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discount, clergymen should be also; but there it should stop. But we are willing to work for the no discount platform, to be followed by a reduction in retail prices to a basis allowing a maximum discount to jobbers of one third, and one fourth to retailers, as soon as it can reasonably be brought about. The lack of confidence in the trade with itself is the most serious obstacle in the way, and with this we must have patience. I trust our central organization, in its wisdom, will so plan that there shall be frequent "assembling of ourselves together," for acquaintance promotes confidence.

Facilities for ascertaining the truth must be afforded by means of tracers, or in other ways, without trusting to the reports of interested traveling men, or the mistakes of customers. From Mr. Clarke, a fellow-member and ChairIman of the Arbitration Committee, I learn that in almost every case complaints of infringement have been fully explained away; and in any case in which a falling from the agreement has occurred, I am certain that a proper reference to parties in position to know the facts, instead of concluding that a break had been made, and assuming that it was useless to hold on, would have saved the rule, and, still more, restored lost confidence. Irresponsible traveling men, itching to make sales, take advantage of any seeming break, and do much to make a fair understanding of the case impossible. There are, it is true, many honorable exceptions to the rule, but, no doubt, much harm is done in the way I have mentioned. And, in Chicago, they have found out a better way, and state the case frankly before a meeting of their trade.

By all means, arrange the programme so that the annual meeting of the trade and the book fair shall coincide in time and place. Yours, G. B. BROWN.

A Clear Statement of a Difficulty.

HUNTINGDON, PA., March 30, 1875.

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To the Editor of the Publishers' Weekly: DEAR SIR: The number of March 27th is just to hand, and I am glad Bookseller" talks out concerning the school-book branch of the trade and the way it is demoralized, and for his insisting that the reform is most needed here. And just here is where it should get the first "patch.'

My experience here has been, I think, a fair sample of the general trouble. I have endeavored to build up a fair trade in this town in the book line, took a good store, and by close attention to business I was enabled to get to my counter a living trade. A year or two ago, I was surprised by a visit from a school director, who said that they had about contracted with the publishers to supply the school direct with books, but, as I was a citizen and a taxpayer, he thought best to ask me if there was anything in it" to me. When I protested against this arrangement, he said that the bookseller was making too much off the parents. When I denied that, and remarked that 30 to 33 was not more than a fair profit, he showed his hand with a remark that there was no use talking about my only getting that discount. "Why, we are offered at from 374 to 40, and as you are in the trade, I have no doubt you get

at least 50 per cent." It was to him a case of circumstantial evidence, and as he was a merchant in other lines, he drew his own conclusions from the way other business was done. And I suppose I stand convicted in his mind of two great crimes: robbing the poor parent and lying to the school-director. Well, they, the school-agent and school-board, fixed it all up between them. I have been told the discount is 37 to 40 per cent on different stock, and my shelves were left with a fair stock, but all unsalable. Every now and then a customer comes in (to whom I sell every thing else in my line he needs) for, say, a dollar book, and the next morning, bright and early, the party for whom the book was bought, boy or girl, is back at the store with a request that we take the book back, as the "professor" (Heaven save the mark! for he is kept busy at the book and slate-pencil counter at the Hill") will sell the same book at 60 cents. In all these cases I consider it policy to do as requested, as it is my rule always to lose a sale rather than a customer. But the trouble does not end there. My customer has his mind abused as to the profits of my business, thinks that that is the average rate, and consequently is filled with suspicion in purchasing any thing from me, no matter what, even if it is only a "Pure Gold," boards, at 30 c.; and I could go on with the list of damages done books of all kinds, by supplies forwarded to the professor," and by him supplied at cost to the dozen or so teachers under him, and they, thinking over their good bargains, speak of it to their friends, teachers or not. The main point I am talking against in this arrangement is that it saves nothing to the parents, as the profit on the amount of books sold all goes to keep a teacher at selling and keeping the book account, when their money and my money is paid him for teaching, and not for cutting into another legitimate trade with which he has no business. I have many hopes for the speedy coming of that good time.

By the way, don't overlook my name on the Finding List. Put it through, and as soon as possible; and do you know it would be a great aid just now in helping the reform through! In many cases, I can not, despite the number of books I handle and my term of service (some eight to ten years), give the customer the exact information as to size, date of edition, etc., and so the sale is not made at any price, and it may never be made, as many a book is inquired for and bought when the customer is full of some "notion." Now, with this handy list in the hands of the trade, the bookseller would be able to give information, and the books he would be so promptly able to supply would in a measure compensate for the lack of discount, and in this and other ways would help the country bookseller and the good work along. Truly, J. A. BLAIR.

