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as great under the democracies of France and America as under the monarchies of England, Germany, and Belgium." — Gunton, "Wealth and Progress," pp. 206, 207.
II. Contrast the relative influence of the terms Liberty and Equality in America and France.
See De Tocqueville, "Democracy in America," Book II. chap. i.
III. The United States as the chief example of a democracy is to be studied in connection with the modifying influences which have affected the conditions of labor.
(1.) The valuation put upon religious and civil liberty by inheritance from England.
(2.) The formation of so many customs and methods during the provincial period.
(3.) The immense resources of the country for agriculture. (4.) The material effect of immigration.
(5.) The industrial relation of slavery to the national life.
IV. The sentiment of individualism in a democracy, upon which industrial tyrannies may be founded through the principle of competition, is in the United States modified by experiments in State interference. "The new democracies of America are just as eager for state interference as the democracy of England, and try their experiments with even more lighthearted promptitude. Unrestricted competition has shown its dark side; great corporations have been more powerful than in England, and more inclined to abuse their power. Having lived longer under a democratic government, the American masses have realized more perfectly than those of Europe that they are themselves the government. Their absolute command of its organization (except when constitutional checks are interposed) makes them turn more quickly to it for the accomplishment of this purpose. And in the state legislatures they possess bodies with which it is easy to try legislative experiments, since these bodies, though not of themselves disposed to innovation, are mainly composed of men unskilled in economics, inapt to foresee any but the nearest consequences of their measures, prone to gratify any whim of their constituents, and open to the pressure of any section whose self-interest or impatient philanthropy clamors for some departure from the general principles of legislation. Thus it has come to pass that though the Americans conceive themselves to be devoted to laissez faire in theory, and to be in practice the most self-reliant of peoples, they have grown no less accustomed than the English to carry the action of the state into ever widening fields." ― Bryce, "The American Commonwealth," Part V. chap. 92, on Laissez Faire.
V. The wages of the laboring classes in the United States at the beginning of the century.
"The hours of work were invariably from sunrise to sunset. Wages at Albany and New York were three shillings, or, as money then went, forty cents a day at Lancaster, eight to ten dollars a month: elsewhere in Pennsylvania workmen were content with six dollars in summer and five in winter. . . . In Virginia, white men, employed by the year, were given sixteen pounds currency. Slaves, when hired, were clothed and their masters paid one pound a month. A pound, Virginia money, was in Federal money three dollars and thirty-three cents. The average rate of wages the land over was therefore sixty-five dollars a year with food and, perhaps, lodging. Out of this small sum the workman must, with his wife's help, maintain his family. Hod carriers and mortar mixers, diggers and choppers, who from 1793 to 1800
labored on the public buildings and cut the streets and avenues of Washington City, received seventy dollars a year, or if they wished sixty dollars for all the work they could perform from March first to December twentieth. (They were of course found, but not clothed.) Type setters were paid twentyfive cents a thousand ems, and even at this rate made, the publishers complained, as much as eight dollars a week. Such great wages, combined with cost of type, paper, and clerks, induced the publishers of six newspapers in the city of New York to combine and put up the price of subscription from eight to ten dollars a year." - McMaster, "History of the People of the United States," vol. 2, p. 617.
VI. For the narrative of the organization of labor, the formation of trade unions, and the development of a labor literature, see "The Labor Movement in America," Chaps. III., IV., V.
The following is the first proclamation in behalf of the general government fixing the hours of labor of its own employees, according to the ten-hour system; ·
"NAVY YARD, WASHINGTON, April 10, 1840. "By direction of the President of the United States (Martin Van Buren) all public establishments will hereafter be regulated as to working hours by the ten-hour system. The hours of labor in the yard will be as follows, viz.: From the first day of April to the thirtieth day of September inclusive, from 6 A. M. to 6 P. M. During this period the workmen will breakfast before going to work, for which purpose the bell will be rung and the first muster held at 7 A. M. At 12 o'clock, noon, the bell will be rung, and the hour from 12 to 1 allowed for dinner, from which hour to 6 P. M. will constitute the last half of the day.
"From the last day of October to the thirty-first day of March the working hours will be from the rising to the setting of the sun. The bell will be rung at one hour after sunrise, that hour being allowed for breakfast. o'clock, noon, the bell will again be rung, and one hour allowed for dinner, from which hour, say 1 o'clock till sundown will constitute the last half of the day. No quarter days will be allowed."
William Jewett Tucker.
THEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
A GENERAL VIEW OF MISSIONS.
THE reports of the Universities' Mission have a good many touches of description that render the country more familiar. After the severe unity of the course of the tragic events in Uganda, a somewhat miscellaneous collection of extracts respecting these opening regions may not be unwelcome. We go back somewhat over two years, rather overlapping the former report, as no very definite sequence of events seems as yet to have established itself in this mission.
