 1892, 1 vol. in 18; "Le prix de la vie," 1894, 1 vol. in 18. He was actively connected with Le Correspondant and La Quinzaine. Articles on his life and work appeared in Etudes Religieuses, October 20, and the Revue Générale, April and May.

PIERRE WILLEMS, professor in the University of Louvain, member of the Belgian Academy, died February 23. His best known works are: "Droit public Romain," 1 vol. in 8; "Le Sénat de la republique Romaine," 3 vols. in 8. Both are works of the greatest erudition. He published many excellent papers on the organization of higher studies and contributed to the Bulletin and to the Annuaire of the Belgian Academy many learned notes. He wrote frequently in Flemish and in French in the Belgian reviews.

CHARLES SCHEFER, member of the Institute, head of the School of Oriental Languages and professor of Persian, died at Paris March 4. He published many learned works on the Orient, some of which are contained in the "Publications de l'Ecole des Langues Orientales" and in the "Recueil de voyages et de documents pour servir à l'histoire de la géographie depuis le XIII siècle jusqu à la fin du XV siècle."

'Taken argely from the Poly biblion of 1898.

P. DE HAULLEVILLE died at Brussels April 25. He was formerly director of the Revue Générale and of the Journal de Bruxelles. He had been a professor in the University of Ghent and in the Military School, and was at the head of the royal museums of decorative and industrial arts. Aside from many contributions to papers and reviews, he is the author of the following works: "Histoire des communes Lombardes," 2 vols., 1859; "Les Institutions représentatives en Autriche," 1 vol., 1863; "Les allemands depuis la guerre de sept ans, 1 vol., 1869; "De l'enseignement primaire en Belgique," 1 vol., 1870; "La définition du droit," 1 vol., 1879; "De l'avenir des peuples catholiques. (Reply to Em. de Laveleye.) An article on him appeared in the Revue Générale of June.

ALPHONSE WAUTERS, archivist of Brussels, died May 1. His publications are numerous. The chief of them were: "Histoire civile, politique et monumentale de la ville de Bruxelles," 3 vols. in 8; "Table chronologique des chartes et diplômes imprimés concernant l'histoire de Belgique," 10 vols. in 4. This latter work was criticised with severity by Reusens, of Louvain, in two brochures, published in 1893, under the title "Questions de chronologie et d'histoire."

LUDOVIC LALANE, librarian of the Institute, died May 16, aged 84. His chief work was the "Dictionnaire historique de la France." He published also the "Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris sous le régne de François I.," and the works of Malherbe and of Brantôme. An article. on him appeared in the September-October number of La Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes.

WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE died May 19, aged 89. As statesman, orator, savant, he had led a most active life. In view of the extensive notices which his recent death called forth, we mention only a few of his many works: "The State in its Relation with the Church," 1858; "Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age," 3 vols., 1858; "Juventus Mundi, the Gods and the Men of the Heroic Age," 1 vol., 1869; "The Church of England and Ritualism," 1 vol., 1875; "Rome and the Newest Fashions in Religion;""The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance," 1874. This last named work was refuted by Newman and Manning; it seems to have been the source of little satisfaction to the author.

FRIEDRICH MULLER, professor of linguistics and of Sanskrit in the University of Vienna, died May 24. A list of his publications extending to the greatest variety of questions of linguistics would be too long for this notice. It may be found in the Polybiblion of July, p. 86.

PHILLIP TAMISEY DEL ARROQUE died in May. He was a member of the Institute, a contributor to many scientific periodicals. He was a man of extraordinary versatility, enjoying the friendship of numberless learned men. M. Monod says of him that he was a man of a well-regulated, docile and reasonable piety worthy of a Huet and a Gassendi. His writings are very numerous. Articles may be found on him in La Revue historique, July-August; Le Bulletin Critique, June 5; Les Etudes Religieuses, December 5 and 20, etc.

AUGUSTE BRACHET, the eminent French philologist, died in June. He published a "Grammaire historique de la langue française" and a "Dictionnaire etymologyque." The former work passed through forty editions.

JOHN CAIRD died July 13. His personality more than his writings made him remarkable. "He stood forth, the representative figure in a re-orientation of what is still most typical in Scottish life, religion” (New World, December, '98.). He published three volumes, one of university addresses, one of university sermons and one containing the "Glasgow Gifford Lectures."

OTTO VON BISMARCK died July 30. During his lifetime collections of his speeches and letters appeared in many languages. His memoirs have just appeared. Whatever the ultimate and lasting fame of this great man, we must admit, as did he implicitly, that his entire political life was inspired by the principle that the end justifies the means.

A. RIVIER, professor in the University of Brussels, died July 21. He was secretary of the Institute of International Law and for a time. editor of the Revue de Droit International. He published some works on Roman law, the chief of which was "Précis du droit de famille Romain." He is the author of some studies in the history of the law of nations, and he translated, completed and annotated the "Eléments du droit international privé" of Asser.

KARL KNIES, professor of political economy in the University of Heidelberg, died August 2. He was one of the lights of the historical school in Germany. "The Annals of the American Academy," vol. XIII, p. 96, publishes the list of his works. The best known are: "Die politische Oekonomie vom Standpunkte der geschichtlichen Methode," 2 ed., 1883; "Geld und Credit." Knies' place in economics is discussed by Cossa in "Intr. allo studio dell' Economia politica," and by Block in "Progrés de la science économique."

GEORGE EBERS, the eminent Egyptologist and professor in Leipsic University, died August 7. He commenced the publication of his famous

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