Slike stranica

the point. The slightly scholastic tendency of style — cf. page 1- disappears as the author proceeds.

In the subject-matter President Andrews has certainly shown a sound sense for facts and their meaning. We know of no book of its class that is as satisfactory. One fears to look into the writings of a Germantrained economist lest he find a sentimentalist and socialist. But President Andrews is neither. He believes in the government undertaking certain enterprises. "Government can do much for the betterment of economic conditions without attacking the property rights or becoming dangerously paternal." Yet "in all economic activity the presumption is in favor of individual liberty and free competition (laissez faire), rightfulness of public intervention in no case admissible save after proof." The current craze of "Nationalism" finds no support from him. "We see insuperable obstacles to the launching of the system as advocated, and insufferable evils sure to spring from it if launched. It would (I) dangerously concentrate power, (II) abate thrift in some while promoting it in others, and (III) repress that marvelous inventiveness, enterprise, and daring in industrial undertakings which only the hope of great personal profit will at present induce in men.”

His views upon international trade are by no means German, that is, protectionist, yet they are eminently fair and candid. He justly repudiates Walker's "Residual Claimant" theory of wages, and his treatment of the general subject is admirable. It is refreshing to find a chapter upon the neglected topic of economic "Consumption." A subject-index would have added much to the value of a book that is sure of a hearty welcome from teachers and thoughtful students.

D. Collin Wells.

AMERICAN STATESMEN BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. By JOHN T. MORSE, Jr., author of “Life of John Adams," "Life of John Quincy Adams,' "Life of Thomas Jefferson," etc. Pp. vi, 428. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1889. $1.25.

This is not a book that one feels enthusiastic over, whether the fault is in the biographer or the subject. Franklin is not exactly one to draw out any astonishing glow of enthusiasm. A great man, assuredly, sane and kindly, effective to the last fibre, for his city, his country- and himself. Self-forgetfulness has not always a very great present reward, which is doubtless one great reason why, besides its reward above, it has such a reward of loving remembrances. It is not precisely this that Benjamin Franklin inherits. But who is not proud of having handled his rude little electrical machine, and having peeped through the open space in the wall of Arch Street cemetery upon the two flat stones that bear the names of the unromantic couple resting beneath? It has been well said that Penn's "Holy Experiment" never fairly fruited for Philadelphia until Franklin came, and gave her libraries, and lamps, and fire-engines, and the Pennsylvania Hospital, and the University of Pennsylvania, and a more active political and intellectual life, all without disturbing that quiet friendliness which makes a fortnight in the Quaker City so deep a bath of repose.

The author shows by Franklin's conduct in the matter of provisioning Braddock's troops, that though he was a man of canny prudence, he was anything but a man of selfish prudence, but was quite ready to run the risk of ruining himself for the public good. He was emphatically the

Good Citizen. It is not likely that he would ever have brought about the detachment from England. But neither dangers nor labors (meaning so much more to a man of his age) were too much for him in the great enterprise of giving his country her independent life. Mr. Morse remarks that it is hard to say whether Washington was in more desperate straits at Valley Forge or Franklin in Paris, trying to raise endless moneys for a loose-jointed Confederation whose Congress had no securities to offer, and no power to offer them had they existed. Franklin's woes, however, do not cut quite as deep into our hearts as the burdens of Washington and the bleeding feet of the heroes of Valley Forge. The pleasures and flatteries of Paris were something of a solace, no doubt, to the venerable sage, who enjoyed himself among Voltairian wits as few Americans could have done. And during his previous years of colonial agency in London he found an enjoyment in the brilliant society always open to him that rendered his strenuous services to his native and his adopted colony none the less valuable, but somewhat the less exhausting. His long absences from Mrs. Franklin he bore with as easy a philosophy as in due time he bore the loss of her.

The author is right in saying that, after all that Benjamin Franklin had done for America, so much at home, and so much more abroad, by his efforts, and still more by his great name, it would have been against all the proprieties for him to die before he had seen the Confederation a nation. The rickety thing worries and exasperates us all through the dismal greatness of the achievements into which it groans, as if it were not our own country. And with every new biographical turn of the kaleidoscope the Continental Congress seems to become more exasperatingly incompetent. Certainly we ought to learn by it not to despise the present, when we see what can come out of what. The ineffable meanness of the Congress towards Franklin was merely in keeping with the


The biographer says, very truly, no doubt, that Poor Richard has done a great deal to set the American character. It might have been set in a higher key, certainly. But there is a healthy largeness in Franklin which gives to Poor Richard a touch of ideality that makes it a true Epic of Pelf.

