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or comment, adding to the title "By an Officer of the Garrison." The style of the manuscript is that of a military man; that of the printed copy is more fluent, and the expanded and inverted sentences bear trace of a more practised writer. The paragraphs which have been added or altered are not those which relate to matters purely military. The prefatory matter on the first four pages of the printed copy (N. Y. H. S. Coll.) are represented by barely two and a half pages of manuscript, while the following extracts will give some idea of the discrepancies between the two texts:
Dec 4. It froze hard in the night. The wind is at W today, the air clear and cold.
The habitants inform us that the rebels are lodged in St Foix parish and in the parish of Little River none of them are much above two miles from our walls. One Jeremiah Duggan formerly a hairdresser here is now stil'd Major and heads 500 Canadians.
8th. A horse standing at Menut's door was kill'd by a cannon ball, a few minutes after Mr Montgomery got out of the cariole.
31st Wind N. E. Snowy and cloudy. We may expect to be attacked, if what the deserter says is true. Capt. Malcolm Fraser of the Royal Emigrants in going his rounds between 4 and 5 o'clock this morning perceived signals from the enemy, he immediately alarmed the guards and picquets, who stood to their arms. All our sentrys saw flashes like lightning all around, those between St Johns Gate and Cape Diamond saw an avenue of lanterns set up on poles at regular distance. Rockets were thrown up and immediately a hot fire of musketry was kept up from behind some ridges of snow within 80 yards of the walls at Cape Diamond. The drums beat to arms, the bells rang the alarm, and in less than ten
31st. About four o'clock this morning, Captain Malcolm Fraser, of Colonel Maclean's regiment, in going his rounds perceived signals not very far from St John's Gate, and finding the weather such as the enemy wished for, by the last deserter's report, he alarmed the guards and picquets who stood to their arms. All the sentries between Cape Diamond and Palace Gate saw many and repeated flashes like lightning; on the heights of Abraham lights like lanthorns were placed on poles at regular distances. Two rockets were thrown up from the foot of Cape Diamond, and immediately a hot fire was kept up on those who lined the walls at that place, and a body of men were seen in St Johns suburbs and from the
minutes every person able to bear arms was in motion. Even old men upwards of 70 were forward in appearing armed for the defence of the Town. A party of the British Militia under Col Caldwell was immediately detached by Col McLean to reinforce Cape Diamond, as it was said an attack would be made there. There he posted the party and return'd to the Parade. Mr Montgomery attack'd at the same time at Près de Ville with 900 pick'd men, and Arnold attack'd at Saut au Matelot, with 700 chosen fellows, while the fire was kep up at Cape Diamond. A strong party ('tis said Canadians) appear'd in the suburb of St Johns—their bomb battery play'd on us from St Roc. Our guard at Près de Ville had perceived the flashes for some time and every man was ready at his post the gunners with lighted matches stood ready to give the rebels a warm reception; tho' the night was very dark with thick snow, yet they were seen approaching; a body of about 150 came within 50 yds of our guns, they made a stand at a narrow pass as if in consultation. Capt
Barnsfare who commanded the guns watch'd the time and fir'd the instant they began to move forward, shrieks and groans were heard but nobody was seen after this cool discharge. He continued his fire nevertheless for some time.
April 9th... Mr. Chaucer has said a great deal, we suspect that he came in with no good intention- he will be taken care of.
April 17th... The Press'd Laforce to come on shore, but know
flashes of the enemy's firing we perceived they were hid behind a bank of snow; however, we returned their fire directed by their flashes; during this sharp musketry the drums were beating to arms, the bells rang the alarm, and in less than ten minutes every man in the garrison was under arms at his alarm post; even old men upward of 70 were seen forward to oppose the rebels. Colonel MacLean detached a party of the British Militia under Colonel Caldwell to reinforce Cape Diamond; there he was to make the disposition of the men and return to the parade. Mr. Montgomery with 900 of the best men attacked at Près de Ville and Arnold with 700 chosen fellows attacked at Sault au Matelot. The attack at Cape Diamond, the Parade of men (Canadians it is said) near St John's Gate, with a bombardment from St Roc's were intended to draw off our attention from the lower town where the rebels were to make the real attacks.
Our guard at Près de Ville had seen the flashes, every man was posted before the alarm was given the gunners with lighted matches waiting the word of command. Captain Barnsfair, who commanded the battery, coolly waited the near approach of the enemy; he saw a group advancing; they stopped within 50 yards of our guns; there they seemed in consultation; at last they rushed forward to their destruction, for our grape shot mowed them down; groans and cries were heard but not a soul was seen. However, we kept sweeping the road with our guns and musquetry for some time.
April 9th... Thus far Mr. Chaucer has informed us; he is suspected as a spy and will be taken care of accordingly.
