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But give me leave to add another passage much like the preceding one of Plato, which just comes into my mind; it is part of Lysis' Epistle to Hipparchus, published by the learned Dr. Gale, in his Opuscula Mythologica; speaking of Pythagoras' method with his pupils, As dyers,' says he, first cleanse and wash clothes which are to be dyed, in some astringent, that so they may take a more durable 'colour; in like manner, that great man used to prepare such as came to learn of him P,' &c. Mentioning of these metaphors gives me occasion to remember the words of Plutarch concerning Otho, whom Junius was soliciting Galba to nominate his successor in the empire; and though it is out of due order, as having dispatched Plutarch before, I will mention them here, the word ẞaTTi(w being used as figuratively as in the passage above; 'He was,' says Plutarch, over head and ears (ßeßatтioμévov) in 'debt ;' which is exactly our English phrase.


Pollux, in the work he composed for the service of the emperor Commodus, to teach him to speak Greek correctly, puts Banтieσlair for a ship's being sunk and totally immersed in the sea.

I will add but one instance more, which shall be out of Themistius; who says, The pilot cannot

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P Pag. 737. Καθάπερ γὰρ οἱ βαφεῖς προεκκαθάραντες ἔστυψαν τὰ βάψιμα τῶν ἱματίων, ὅπως ἀνέκπλυτον τὰν βαφὰν ἀναπίωντι, καὶ μηδέποκα γενησομέναν ἐξίταλον· τὸν αὐτὸν ὁ δαιμόνιος τρόπον ἀνὴρ παρεσκεύαζε τὼς φιλοσοφίας ἐρασθέντας, ὅπως μὴ, &c.


q Moral. tom. iii. Galba, p. 1504. Kai nevtakioxiλíwv μvpiádwv ὀφλήμασι βεβαπτισμένον.

r Onomastic. lib. i. c. 9. Τὰ δὲ πάθη οὕτως ἂν εἴποις. χειμάζεσθαι, σαλεύειν, ὠθεῖσθαι, ἀπωθεῖσθαι, παρασύρεσθαι, συγκλύζεσθαι, κατασύρεσθαι, ἢ καταδύεσθαι, βαπτίζεσθαι, ἀνατρέπεσθαι, &c.


tell but he may save one in the voyage, that had 'better be drowneds,' (Barriσai,) sunk into the sea.

Thus I put an end to my laborious task: you see, sir, how many examples I have produced, and I might easily enumerate as many more, from the authors I have named, and likewise from those I have wholly omitted; but I am wearied with heaping up dry sentences, only to get at the sense of a word, which I think sufficiently clear already, and altogether as plain of itself as any thing in the world can make it. Your expressly obliging me to this service is a very good excuse; and yet I can hardly forbear thinking I had need say something more, but that I consider it was apparently necessary to do as I have done, since some persons so confidently pretend, and withal so very unreasonably, that Barrio does not always signify to dip; and among the rest Mr. Wall is one. He takes the liberty to say, 'Mr. 'Walker has largely shewn from the Greek authors, and lexicographers and critics, that besides the signification immergo, they give it that of lavo in general.' Whereas you see, sir, I have fully baffled all that is alleged from any passages in the Grecian writers as to lexicographers and critics, were it so material, I could easily prove him to be very much mistaken there also: the Greek lexicographers afford him no ground at all for his pretence; and the most learned of the others, if they do interpret the word by lavo, do not mean, as he pretends, any washing in general, but only such as is performed by dipping for they may render it well enough by

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s Orat iv. P. 133. Οὔτε ὁ κυβερνήτης, εἰ σώζει ἐν τῷ πλῷ δν καὶ βαπτίσαι ἄμεινον ἦν.

laro, the general word, which comprehends mergo the particular.

I know it signifies to wash, as a consequence of dipping; but so likewise it does to wet, colour, dye, drown, and to poison: it also signifies to put on Christ, and to be buried with him, as the apostle himself teaches us. But what I have further to say I must leave to my next.

I am, &c.


CRITICS constantly affirm the proper and genuine sense of Banrico is immergo, &c.-So Vossius, Constantine, and Stephanus render it-A testimony from Casaubon-His poor evasion-Another from Grotius-Another from Dionysius Petavius-It is needless to collect more-Mr. Wall conscious, notwithstanding his pretence, that the opinions of learned men are against him-Whereas Mr. Wall appeals to the Scriptures for the sense of the word, it is shewn largely to be never there used in his sense, but the contrary-Lev. xiv. 6. considered-That the word does not always necessarily signify to dip all over, is the most that can be inferred from it; besides, here it means to dip all over. Isa. xxi. 4; Ezek. xxiii. 15; Dan. iv. 33. and v. 21. considered-Hot climates very dewy-The Syriac version confirms our sense-Ecclus. xxxi. 26; 2 Macc. i. 21: Ecclus. xxxiv. 26. considered-The purification enjoined for touching that which is dead, to be performed by sprinkling-together with dipping-The Mahometans purify in such cases by washing all over-Washing was the main part of the purification among the Jews-For which reason the son of Sirach uses this word to intend the whole ceremony-Luke xi. 38. considered-Mr. Wall pretends the Jews always washed their hands, by having water poured on them: which is false-The priests washed their hands and feet by dipping them-Our LORD washed his disciples' feet so likewise-The authority of the rabbins not to be depended on-Dr. Pococke allows, the Jews were obliged sometimes to wash by dipping-And from thence accounts for the use of the word Barrigerðaɩ, Mark vii. 4.—Mr. Wall's next instance, which is Mark vii. 4. considered-Those that came from the market did wash by dipping-Sects among the Jews who washed themselves frequently-The words may refer to the things brought from the market—Heb. ix. 10. and Matt. xxvi. 23. considered-The sacramental washing being expressed by words, which signify any kind of washing, does not prove it may therefore be administered by any kind of washing-Words, like our ideas, have their genera and species -Words of a more particular sense should explain the more general, and not the contrary.

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THE proper and genuine sense of BarTiw, the critics constantly affirm, is immergo, mergo, &c. Constantine almost always renders it so, and Stephens never fails to do it, and explains it to signify to dye, or wash by dippinga; till in another period he inclines to shew a little favour to the authority of the church and her practice, and to that end indeed interprets it by lavo, abluo, &c. But he confirms this exposition by no examples, except two from Scripture, Mark vii. 4. and Luke xi. 28, which we shall examine by and by, and some from the later ecclesiastical writers.


And yet, at the same time, he cannot forbear blaming such as use those words in relation to the Christian sacrament, and says expressly, 'That Tertullian rendered it more properly by mergitare, 'on account of the trine immersion in baptism, retaining what the grammarians call the frequen'tative termination b.'

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The great Vossius speaks exactly to the same purpose, and indeed almost in the same words; for without ever taking the least notice of lavo, or the like, he expressly says, 6 Though βάπτω and βαπτίζω



are rendered by mergo or mergito, and tingo, yet

they properly signify mergo and tingo only by a

a Ad voc. Banтiw, ut quæ tingendi aut abluendi gratia aquæ immergimus.

b Ad voc. Banrico. Tertullianus de Corona Militis, magis proprie interpretatus est mergitare, servata propter trinam im. mersionem, forma quam frequentativam grammatici vocant.

c Etymologic. in voc. Baptismus. Etsi autem Bánтw et ẞanтiw, tum mergo, vel mergito, tum tingo transferri soleant; proprie tamen mergo notant, et μεταληπτικῶς tingo.

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