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formity, like those in Holland, and looking from a distance like a mountain chain, are not to be reckoned as mountain chains, though like the tells on the Syrian steppes and dunes in the Netherlands and along the Baltic coast, they sometimes rise to the height of a thousand feet. In South Germany and in the neighborhood of lofty mountains, such elevations are called mere hills; at the north foot of the Alps, yet greater heights are almost always called level land. In judging of the fitness with which the word mountain is used, it must always be remembered whether he who employs it dwells among the Himalayas or on the lowlands of eastern Europe; and in order to give any fixedness to the use of the word, it is necessary to take into account other physical characteristics besides height. By common usage, however, the Alps have become the standard of comparison for all the mountains of the world, mainly because, besides having their imposing height, they are found in the middle of the temperate zone; they are the most convenient to study of any great system on the globe. In respect to height, we divide these into four grades: the lowest from 2000 to 5000 feet above the sea; the next from 5000 to 8000; the next from 8000 to 10,000; and the highest from 10,000 on to the height of Mont Blanc.

Another standard might be found in the colossal Himalaya chain of Asia, and the Cordilleras of both Americas, which could easily be brought into unison with the Alpine chain of Switzerland.

The linear direction of a mountain chain, the axis of elevation as we might say, (so sharply hinted at in the very word mountain-chain,) brings out relations which vary not only according to the longitudinal direction itself, but to the lateral extent, the number of mountains, the situa

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tion, and the ramification of the chain. a straight one, we can rightly speak of an axis of elevation. According to Humboldt's measurements, this axis in the Pyrenees is 230 miles in length; in the Alps, from Mont Blanc to the Hungarian frontier, 515 miles; the Ural Mountains, 550 to 2042 miles; the Scandinavian Mountains, 1100 miles; the Altai Mountains, 9900 miles; the Kuenlun, 1600 miles; the Thian-Shan, in Inner China, 1700 to 2150 miles; the Himalayas, 1600 miles; the Yablonoi Chrabet, 550 miles; the Aldan, 400 miles; the Ghauts, 760 miles; the Andes of South America, 4400 miles; and the whole Cordillera of North America, 9200 miles. There is often much doubt about the true beginning and ending of a mountain chain, and judgments differ according as they rest on the fact of elevation or on the geological traces of upheaval where they begin to be manifest. Geographers are not agreed, for example, whether the Ural Mountains continue as far north as Nova Zembla, and whether one or two chains in America are to be spoken of as traversing the plateau of Mexico.

If there are parallel ranges, it is correct to speak of a transverse axis, running at right angles with the main axis. There is, it is apparent, a marked difference between simple chains and the accumulated parallel chains, where breadth is a prominent element, as in the Vosges, the Black Forest Mountains, the Fichtel range, the Hartz, the Ardennes. The parallel rows form a mountain system. Yet all great chains are made up of smaller ones, of groups at least, and so are mountain systems. Often the grouping is seemingly irregular, a lawless aggregation, but only because our knowledge is incomplete, and the law of arrangement Concealed from us. This law is traced in the very geological qualities of the chain, not in the later form. The

outer form is often very deceptive, the very convulsions which indicate the surer signs having served to obliterate what we should suppose the most prominent marks. The present of mountains must often be studied in the light of their past. Orography must be interpreted by geology. But the geological surveys of the earth are as yet very imperfect; the outer form has often to be accepted as the only guide. Orography and geology are two sciences which now go on hand in hand.

In the simple mountain chain it is easy to discriminate between the parts which make it up; the base is easily ascertainable and the ascent to the comb-like ridge is readily traced; the eye does not fail to see the relation between the special prominent heights and the chain from which they rise, and to trace the manner in which spurs and outlying mountains are connected with the main chain. Small isolated collections of mountains are especially valuable as elementary studies, for they always have a unity of their own. And all the greater and well-known chains are made up of smaller, simple chains, whose connection. and mutual relations are, however, sometimes exceedingly difficult to trace. But the character of the whole is not sometimes ascertainable with this preliminary knowledge. of the parts.

The true base of a mountain chain, the line of periphery, in consequence of the general unevenness of the adjacent country, must be ascertained by very exact measurements with the level. The geologist does not begin with this step, he strikes deeper, and seeks the place where the structure diverges from that of the more level land lying near; and, in the search after the basis of structure, he discovers the unity of the range from the foot to the summit. The whole geological district which has been up

heaved into mountains, Leopold von Buch found to be generally ellipsoidal in form, the longer axis being far more prominent than the shorter one. The axis of most mountain chains is, then, the longer axis of an ellipsoid. The Swiss Alps display about a dozen such ellipsoids, of different characteristics, and arranged according to no perceptible law of harmony. Each is developed from its own base, as the trunk of a tree grows out of its root. These separate bases lie contiguously, but the peaks which shoot up are widely sundered. The forms of the mountain groups resulting from this are, of course, various. Some of them I will briefly characterize.

1. The longer axes of the subordinate chains may run in parallels, as in one portion of the Swiss Alps, the Jura, the Ural Mountains, the Mexican Cordilleras, and the Himalayas.

The Alps di

2. The chains may diverge or converge. verge at the east, and the forks run northeast and southeast respectively; the Rocky Mountains, toward the Arctic regions, divide into from five to seven diverging chains. Converging ranges may come together at varying angles, and these can mass themselves into confused mountain knots, the summits of which soar to amazing heights, as the West and Middle Alps do around Mont Blanc. Alexander von Humboldt distinguishes five of these mountain knots in the Andes, Porco, Cuzco, Pasco, Assuay, and Los Pastos, whose construction, carefully studied, he considered, gives the key to the structure of the whole chain. Side chains often display this knotted form, as in Upper Peru around Lake Titicaca, the three branches of the Ural, at the Irmel Tau, the Himalaya, Kuenlun, and Hindoo Koosh chains, in upper Afghanistan, and the ranges of Swiss Alps, which converge around St. Gothard. Yet

the convolutions which these mountain chains make at their point of convergence are never regular, never mathematically exact, but to be measured in sections, and the traces of a linear direction to be carefully sought with the compass. The whole has, to the eye, a labyrinthine appearance, and the law of structure is only ascertained, with exactness, by the geological features, the direction of the strata, and the like. The geographer must call in the geologist to help him solve his problems.**

3. If from some high central point the mountain ranges radiate in the form of a star, they form a new variety of system called, for convenience, by the name "star-shaped." In volcanic mountains this configuration is common, as in Mont d'Or and in Auvergne. The southwestern Alps, known sometimes as the Sea Alps, the Ural at the Arctic Ocean, the Quito range of the Andes, are types of this form.

4. The ring-shaped system is in direct contrast with the last. It is found where mountain chains are arranged in a circle, inclosing a plateau of larger or smaller extent. There are two marked examples of this form in Europe: Bohemia and Transylvania. The ring of mountains around the former is made up of a number of ranges, which dovetail together at the ends, making a unit, but only a rude circle, speaking with mathematical exactness. The inclosed basin is only relatively a lowland; it is rigid with hills and low mountains, yet of such little importance,

* Not inappropriately has geology been called the Anatomy of mountain ranges. The more mountains are studied geologically, the more safe become the conclusions that are drawn from them. The smaller and more scattered ridges of central Europe have become the chief quarries for geological discovery, because of the rich variety which they afford to the student, and also because of their accessibility.

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