The author, in various parts of the little book, takes perhaps rather superfluous pains to assure us that Dr. Franklin was on very pleasant speaking terms with Christianity, as indeed he was. The naive absurdity of his assurance that Franklin had the Christian virtues detached from the Christian tenets may be left to contrast very favorably with the clumsy ridiculousness of Mr. Parton's description of him as the Great Christian of his age. Had the Gospel of God never flown a higher flight than in the works and life and essential character of Poor Richard, "the seal of originality" which Renan concedes to it would never have been heard of. Indeed, the Gospel would never have been heard of. It is enough that he was a kindly, deeply serviceable, not unbenignant, illustrious man, of singular worthiness and completeness within his eminent range, of whom his country may well be proud; above all, Boston that bore him, and Philadelphia that owes her second birth to him. There are greater things than the Genius of Common Sense, but, after all, the state of the world rests upon it.


Charles C. Starbuck.


Zwinglis Theologie, ihr Werden und ihr System, dargestellt von August Baur, Dr. Theol. Erster Band, pp. viii, 543. Mrk. 12. Zweiter Band, pp. ix, 864. Mrk. 18. Halle: Max Niemeyer. — Dr. Baur has done for Zwingli what Köstlin did for Luther and Herrlinger for Melanchthon. He has furnished a comprehensive statement of Zwingli's system and a thorough analysis of his various writings. He has given to his doctrine an elaborate historical exposition, and to his theology a well-defined position. The declared aim is clearness and completeness both in statement and historical treatment, and the author has realized his purpose with marked success. It must be sharply emphasized that, though Zwingli and Luther agreed in the fundamentals, the work of Zwingli was an independent movement throughout. "Zwingli's conflict against Rome was more quiet, more circumspect, more radical; Luther's more passionate and stormy, but in its undercurrent conservative throughout." Zwingli's doctrines are more methodical in their development and more clearly defined. Dr. Baur makes of his work two parts, the historical and the systematic. The first part, comprising the greater part of the two volumes, has its centre in the history of the development of Zwingli's character and doctrine. His early scholastic training, his later devotion to Erasmus and humanism, his extensive classical studies, his development from a humanist into a preacher of the gospel, his fearless love as a pastor, the grounds of his hopes for a pure Christianity, suggest some of the thoughts by which Dr. Baur leads up to the year 1522, when Zwingli openly and earnestly began his literary work. His first effort was to secure a strong position against Rome. How he accomplished this we are told in the second chapter, pp. 89-286. The third chapter shows the theological activity of Zwingli in carrying out the reformation in Zürich, while the fourth chapter establishes the dogmatic conclusion of the evangelical doctrine in its opposition to the doctrine of Rome. The second volume opens with an elaborate exposition of Zwingli's conflict against radicalism and his controversy respecting baptism. The next chapter, "Zwingli's Opposition to the Doctrine of Luther," pp. 268–777, is divided into three parts: the origin and development of the differences, the conflict between Zwingli and Luther, and the final positions taken by Zwingli. This chapter, which rises to the length and dignity of a treatise, turns a somewhat profitless discussion into a source of light upon reformation, history, and doctrine. "The Theological System of Zwingli" stands in open opposition to Middle Age scholasticism and the Roman Church; it contains many of the better elements of humanism as represented by Erasmus, Beatus, and Rhenanus; it may be put in one phrase, "the grace of God in Jesus Christ for the salvation of men." The system is viewed in its fundamental elements and principles, and again as a system, pp. 777-834. Added to the work is a list of Zwingli's writings, an index of names, and a reference table of all the important subjects and ideas in the two volumes. These volumes show a breadth of view and a grasp of truth in its fullness that constitute them THE work on Zwingli.

Die Philosophie des Thomas von Aquino, Kritisch gewürdigt von J. Frohschammer. Pp. xxii, 537. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. Mrk. 10.

Within the last thirty years the writings of Thomas have acquired extraordinary importance. Drawn out of their close ecclesiastical trappings into the domain of practical philosophy, they have become a centre of widespread interest. This interest is in part historical, in part controversial. What is the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas? Dr. Frohschammer attempted to answer this question in 1854; the attempt was condemned. A second effort was likewise condemned, and Pope Pius IX. wrote to discourage the inquiry. From that day to this the centre of scholasticism has been a centre of discussion, and since the Thomas-encyclical of Pope Leo XIII., in 1879, the literature of the controversy has grown into a nuisance. The work before us is one of superlative value. It is not so much the result of a long conflict as the fruit of a life's study of scholasticism in its relations to the ancient and modern phases of thought. The author adheres to his purpose of avoiding useless questions and confining his exposition strictly to the main lines and unquestionable features of the philosophy of the great scholastic. The introduction outlines the Grecian philosophy with reference to Aquinas, and passes in review the literature of his subject. The six chapters of the work show a thorough analysis and treatment of the following doctrines: The Doctrine of Knowledge, Philosophy and Theology, Philosophical Theology, Natural Philosophy, Psychology and Anthropology, Ethics and Politics, and a supplementary essay on The Eternity of the World. Thomas was in the main a disciple of Aristotle, especially in his theory of knowledge and views on ethics and politics. The radical defect of his philosophy is that the high place he gives to the intellect is only apparent inasmuch as it is subjected to a faith which is itself not a matter of the reason but of the subjective will. The work is unique in many respects. It shows when Aquinas failed to harmonize his philosophy with his religion; shows the incrustation which his philosophy received in the hands of the papacy, and shows the futility of the attempt to make his philosophy a bulwark of the Catholic faith. A more important contribution to church history and doctrine has not recently been made.