Bishop Smythies, writing from Lukoma, on Lake Nyassa, says: "On the night of Saturday the 31st, we slept in a hut on the top of the mountains, and, as I was told it was only a walk to Mbamba Bay, I thought it best to go on after our early service on the Sunday. In half an hour we had crossed the top of the range, and a wide and splendid view burst
Some 4,000 feet down, perhaps, lay the lake, stretching as far as we could see to north and south, with high mountains just visible on the opposite shore. In the foreground was a mass of varied color and beauty, rocks and foliage mingled together in all directions." Writing from Blantyre, the Church of Scotland station some distance south of the lake, of the river Shiré, the bishop says: "From Pimbi we started by moonlight, and walked for three hours, slept, and went on over the mountainous spires of Zomba on Saturday, reaching Mr. Buchanan's settlement in the afternoon. It is a beautiful place up under the mountain, rising 3,000 feet above, and very precipitous on all sides. We were received most hospitably by Mr. Buchanan and his three brothers." Mr. Buchanan appears to be a missionary planter, belonging to the Church of Scotland. The bishop describes him as having "gardens full of English vegetables, fields of corn, and coffee plantations, streams of water flowing through them in all directions." On the following Sunday, the Anglicans and the Presbyterians seem to have joined their forces. The bishop, who was accompanied by the Rev. Mr. Maples, now one of his archdeacons, says: "We had a full Sunday. First, Swahili services with our own six men; then Mr. Buchanan's Yao service, at which Maples spoke in Yao; then an English service and sermon, to which the consul came. In the afternoon Maples and I climbed Zomba and enjoyed it, but the weather was too hazy from the grass fires to see far. There were fields of wild flowers on the top of the mountain; I saw Michaelmas daisies, St. John's wort, and blackberries."
Mr. Sherriff, captain of the "Charles Janson," missionary steamer on Lake Nyassa, writing from Matope, says: "Mbamba is the funniest place I have seen, for all the people live in the rocks, like birds; some on rocks in the water. It is amusing to see them swimming ashore with one hand, holding up their cloth with the other: the cloth is what they wear; some have a goatskin. Their gardens are on level ground; they grow Indian corn and sweet potatoes and tobacco. They take their goats and oxen up in the rocks about four o'clock in the afternoon. They live like this in fear of a very large tribe that takes away their wives and cattle. The small tribes live much in fear of the large ones."
"Central Africa," the organ of the Universities' Mission, has a description of the African Lakes' Company, of which we give a part: —
"This company was constituted in 1878, not as a mere trading venture, but with the object of assisting the missions in the countries discovered by Livingstone, of developing the resources of these districts, and of introducing legitimate commerce.
"Besides a very fine new stern-wheel steamer, now on its way to the Zambesi and Shiré rivers, and calculated to meet every possible requirement of the missionary societies (ourselves included) for years to come, the company has three steamers, a staff of twenty-five Europeans, and twelve trading stations.
The company is also steadily endeavoring to introduce and foster the cultivation of new produce, such as sugar, coffee, indigo, cocoa (cacao), fibre plants, etc. Of coffee, it has already a flourishing plantation. Indigo is indigenous, and the company has lately imported from Calcutta the Indian variety, which gives promise of being successful. Suitable soils and localities are selected at different parts of the company's route. On Lake Nyassa it manufactures oil for its steamers and for culinary use, and proposes making soaps and candles for the large consumption by Arabs and natives there, as it would not pay to export the groundnuts from so far inland. It thus aims at the judicious development of the varied resources of the different districts. The enterprise, thus conducted, cannot fail permanently to raise the commer
cial value of the country, while at the same time it affords regular employment to the natives, supplies their legitimate wants, and educates them to habits of steady and peaceful industry.
"The liquor traffic, which deteriorates the African even more than the European, as experience has undeniably proved, has as yet penetrated but a short distance from the coast. Not only does the company abstain from this demoralizing traffic, but it has so far entirely prevented its introduction into the Lake District.
"Difficulties, such as might have been expected in starting a new enterprise in an almost unexplored country, have been encountered, but, largely owing to the energy of the management, these have now been overcome, and traffic is carried on with great regularity in bartering calicoes and other goods for indiarubber and the native stores of ivory, large lots of which have from time to time been sent home. The total shipments of ivory have amounted to 40,815 pounds. In some measure this diminishes the traffic in slaves, for it will be remembered as a rule the Arab merchant buys a tusk, and then a slave to carry it, both being sold when the coast is reached."
The company wishes the Episcopalians to join with the Presbyterians in taking shares, as both are so hard at work on Lake Nyassa, and "Central Africa," cordially acknowledging the brotherliness of the proposal, encourages its readers to unite in the enterprise, as both Christianly beneficent and financially successful.
