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wherefore turn yourselves, and live." A very interesting chapter is given to the Messianic hope of Ezekiel. The restoration is not for Israel's sake or merit, but for His own holy name's sake, which hath been profaned among the nations. "And the nations shall know that I am the Lord, saith the Lord God, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes." The relation of the prophet's programme for the restoration, in chapters 40 ff., to the Messianic idea, is properly emphasized. Yahwe's return to Zion is the beginning of the new era. But the condition of his dwelling in the midst of his people is that they respect in everything his inviolable holiness. All the new arrangements of city and temple, all the new regulations of life and worship, have one end, - to separate the holy from the profane. The golden age can only come to a holy people; to fulfill the law of holiness is to bring in the Messianic times. It is easy to say that this is the beginning of legalism, that Pharisaism is the final outcome of this way of looking at life, that it is a lamentable falling off from the idealism of the prophets. But it was only through such an education that the ideas of the prophets could become the possession of the masses of the people.
In the light of the new convictions and new ideals which were won in the exile, the whole past of the nation appeared in a new character, and this change could not but leave its impress on the historical tradition itself. The transformation of the national history into theology teaching by example the lesson of God's judgment on Israel's refusal through all the generations to worship Him alone, in the way in which alone He would be worshiped, did not begin in the exile. The sweeping judgment on which it rests was enunciated by Hosea, as the Northern kingdom was hurrying on to its fate. But the Deuteronomic law which made the temple in Jerusalem the one place in which Yahwe might be worshiped, and put all the local sanctuaries, the high places, under the ban, condemned the whole history of Judah, from the building of Solomon's Temple, as one great disobedience. From this point of view the books of Kings were edited. Stade thinks that the Deuteronomistic redaction of the books of Samuel and the Judges was later, and in its judgment goes a step beyond that of the Kings. I think we shall one day be able to show that a good deal of what is called the Deuteronomic element in the latter books is older. If we succeed in connecting one of the narratives which run through them with the Ephraimite historian, we should have to trace his judgment of the earlier periods of the history to the direct influence of Hosea. The analysis of these books is, for this and other reasons, one of the most important tasks of criticism just now.
Ezekiel's sketch of the New Jerusalem includes a revised ritual for the Temple. But the cessation of the cultus in the exile made it necessary that the old liturgical tradition of the priests should be reduced to writing, in order to preserve it against the restoration. Hence the extensive collections of ancient usage which we now find incorporated in the so-called Priest's Code.
The other great prophet of the Exile, the author of Isaiah 40-66, also receives a full and appreciative treatment. His lofty and inspiring conception of God, the creator and ruler of the universe; of his world purpose of salvation; and of Israel's prophetic mission to the world, make him the theologian among the prophets. From Ezekiel and DeuteroIsaiah flow the two main currents of Judaism, the one exclusive and formal, the other spiritual and universal. Talmudical Judaism may be regarded as the outcome of the one, Christianity of the other. Rather,
they typify two eternal tendencies which may be traced in every age in both religions.
The return of a part of the exiles in 537 B. c., and the attempt to reestablish political and religious institutions in Palestine, in accordance with the convictions which had been gained in Babylon, on the basis of the enlarged Deuteronomic law, is the subject of the Second Book. To the understanding of the situation, it is essential to bear in mind that the leaders and the people were full of the thought that in them the fulfillment of the Messianic hope was already begun. The prophets of the time, Haggai and Zechariah, connect the realization of these expectations with the rebuilding of the Temple. Zechariah sees in Zerubbabel the offshoot of David's house who shall sit and rule upon his throne. These hopes were not fulfilled. As time went on, the contradiction between the ideal and the actual staggered faith and cut the nerve of action. A time of religious and moral decadence succeeded. Godliness had lost its end. The situation of the returned exiles in the midst of the people of the land, that is, the descendants of the Israelite population which had escaped deportation, was one of peculiar peril. By alliance and intermarriage with them, the new religious community was in danger of losing its distinctive character, and with it all the gains of the bitter experience of exile.
The work of Ezra must be regarded from this point of view. At the critical moment he came from Babylon, bringing with him "the law of his God which was in his hand." We have no reason to suppose that he was the author of this law book. "He makes far more the impression of a reformer than a writer." Rather the law was the product of the labors of the priestly circles in Babylon which had long busied themselves, not only with the study of the laws that had been handed down to them, but, after the example of Ezekiel, with new regulations adapted to the new needs. In form the work is as far as possible from being a code of law. It is an account of the origin of the sacred institutions of Israel. And its fundamental theory is, that the blessings which the prophets, Ezekiel included, expect in the Messianic future, were in the actual possession of Israel at the beginning of its history. In accordance with this theory the whole ritual, which Ezekiel had brought into such close connection with the Messianic hope, is ascribed to Moses. In this the authors went beyond the Deuteronomy on the same road. The characteristics of the priestly law are clearly stated, and, as in the case of Ezekiel, Stade deals with the legislative development more justly and in a more historic spirit than most of the critics of the school of Reuss, who sometimes speak of it in terms which savor more of prejudice than of insight.