RANDOLPH, N. Y., March 29, 1875. To the Editor of the Publishers' Weekly:

DEAR SIR: I think the Messrs. Lippincott have at one stroke cut the Gordian knot. They are entitled to all praise. I think the surplus profits resulting from this association on the part of publishers to themselves will amply repay for all the perplexities and anxieties it has cost. Judging from my own feelings, I

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Humors of the Trade.

PROVIDENCE, March 27, '1875. MY DEAR MR. EDITOR: You ask us to send you the humors of the trade, and I have ventured so far in compliance as to forward the following:

It was one day last winter, in the midst of our Christmas business, while my store was filled with ladies, that a splendid specimen of the genus homo appeared before me. Edging his way through the crowd, he finally formed one in the long line which stood at my counter, when, looking at me steadily for an instant, he said, with a loud and distinct utterance, "Have ye Aristotle?" That he wanted "Aristotle's Masterpiece," the character of which is too well known, flashed instantly on my mind; and for an instant it was my turn to be dumfoundered. To have a fellow yell out such a title in such a presence, wasn't agreeable; he saw I hesitated, and mistaking my hesitation for ignorance, he thrust under my eyes a little memorandum-book, on which was rudely written, "Harry Stottle's Master Piece." I shook my head, and he, to my great relief, went for the door.

Akin to this species of blunder was one which happened many years ago, while I was a clerk in W.'s store. Á thin and wiry Scotchman came in one day and inquired for a copy of Tannahill's Poems. It was of myself he asked, and never before having heard of such a book, I made search among the catalogues, and found out about it, telling the Scotchman, whom meantime I had kept waiting, that we would send for a copy for him. He directed me to do so, which order I immediately turned over to our chief-clerk C., at the same time informing him it was a foreign book. This all being in the ordinary course of business, attracted no attention. But, two or three days thereafter, Mr. W. received a letter from Messrs. Little, Brown & Co., which ran somewhat in this wise: "Sir: We will thank you not to order obscene books from us; we are not in the habit of keeping such stock." Utterly at a loss to understand this extraordinary missive, Mr. W. wrote for an explanation and received in reply the original order sent by C., and this was the way he did it: Please send a copy of Fanny Hill." It was only a change of a letter, but it was aw fully funny.

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This calls to my mind another funny blunder of this same chief-clerk C. There was a little book on French Conversation, by Chouquet; it was published by the Appletons. A young lady inquired for it one day, and C., finding that we had no copy, placed its name on the order-book. There was no effort to restrain our merriment when we saw how he had done it: "Show-Case Conversations." Well, this was years ago; C. was an excellent young fellow, and he is now, only he is no longer young; but his forte was not in bookselling, and so he gave it up. Such, my dear Mr. Editor, are some of the "Humors of Bookselling," as they happened in Providence. If they prove acceptable to you I will draw further upon my recollecTruly yours, SIDNEY S. RIDER.

tions.

Packing Agencies in London

10 Warwick Square, Paternoster Row, LONDON, E. C., March 11, 1875.

To the Editor of the Publishers' Weekly:

DEAR SIR: Our attention has been called to a letter in your issue of January 16th, headed, "A Suggestion for a New Business," in which the writer complains of the loss he recently sustained through the want of a packing agency in New-York, where he can order his parcels to be inclosed, packed, and shipped, promptly and efficiently, not as a favor, but that, by payment of a small sum, he may be entitled to have this most important feature of the trade attended to as a matter of business, and without taxing the good nature of those firms who will do this by courtesy.

As the originators of a packing agency, established in 1839, for the English home trade, and so successfully conducted that we are now supported by the majority of the principal booksellers and stationers in the United Kingdom, we can confidently speak of the advantages to the trade of making this a special branch, and we have no doubt as to the success of Mr. Geyer's undertaking, provided he be promptly and generally supported. Yours respectfully,

W. H. HAYDEN & CO.

The German Book Exchange System. The Trade Sale being a chief feature of the coming week, we have thought it well to present to the attention both of the visitors to the trade sale and the trade generally, a summary of those features of the German trade which bear upon the proposed "Book Exchange" for our own trade. This is principally made from the two articles on the subject in Nos. 5 and 6 of Volume I. of the WEEKLY (Feb. 15th and 22d, 1872), written for us by a veteran bookseller, which we have amended by data from various sources. Most of these two articles will be found quoted in the chapter on "The Paradise of Books" (Leipzig) in Dr. Hurst's Life and Literature in Germany," which contains much pleasantly-put further information on the subject. The peculiar commission business, which is the result of the growth of centuries of German organization, is so unlikely to find footing in this country that it is not worth while to reprint the full description of that. Mr. Christern's letter to Mr. Aston (Convention