April 17... They pressed Laforce to go on shore; but aware of
These extracts show that the diaries are virtually the same, and that additions and alterations have been made in the printed text. It is also quite evident that these changes must have been made by some one thoroughly familiar with the city and the story of the seige and able to add a few local incidents. Whether by the diarist himself, rewriting his diary in after years, or by Chief Justice Smith, is not now likely to be known, but the occasional ultra-loyal alterations point in the direction of the Loyalist.
JAMES BAIN, JR.
REVIEWS OF BOOKS
Method in History for Teachers and Students. By WILLIAM H. MACE, Professor of History in Syracuse University. (Boston and London Ginn and Co. 1897. Pp. xvii, 311.)
THIS Small volume is chiefly concerned with the problem of interpreting American history to students in the secondary and primary schools. It is not a book of devices. The term "Method," says the author, "is not even intended to suggest diagrams, chronological charts, or expedients of like nature. But something far more fundamental has been the aim the determining factors in method. . . . Whether diagrams, outlines, maps, and so on are to be used in teaching history cannot be decided by the whim of the teacher." The appeal must be made to principles. In other words Professor Mace has set himself the task of getting at the philosophy of method, so far at least as it can have a direct bearing upon the teaching of history, and of American history in particular. The book is divided into three parts: 1. The General Nature of History (pp. 1-76); 2. Organization of the Periods of American History (pp. 77-254); 3. The Elementary Phases of History Teaching (pp. 255-308).
These phases are the government, Speaking figura
History, according to Professor Mace, is a study of two sets of facts: a people's acts and a people's thoughts and feelings. Acts are the superficial evidence of ideas; they are the outer form of the subject-matter, while the ideas constitute the content or essence of history. As history is the study of the continuous growth or evolution of man in society through more or less marked changes in ideas, it is possible to distinguish five well-marked phases in the history of a people, a political, a religious, an educational, an industrial, and a social phase. distinguished by five organizations or "institutions:" the church, the school, occupation, and the family. tively, Professor Mace conceives the life of a people as a "mighty stream of five currents." Thus having reduced the subject to such limits Professor Mace would value an event in history in proportion as it expresses the growth of "institutional" life. "That event or period has the highest historical value which reveals most fully the people's institutional thought and feeling" (p. 67). De Soto's expedition should be studied in a course in American history, for it had a "more intimate connection with our institutions" than the work of most Spanish explorers. One would attend to the work of George Rogers Clark or to that of Daniel Boone in proportion to its contributions to the growth of ( 133 )
American institutions. Inasmuch as Indian institutions did not "flow into or become a part of American institutions," Indian history may be called "non-American" history (p. 81).
Professor Mace's analysis of American history is guided by his peculiar theory of "institutions." For pedagogical purposes he casts to one side the discoveries and explorations-these belong to American history only in so far as they tended to fix the locations of "institutions." Between 1607 and 1870 he finds three periods, every one of which is marked by a dominant movement in institutional growth. Previous to 1760 the prevailing ideas of the colonists tend to the rise and growth of local institutions—the five great institutions. The New England men seek a general diffusion of rights and privileges. The Southern men on the other hand are for centralization of rights. The middle colonists are guided by no one dominant idea, but yield to the force that comes from a blending of the two somewhat distinct tendencies found in New England and in the South. From 1760 to 1789 the dominant idea is that of union before 1783 it is union against England, and after that date it has developed distinctly into union on domestic questions. The idea of nationality which was at work before 1789 has constituted since that time a new era in institutional evolution. In analyzing the incidents and ideas of this third period (1789-1870) Professor Mace is at his best. He writes rather as a historian than as a pedagogue, and has not much occasion to force his "institutional" theory into the foreground.
If the history of institutions is to have relatively a distinct place as one phase of the study of history, then Professor Mace's theory is misleading. He has based his volume upon such terms as "institution" and institutional ideas," terms which he has nowhere defined. To these terms he has reduced everything of consequence in American history by the application of one test. The structures of society are numerous. At the basis of civilization is the family without it there would be no such thing as the church or the state, a system of industry or a system of education. It is thus of fundamental importance to the historian without being of first importance. Mr. Spencer has given much attention to the family. Professor McMaster, Mr. Bryce and Mr. Lecky have comparatively little to say about it. The structures with which the historian of institutions may concern himself are the systems or numerous organizations in the state which give to any country its organic unity and serve by their continuous existence to bind the past to the present. Behind these structures is the people's life, full of emotions, ideas, actions, to which no single test can ever be applied by historian, philosopher, or scientist. If there is any clear law in history it is that of incessant motion. Discrimination in the use of terms is lacking in Professor Mace's book. As a consequence his doctrine is vague and misleading. The true safe-guard for the teacher who reads the volume is his or her own interest in things simply because they were.
HENRY BARRETT LEARNED.