Archdeacon Farler, whose district is near Zanzibar, describes one of those celebrations, which combine the social and the ecclesiastical, the spiritual and the ritualistic, elements in precisely that way which is most apt to lay hold strongly and beneficently on the African temper and heart, as the present writer can testify from ten years' intimate experience: "August 23d, preparing and decorating for the Harvest Festival, St. Bartholomew's Day. The church was profusely decorated with ferns and flowers, corn and rice. The first service was a choral celebration for the Christians, they bringing their offertories of rice or corn in little baskets, which, at the time of the offertory, they poured into large baskets placed at the church-gate. Soon four or five large baskets were quite full. There were a large number of communicants, and a special prayer of thanksgiving for the harvest was said. At ten o'clock there was a second service, specially for catechumens and hearers. The church was crowded and presented a glorious sight, the nave and aisles thronged with natives. The morning offerings were piled up in two great heaps at either corner of the altar, and again the baskets were filled to overflowing with grain. Mr. Geldart preached in Bondei, and the service concluded with a Te Deum." After this there was an abundant feast. "About 600 people were separated into groups of chiefs, men, women, boys, girls. It was hard work, and required some generalship to keep them all supplied and satisfied, but mountains of beef, buckets of gravy, and basins of rice were quickly consumed.”
Archdeacon Farler gives an interesting account of one of his mountain tours. He spent the night nearly 4,000 feet above the sea:
"In the early morning it was very cold, with an European sharpness in the air, rare in tropical Africa. I went for a walk for myself before breakfast, but the thick mists-for we were in the clouds-made it very gloomy, yet most beautiful. The wondrous profusion of ferns growing upon the branches of the trees, the orchids and quaint mosses, had an enchanting effect. The trees were regular giants, and so thick that the sky was not visible through their tops. The foliage was strange and fantastic: huge wild mountain plantains, palms of a species never seen in the lowlands, gave the impression of
the Palm House at Kew, only on an unlimited scale. After a time the path began to descend, and took me out of the region of mists and clouds in front, as far as the eye could reach, was a sunny champaign, full of villages. In the afternoon went up to the very top of the peak; taking a rug and a book with me, and making a nest in the braken, I contemplated the glorious view before me with delight. Far below was seen our mission station, Magila, with the new church standing out a conspicuous object, and the whole country dotted with innumerable villages. The lowlands, which appear a very hilly country from below, appeared quite flat from the mountain top. There in the distance appeared the wilderness, with the rivers Luvu and Zigi flowing through it like silver threads, and in the far distance the sea, with the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. I stayed there reading Paradise Lost' until it grew so cold that I had to beat a retreat."
A letter from the Rev. F. Flynn, Royal Navy, gives some impressions of the work of the Universities' Mission, at what may be called its base, the island of Zanzibar and its neighborhood. This rests on a background of general impressions respecting the missionary work. Mr. Flynn
"During the past twelve months I have had opportunities of seeing something of mission work in the Telugu country, on the east coast of India, in Ceylon, in Rangoon, in Mauritius, on the east coast of Africa, and the island of Zanzibar. I have, at the expense of time, trouble, and money, visited mission stations in connection with the Church of England, the Wesleyan and the Baptist societies; I have also seen something of mission work as carried on by the Roman Catholic Church; I have examined carefully, so far as was possible for me, the working of most of these societies, and what I shall now tell you I can personally vouch for.
"In the first place I wish to say that, having met many missionaries in these various places I have mentionéd, I have no hesitation in saying that I have not not one- of whom I would dare to say that he was living a life calculated to reflect discredit either on the particular society he represented, or, which is of infinitely more importance, the cause of that Master whom he professed to serve.
"There are many things of interest that I could tell you of the work of Christian missions in Ceylon and Mauritius, but I will confine my remarks to the work of the Universities' Mission in Zanzibar and on the mainland of Africa. On the island of Zanzibar there are three mission stations in connection with this society; one in the town, on the site of the old slave market. There is here a very large and beautiful church built by the late Bishop Steere. On this spot, prior to the establishment of the treaty between the Sultan and our Queen, which was brought about by Sir Bartle Frere, slaves were publicly bought and sold every day. Now that the public traffic in slaves is no longer permitted in Zanzibar, this place is used for the far different purpose of proclaiming to these poor Africans the Gospel of Liberty; and noble indeed was the mind that conceived and carried into effect the idea of substituting for the horrors of the slave market the house of God where the gospel is preached, the Mission House where the poor rescued slave boys are housed and fed, and the school where they are instructed in the religion of that Master 'whose service is perfect freedom,' and whose chains are not iron fetters, but golden links of love. "A short distance from the town, at a place called Kiungani, there is another of these stations; this is a school for boys, and at present upwards of 100 boys, some of these the sons of chiefs from various parts of the mainland, but for the most part rescued slaves, reside within the walls of this institution. Of the working of this establishment I have the most intimate knowledge, having been there for some months past almost daily. . . . Day after day I have been amongst them, observing the self-denying lives of these missionaries, their devotion to their work, their love for the boys thus committed to their care; and I believe it is impossible to overrate the importance of the work that is being done in this establishment.