Kants Begründung der Ethik. Pp. viii, 328. Mrk. 6. Kants Begründung der Esthetik. Pp. xii, 334. Mrk. 8. Von Hermann Cohen, Professor an der Universität Marburg. Berlin: Ferd. Dümmlers Verlagsbuchhandlung. - Professor Cohen is one of the ablest expositors of the Kantian philosophy. These volumes are the fourth and fifth in a series of monographs on the doctrines of Kant. Kantian philosophy means to the author nothing other than philosophy as science, dogmatic but not dogma. Kant asserted of Logic that it had not taken one step backward since Aristotle, upon which it is remarked, he might have said with greater truth that ethics have not taken a step forward since Plato. After a review of the problems of ethics as they are presented in Plato and Aristotle, and as they are related to experimental philosophy, the task of exposition is divided into three parts. The first is an exhibition of the results of the doctrine of experience in their relations to the possibility of a science of ethics; the second is the exposition of ethical laws, and the third, the application of moral laws to the psychological nature of man. "Kant approaches æsthetics with a firm conviction that their foundations are entirely independent of ethics." The distinctions between ethics and æsthetics are well drawn. They are essentially those made by Plato, who, in his Phaedo and Republic, places ethics at the highest point of knowledge and æsthetics in mathematical proportions. To make

ethics a part of æsthetics, as did Herbart, means the confusion of both departments. The introduction to the Esthetics is divided into two parts, the historical and the systematic. "From the history of opinion we learn the problems, but without a dogmatic position and judgment nothing is understood and the fullest history remains barren." The chief systems noticed in the historical introduction are those of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Leibnitz, Baumgarten, Winckelmann who identified the beautiful and the good, Mendelssohn, Lessing, and Herder. The systematic introduction, pp. 93-144, shows the task of æsthetics to be to determine the relations between the theoretical or practical consciousness and sensibility. These relations form the whole sphere of æsthetics. This introduction is one of the best pieces of work we have seen, and is, in itself, an excellent preparation for a special study of the subject. The four chapters following have for their subjects: The Reliability of the Esthetic Consciousness; The Contents of the Esthetic Consciousness; The Arts as a means of generating the Esthetic Contents; and Critical Estheticism, its Friends and its Opponents. These two volumes are of special value not only in relation to the Kantian philosophy, but to ethics and aesthetics in general. The later volume gathers up so much of the author's twenty years' study of Kant, and shows such an intimate acquaintance with the subjects of æsthetics, that, apart from its excellent form and style, it deserves unqualified commendation.

Die Reine Vernunftwissenschaft. Systematische Darstellung von Schellings rationaler oder negativer Philosophie. Von Dr. Carl Groos. Pp. x, 190. Heidelberg: Geo. Weiss. Mrk. 3. It is remarked that Schelling's Philosophy, once so popular and influential, is to-day but the faintest echo in the consciousness of the German nation. Yet Schelling's system is regarded of permanent value not only in theology but in practical philosophy. That Dr. Groos has shown this to the best possible advantage there can be little doubt. He has brought an elaborate and difficult system into a clear and intelligible form. The work falls into two parts, the first of which treats of the foundations of a pure rational science, and the second of its development. Those who are interested in discovering a basis of harmony for conflicting religious systems will find the present exposition full of suggestion. In speaking of the contemplative life three ways are indicated which lead to God. The inner way through meditation and mystical piety brings the soul into harmony with God. The contemplative study of the best art not only gives reality to the ideal, but deepens in us the idea of the divine personality. Through contemplative science, which is nothing other than practical philosophy or the study of the intelligible, the possible is ever suggested, and we are led from self outward and upward. The work is a mental stimulant.

Der Zweckbegriff bei Trendelenburg. Von Dr. Bernhard Liebermann. Pp. 168. Meiningen: Druck und Verlag von K. Keyssner. Mrk. 3. – In Germany Trendelenburg represents more of the permanent in philosophy than any name since Kant. Especially is this true in ethics and law. The present study reviews the philosopher's entire work to discover the exact idea of purpose or aim. This is found to be characteristically theological, conceiving of God as absolute intelligence and personality, in whom will and knowledge are identical. God, as the one, gives to the world the idea of unity as a ruling aim, and here ground, means, and end fall together.

Kompendium der Biblischen Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testa

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