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able according administration admit allow ancient appear applied appointment aristocracy authority become believe belongs better body candidate Chamber of Deputies character choose chosen citizens civil competence consider constitution course courts crowd demo democracy democratic deputies efficiency elected electors equality everything examination exist fact favour feeling force further give given hand idea incompetence independent individual influence instance interest judges jury justice knowledge legislator less liberty limited lives magistrates majority matter means mind Minister Montesquieu moral natural necessary never obey opinion party passions perhaps person political popular possible present principle profession question reason representatives republic requires respect result seems Senate sense sentiment social sort sovereignty speak spirit superiority thing tion true universal virtue whole wish young
Stranica 86 - ... this sort of democracy being relatively to other democracies what tyranny is to other forms of monarchy. The spirit of both is the same, and they alike exercise a despotic rule over the better citizens.
Stranica 85 - A fifth form of democracy, in other respects, the same, is that in which, not the law, but the multitude, have the supreme power, and supersede the law by their decrees. This is a state of affairs brought about by the demagogues. For in democracies which are subject to the law the best citizens hold the first place, and there are no demagogues; but where the laws are not supreme, there demagogues spring up. For the people becomes a monarch, and is many in one; and the many have the power in their...
Stranica 86 - Further, those who have any complaint to bring against the magistrates say, "let the people be judges"; the people are too happy to accept the invitation; and so the authority of every office is undermined. Such a democracy is fairly open to the objection that it is not a constitution at all; for where the laws have no authority, there is no constitution.
Stranica 130 - Hence the many are better judges than a single man of music and poetry; for some understand one part, and some another, and among them, they understand the whole.
Stranica 130 - For the many, of whom each individual is but an ordinary person, when they meet together may very likely be better than the few good, if regarded not individually but collectively, just as a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse.
Stranica 130 - Nay, in ancient times, and among some nations, the artisan class were slaves or foreigners, and therefore the majority of them are so now. The best form of state will not admit them to citizenship...
Stranica 135 - ... the tyrant should lop off those who are too high ; he must put to death men of spirit: he must not allow common meals, clubs, education, and the like ; he must be...
Stranica 86 - ... constitution. So that if democracy be a real form of government, the sort of system in which all things are regulated by decrees is clearly not even a democracy in the true sense of the word, for decrees relate only to particulars.
Stranica 136 - ... virtue — what is to be done with him? Mankind will not say that such an one is to be expelled and exiled; on the other hand, he ought not to be a subject — that would be as if mankind should claim to rule over Zeus, dividing his offices among them.
Stranica 86 - Both have great power — the flatterer with the tyrant, the demagogue with democracies of the kind which we are describing. The demagogues make the decrees of the people override the laws, and refer all things to the popular assembly. And therefore they grow great, because the people have all things in their hands, and they hold in their hands the votes of the people, who are too ready to listen to them.