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The book always misspells "Brownson Bronson," slip of " most reverend apostle" for "most reverend archbishop."

The Tests of the Various Kinds of Truth. By James McCosh, D. D., LL.D., D. L. Second Series. Pp. 132. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1889. $0.70.-These lectures before the Ohio Wesleyan University touch upon the nature and differences of Ultimate, Deductive, and Inductive Truth, and upon the joint application of the two last. The last lecture inquires whether there is testimony to prove the supernatural, and answers affirmatively. The distinguished author rejects the assumption that there is one genetic principle of knowledge or one exhaustive criterion of truth, but proceeds to show that there are both principles and tests sufficient to give us a sufficient affluence and certainty for all our present essential requirements. He puts Deduction lower than Mill, but allows its value, especially in combination. He is very sarcastic upon the German philosophers from Spinoza to Von Hartmann, but allows that there is something in most of them after all. The question of Universals he settles very sensibly by the position: "Universalia in particularibus." The treatment of testimony to the Supernatural is sound, but not particularly striking. His statement that ghost-stories are against the analogy of nature, and therefore undeserving of attention, may be questioned. Many of them have excellent evidence, and so strong-headed a man as Isaac Taylor believes them to be according to the analogy of nature. They are less worthy of attention than the miracles of Jesus only because they amount to so little. As Isaac Taylor says, their only value seems to be that they keep up a dim sense of things unseen in the general mind.

Christian Education. By Rev. Daniel Curry, LL.D. First Series. Pp. 131. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati Cranston & Stowe. 1889. $0.70. A pleasant series of five lectures, delivered before the Ohio Wesleyan University. They are: (1) Introductory and General; (2) Character and Capabilities of Christian Education; (3) Its Purpose; (4) Lions in the Way; (5) Character-Making. Dr. Curry by no means follows those superserviceable clergymen who are so anxious to prove to Antichrist that they have nothing against his assuming the charge of our national education. He affirms that the dread of "godless schools" is far from being a vain cry.

Living Questions: Studies in Nature and Grace. By Warren Hathaway, Pastor at Blooming Grove, New York. Pp. 365. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 1889.-Seventeen Sermons on various Biblical and doctrinal topics, such as The Guiding Hand, God Revealed, A Royal Sensualist, The Vine and the Branch, etc. They are fresh and sound, elastic in their theology, but thoroughly centred in the Scriptures and in Christ. The two sermons on The Real Issue are a vigorous following up of the Protean attempts of atheism to compel the great truth of Evolution to yield atheistic results which are not inherent in it, but which it must be dragooned into yielding if it is to retain any value in the eyes of a large proportion of its advocates, who are thereby shown to be simply atheistic theologians in masquerade.

John the Baptist, the Forerunner of our Lord: His Life and Work. By Ross C. Houghton, D. D. Pp. 372. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati Cranston & Stowe. 1889. $1.50. : -An agreeable, somewhat diffuse, popular biography of the Baptist, with quite a full presentation of the illustrative and confirmatory literature. The sarcastic

comments on Roman Catholic relic-worship with which it concludes form a rather undignified anti-climax. This "hall-mark" of the author's standing, perhaps, could not be spared, but might have done better in another place. The author himself seems to lean a little to the evident invention of Salome's retributive form of death. The print of Jesus' baptism represents him and John, as they probably should be, both in the water, about to give and receive an immersion. Perhaps John did not ordinarily plunge his candidates in person, but he doubtless did the Saviour.

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The Progress of Religious Freedom as shown in the History of Toleration Acts. By Philip Schaff, D. D., LL.D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1889. Pp. vi, 126. This clearly printed and clearly presented brochure-first read before the C. H. Society - emphasizes the important distinction, that America has passed far beyond Toleration, while Europe, in form and largely in fact, still maintains the theory that freedom of dissenting worship is only a concession. It might have been added, that France is beginning to treat liberty of worship in general as a concession, which she would like to revoke but does not quite dare. The author brings out the two unhappy gradations by which those two great men, Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, committed the Latin Church to persecution, Ambrose and Alcuin representing the purer Christian feeling. It might have been well to point out that Rome has always denied that she has jurisdiction over the unbaptized, and that, as Neander shows, she did her best in the Middle Ages to protect the Jews. It is curious that this simple distinction has, as the "Nation" has pointed out, misled Mr. Lea into reproaching her with inconsistency. A pretty serious crack in his great work on the Inquisition, not to have apprehended this vital position.

Is it true that the Orthodox persecutions of the Arians compared in violence with those of the Orthodox by the Arians? We have not so understood from Gibbon.