The Third Book covers the century from Ezra and Nehemiah to Alexander the Great. The external history is almost a blank, and it has been customary to treat the internal history as equally barren. Recent criticism, however, assigns to this period no inconsiderable part of the Old Testament literature. Here belongs the second working-over of the historical tradition represented by the Chronicles. These books show everywhere the influence of the Priest's Code, as the earlier historical books do of the Deuteronomy. To this period, too, Stade ascribes most of the Psalms, which bear the unmistakable impress of post-exilic piety. The guilds of Temple singers cultivated sacred poetry and music, composing in the first instance for the public worship of the Temple. Having this liturgical character, the Psalms are primarily the voice of the worshiping congregation, not of the individual. The author thus
puts himself on the side of Olshausen, Reuss, Cheyne, Smend, and others in a controversy which has not yet closed. In consequence of the false formulation of the much disputed question of prediction and fulfillment, the Messianic element in the Psalter has not, in recent times, been recognized as it should. In reality it is "the most Messianic book of the Old Testament." In the contradiction between what was and what ought to be, the Jewish church sustained itself chiefly by this hope, and there are comparatively few Psalms in which it does not find some expression.
The Messianic hope was nourished by the study of the prophetic writings, which in this period was pursued with much earnestness. The scattered oracles were collected and put together. They had long been revered as sacred Scriptures; they now acquired canonical authority. They are, like the Pentateuch, writings in which the will of God is revealed, and by which his people have to regulate their life. This way of looking at them, while it was not quite just in an historical or religious point of view, had one great advantage. The ethical teaching of the prophets took its place beside the ritual law, supplementing it, and averting the danger that morals should either be completely overshadowed by ceremonial, or degenerate into it. The prophets' wider thought of the world and God's purpose for it was there to correct the exclusiveness of the church. In them the universal significance of the kingdom of God was proclaimed, as well as those demands which God makes, over and above the law, on the heart and conduct of man. The collection of the prophetic writings must have been accompanied by a redaction similar to that which attended the completion, in the same age, of the Pentateuch. The very form in which they had been transmitted made this necessary, still more the character of the writings themselves. The fact and the extent of this redaction has not, Stade thinks, been sufficiently recognized. Strangely enough, many who admit it without question in the case of the Pentateuch, persistently deny it when it comes to the prophets. The pages in which the author illustrates the character of this editorial work, and the changes which have been wrought by it in the text of the prophets, and his description of the "reproductive" prophecy which was one of the results of the revived interest in the older oracles, are among the most instructive in the volume. They open up to the student of prophecy a problem of no less magnitude and difficulty than the much discussed Pentateuch question itself.
At the end, in the chapter on Religion and Morals, the author brings before us, in clear and concise form, the result of the whole religious development thus far. I commend the study of it to the New Testament theologian as well as to the Old. It is a fitting conclusion to a stimulating and instructive book.
Professor Stade has shown that the criticism so often described as "negative" and "destructive," is in reality positive and constructive. He has done more. One of the objections often brought against the school of critics to which he belongs is, that the history of the religion of Israel, as they represent it, is unworthy of the character of the religion. If this were so, it would be a strong argument against the truth of their conclusions. But the objection will not apply to the work we have been reviewing. Whatever other fault may be found with it, it cannot be said that the development it supposes for the religion of the Old Testament is incompatible with its own character, or unworthy of the God whom we learn to know in it. George F. Moore.
ISLAM AND CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. Reprinted from "The Missionary Review of the World" for August, 1889. Pp. 21. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Price, 20 cents.
We call special attention to this monograph on the relation of Christian Missions to Mohammedanism. The authorship is not acknowledged, but it is unquestionably that of one who has had the twofold advantage of having been a working missionary amongst the Moslems in Syria, and, more recently, the professor of theology in some American missionary seminary, where he has given profound study to Mohammedanism as a spiritual system.
We doubt if there is in existence a more satisfactory exhibition of the inward strength and resources of the Moslem faith. The author does not profess to give an exhaustive treatment of his theme; but within the brief compass of twenty pages he is eminently successful in presenting the duty of Christian missions to the Mohammedans; in showing what special difficulties must be overcome in order to the successful accomplishment of the duty; what should be the aim of missionary effort in meeting the charm and power of Islamism; and in indicating the spirit which should inspire and govern Christians in the proper discharge of their duty in the premises.