Dr. Schaff is justly severe upon the reluctance of the Protestants to cease persecuting. He gives Frederick the Great no more praise than his due, but might perhaps have mentioned that, in the previous century, the sincerely religious Emperor Maximilian II. had been equally firm in his refusal to persecute either Protestants or Jesuits. The author rightly makes the Edict of Nantes the centre of his book, from its promulgation to its revocation. These few pages are a brilliant portraiture and vindication of the Huguenot Church, and will leave on the mind in ineffaceable vividness the varied abominations of the dragonnades. Every Protestant ought to know them, not to inflame his bigotry, but to kindle his thankfulness that there has been such a church, and that, driven abroad like the first disciples, she is still working in many lands, above all in ours. Those of us who are proud, not of one, but of many lines of Huguenot blood in our veins, owe him proportional thanks for having brought this great history into so intense a focus.

Dr. Schaff remarks that Leo XIII. is enlightened, moderate, and prudent, but maintains the unchangeable Roman theory of the duty of the state to coerce all the disobedient children of the Church. But, as he points out, theories must bend to facts, and however it may be with Rome, Catholicism in America is undergoing an essential transformation in this respect, which the Doctor declares to be admirably illustrated in Cardinal Gibbons.

Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian. By Edward T. Bartlett, A. M., and John P. Peters, Ph. D. Vols. I. and II., pp. xii, 545; xi, 569. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1886, 1888. This joint work of the Dean of the Episcopal Divinity School in Philadelphia and the Old Testament professor is especially arranged for the benefit of young readers, as an introduction to the study of the Bible. Beginning with the Creation, it goes through the history of Israel to the Captivity, giving the marrow of the story in such narrations as appear to have lived in the mouths of the people, but omitting everything which appears to belong to the work of literary redaction. Such ancient documents, especially songs, as the editors judge contemporary, they give in situ, including the Ten Commandments. To David they attribute, in order, the Eighth, Nineteenth (first part), Twenty-ninth, Seventh, Twenty-fourth, Thirty-second, Eighteenth, and Third Psalms, as well as the Last Words, and the Elegy over Saul and Jonathan. We would raise, however, a hesitating question, in the name, not of the Higher, but of the Superlative Criticism, respecting the last. Is it not too completely Davidian to be acknowledged genuine, too thoroughly consonant with David's enthusiastic character in friendship, war, and national feeling, too absolutely agreeable to its hitherto undisputed authorship in its tone, occasion, objects, and allusions, to be received? Such is the way that certain great authorities seem to reason.

The second volume opens with the Psalms of rage and despair, intermingled with the prophecies of vengeance and restoration, and the narratives of the Return, with the Psalms and Prophecies of Reëdification. The 119th Psalm, as the Praise of the Law, introduces the Law, the Book of the Covenant, the Little Book of the Covenant, the Eight Levitical Codes, the Deuteronomic Code, in its Seven Parts, and the Levitical Ritual. Then follow, as Hebrew Tales, those narratives of Ruth, Elijah and Elisha, and Jonah, which do not so immediately belong in the annals, but which the editors declare to be in no way less historical on this account. These are immediately followed, perhaps too immediately, by the Danielic narratives. Then come, intermingled in a somewhat difficult sequence, various prophecies of Micah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, and Zechariah; then, as Hebrew Poetry, a large selection of Psalms, and, as Hebrew Wisdom, various Proverbs. Lastly comes the great poem of Job, enriched by the omission of Elihu's interpolated speech.

Younger and older readers, who use the book, will certainly apprehend by means of it that there is life and various development in the history of Israel, and that the revelation of God was accomplished through the deep interaction of human personalities and relations. After reading it they would never be able to reduce the Old Testament again to the dead level of a Koran.


Charles C. Starbuck.


Harald Höffding, Professor an der Universität in Kopenhagen. Ethik. Eine Darstellung der Ethischen Prinzipien und derén Anwendung auf besondere Lebensverhältnisse. Unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers aus dem Dänischen übersetzt von F. Bendixen. Pp. xiv, 492. Leipzig: Fues's Verlag (R. Reisland). Mrk. 10.—" If one views from a distance the snow-clad mountains they seem to be suspended in the air, but as one comes nearer it is evident that they stand upon strong and solid foundations. It is even so with ethical principles. . . . It has been my task in this work to point out what ethical foundations there are, whence they spring, and what application they find in the most important relations of life. Practical experience and theoretical investigation have ever deepened my conviction that ethical principles the basis and rule of all judgment concerning good and evil - have their origin in the nature and relations of men themselves, without being dependent upon any other authority. I have here made the attempt to establish and carry out this conviction." Dr. Höffding, while he finds all the material of ethics in man, expects that ethics will come to scientific character by means of the objective method. Bentham's failure to see how a subjective principle forms the supposition of an objective is avoided. It is clearly shown how all ethical judgments and objective method must fall back upon a subjective foundation. "Every principle of ethical judgment rests upon determined psychological, historical suppositions." The aim and content of ethics is that conduct which is consciously directed "for the greatest possible welfare and progress of the greatest possible number." The author discriminates between theological and Christian ethics. "Christianity began not with a theological system any more than with a church organization, . . . Christianity contains only two principles, faith and love." "All Ethics is practical idealism. It supposes that we set for ourselves a goal; but a goal is no being, but an actual obligation." The treatise falls into three chief divisions: first, an exposition of ethical principles and problems, pages 1-124; second, individual ethics, pages 124-182; and, third, social ethics, pages 182-484. The relative importance which Dr. Höffding attaches to social ethics is indicated in this division. After a special introduction to this department, the Family is made the subject of a careful study, pages 192-251. The ethical meaning and natural form of the family, marriage and divorce, the position and relations of the wife, of parents and children in the family and in the state, are suggestively handled. In the second division, where the author treats of the different forms of social culture, we find a clearness and fullness truly gratifying. Social laws are brought to bear upon social questions with excellent effect. The material, intellectual, æsthetical, and religious forms of culture are characteristically distinguished and comparatively estimated. The relations of religion and philanthropy are cleared with special fullness. Under the third division, the State, pages 396-484, are reviewed the important topics, people and state, law and morality, the ethical significance of the state, the jurisdiction of the state, and the constitution of states. In conclusion, pages 482-484, we are reminded that "the whole exposition of ethics which is here given rests directly upon the supposition that there is in human nature a uni

versal power and disinterested sympathy," and that "the doctrine of development has shown that it is possible for us to join our realism with the idealism of our predecessors if we give heed to the rule, be full of enthusiasm for the greatest things and thoroughly true in the smallest." The work is indispensable to the student of sociology. We are informed, in the preface, that the German translation is superior to the original by reason of many alterations and additions.

Wolf Wilhelm Grafen Baudissin, Professor der Theologie an der Universität Marburg. Die Geschichte des Alttestamentlichen Priesterthums. Pp. xv, 312. Leipzig: Verlag von S. Hirzel. Mrk. 7. — We are here furnished with a masterly review of the content of the thought and life of Israel in the light of the history of its Priesthood. Notwithstanding the vast bibliography of the Old Testament, there are not more than three or four works that even attempt a survey of the religion of the old covenant from a sacerdotal standpoint. Professor Baudissin has a thorough appreciation of the worth and worthlessness of the priesthood in relation to the value of the Old Testament as a whole. The legitimate questions in this department concern neither the foundations nor superstructure of the Old Testament verities, but belong rather to that movable furniture and ornamentation that appear much the same in any building whatsoever. Yet, the disposal and arrangement of this furniture, if accurately ascertained, will give much light on the form of life and thought in Israel. The work opens with a five-page list of the literature of the subject, beginning with De Wette's "Introduction to the Old Testament," and concluding with the publications of 1888. The author, finding much confusion and little agreement in the views of Reuss, Graf, Kuenen, and Wellhausen, has adopted the admirable method of first succinctly stating his propositions and then critically examining them. The eight chapters which constitute the work are as follows: the priesthood according to the priestly documents of the Pentateuch, and according to Jehovistic books; the priesthood according to Deuteronomy, Joshua, — Ezekiel,-Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah; the priesthood according to the old historical books, and the prophetic and poetic writings; and, finally, an excellent summary of the historical results. The indexing of the book is complete. There was no regular priesthood before the time of Moses, but from the time of the sojourn in the wilderness it is a prominent institution in Israel. The author makes use of whatever light is helpful in making his exposition clear, and Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Assyria furnish their shares. "The Deuteronomic law, carrying in its language and especially in its theologic character the impress of the period of Jeremiah, is that same law, which according to 2 Kings xxii. was found in the temple and publicly made known by Josiah. The reform which Josiah was able to carry on by promulgating this law was the making current of the actual motive principles of Deuteronomy."

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Geschichte der Ethik in der Neueren Philosophie. Von Friedrich Jodl, Professor an der Universität zu Prag. Erster Band; pp. xi, 446. Mrk. 8. Zweiter Band; pp. xiii, 608. Mrk. 10. Stuttgart: Verlag der J. G. Cotta'schen Buchhandlung. This work is undoubtedly the most important contribution to the history of modern ethics that has yet appeared. The first volume, published six years ago, carried the history to the end of the eighteenth century. The second part, which now appears, brings the history to our own generation. One of the excellent features of the work is that the author has not attempted too much, but

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