The writer is a remarkably clear, forcible, yet temperate and attractive expositor. The reader feels the accent of candor and fairness throughout the luminous and fascinating statement. By the simple art of truth the author persuades the reader into believing with the great Dr. Johnson, that "there are two objects of curiosity the Christian world and the Mohammedan world; all the rest may be considered as barbarous." When the author reaches the question of method in dealing with this powerful foe of Christianity he is suggestive and practical; and yet, in common with missionaries everywhere, he is open and progressive, still seeking for guidance on this vital point of method, and would be grateful for light. It is to be hoped that every one who is loyal to the missionary enterprise will take pains to become acquainted with this able, interesting, and effective discussion.
J. W. Churchill.
GERMAN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.
A. Bastian, Professor an der Universität Berlin. Die Culturländer des alten Amerika. Erster Band: Ein Jahr auf Reisen. Pp. xviii, 704 u. 3 Karten. Mrk. 18. Zweiter Band: Beiträge zu geschichtlichen Vorarbeiten auf westlicher Hemisphäre. Pp. xxxviii, 967 u. 1 Tafel. Mrk. 22. Dritter Band: Nachträge und Ergänzungen aus den Samlungen des Ethnologischen Museums. Pp. 290, mit 6 Tafeln. Mrk. 13. Berlin: Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung. - Professor Bastian is generally regarded as "the greatest living ethnologist." The work which is now completed is of such fullness and erudition that its real value is in danger of being overlooked except by severe specialists. Yet, the book is a mine in which whoever is interested may work with great profit, not only in the facts of American antiquities, but also in the philosophy which anthropology is forming, either as a means or as a result of its in
vestigations. Dr. Bastian undertook his extensive travels with the conviction that the most important field of anthropology is Central America. These volumes are the fruit of his travels and labors. The first volume contains two parts: first, an account of the author's journeyings in Chili, Peru, Ecuador, the Isthmus, and Guatemala; the second, pages 441-683, two essays, the one on the religion and customs of the ancient Peruvians, the other, a comparative study of the ancient constitutions of the priesthood and the state. In both of these essays it is supposed that religion originates in wonder or astonishment. The second volume is given to historical exposition, so far as it is possible, from the earliest records and chronicles. The subjects which receive special investigation are the Incas in Peru, the Chibchas and the tribes of the Magdalenen and Cauca Valleys, the races of the Isthmus and the Antilles, Guatemala and Yucatan, and the history of ancient Mexico. The parts that deal with Peru and Mexico are of special interest in the prominence given to the religious, social, and political relations of their ancient peoples. The third volume is composed of additions and supplements to the subjects which are treated in the second volume, and furnish much light on comparative anthropology. If we understand the author, his work throughout supports a racial and psychological monism. It is thought if the inductive method is fully carried out in psychology it will lead not to a high latitude transcendentalism, but to a real matter-of-fact foundation. Monism lies in the nature of thought, whether in religion or in philosophy. This view, which is supported by anthropology, in turn becomes a support to the whole sphere of knowledge, and gives signal advantages in every department of science. The effects of nature, the world over, of peoples and of civilizations, taken all together, show unity, essential harmony. These volumes have the strength and the weakness incident to the method of writing history and making philosophy at the same time.
Friedrich Paulsen, Professor an der Universität Berlin. System der Ethik, mit einem Umriss der Staats- und Gesellschaftslehre. Pp. xii, 868. Berlin: Verlag von Wilhelm Hertz (Besser'sche Buchhandlung). Mrk. 11.. Professor Paulsen's reputation as a lecturer, and as a clear, cautious speculator, finds in this fruit of his labor a full justification. Morality is regarded as a practical matter and of popular concern, having for its task the discovery, investigation, and declaration of these principles of conduct, the practice of which gives form to life and harmony to all its relations. But the practical always rests upon the theoretical, and no department of science can free itself from such a foundation. Theoretical ethics must include anthropology and psychology; in fact, ethics covers all philosophy in origin and aim. The author is not over-concerned to establish a method of ethics or to indorse any current theory, although the rationalistic view of the Kantian school is regarded as erroneous. Ethics is an empirical science in the same sense as is medicine, and moral laws are natural laws and known as natural laws in the same sense in which the rules of dialectic are natural laws, and are recognized as such. After the introduction, in which the nature and task of ethics are regarded, an outline of the history of moral philosophy, pages 23-171, forms the matter of the first book. The Grecian period was naturalistic, and inquired for the highest good. Christianity was supernaturalistic, and asked what are, according to the commands of God, duty and sin. Modern ethics, drawing from both the