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Supplement, August, 1874) is another interesting

contribution to this subject. There are several bound volumes on the bookselling business published in Germany, the latest authority being F. Hermann Meyer on "The Organization and Business Management of the German Bookstore," of which a second and revised edition is just issued by Waldow, Leipzig. Besides the daily Börsenblatt, Leipzig has also Schür

mann's Magazin für den Deutschen Buchhandel, begun with 1874, which has long articles on trade subjects and has given attention to the progress of trade reform in this country.

The main-spring of the German book trade's commercial intercourse is a clearing house on a very large scale. It is located in Leipzig and is called the Book

sellers' Exchange. It occupies a building originally belonging to a joint-stock company of members, but whose shares have now all been redeemed from the in

come of the association, so that within a year or two the building has become the inalienable property of the association at large.

It has about 900 members, but all of the 3000 (or more) firms in the various branches of the book, music, and print trade derive benefit from its functions, and all contribute directly or indirectly to its support.

The Constitution of the Booksellers' Exchange provides for the common debate on subjects of general interest and for a common method of settling accounts. Membership is acquired by proof of regular license to do business in any branch of the trade; by the payment of an initiation fee and annual dues; by depositing the circular of the firm personally signed by the members thereof; and by a written pledge to conform to the rules, and to submit to the judgment of the committee of arbitration in cases of dispute with any member of the association or fraternity.

The government is invested in a board of directors with President, Secretary, and Treasurer, and standing committees of six each, serving without pay, from whom appeal lies to the General Meeting held each spring. The General Meeting hears the report of the President, elects standing committees, passes upon the budget for the next financial year, and adopts rules to govern the action of the fraternity in their intercourse with one another.

The executive functions are committed to the Board of Directors and standing committees, whose members are jointly responsible for any unconstitutional act of such board or committees, and individually responsible for their personal acts in contravention of the constitution or rules of the General Meeting. The standing committees are: On Finance and Accounts; on the Exchange Building; on Elections; and on Arbitration. They are elected for three years, one third of the members going out annually.

The functions of the three first committees are so obvious that they require no specification.

The Committee on Arbitration acts as a commercial tribunal between members who are pledged to obey its subpana, the object being to obviate litigation before courts of law between members. Notice of differences is sent to the Chairman in writing, specifying briefly yet lucidly the points at issue. The chairman notifies the party accused, orders meeting of the committee, and cites both parties to appear. The case is then argued, and every member of the committee has the right to propose methods of compromise. Minutes are kept by the secretary, but on demand of either litigant must be kept by a sworn notary public. The results of the arguments on compromise are kept in "Compromise Minutes," signed by the chairman and secretary, or notary, if one has been employed. Certified copies of the "Compromise Minutes" may be demanded by either party. No charge is made for the services of this committee, except for actual disbursements. The work of this committee has been of great benefit to the fraternity in keeping their quarrels in the family, in deciding all questions by the common-sense views of experts, and in gradually establishing a code of fair dealing which has given a high tone to the morality of the trade, besides saving all court costs.

The official organ of the association is the Börsenblatt (literally Exchange Paper), which is published daily under the superintendence of the Board of Di.

rectors, who appoint a managing editor, furnish all official matter for publication, determine the rates to be charged for advertising, and exercise a general control of the financial and editorial management. The Börsenblatt is the recognized Trade Circular of Germany, through which the trade obtains the first bibliographical notice of new publications, works in preparation, changes in price-lists or terms, and whose advertising columns are invariably used by all members of the fraternity in seeking or furnishing trade information.

The editorial bibliographical part of this invaluable medium of trade intercommunication is made up from the books actually on the editor's table, never from the mere transcripts of titles which might be carelessly made by irresponsible clerks. The rule being understood by the trade, that whatever brief mention may have been made of books in preparation or in press, they will not be officially recorded among new publications until they reach the editor's table, every publisher has a direct interest in sending his new works as early as possible. The editor is thus enabled to prepare absolutely correct lists of new publications containing complete bibliographical information as to title, size, style, pages of preface, pages of text, etc., and the result is a thoroughly reliable bibliography, surpass ing in merit that of any other country, and exercising a highly beneficent influence on the literary education of the trade, raising it to the dignity of a bibliographi cal profession.

The Exchange being considered a clearing-house, the commission houses of Leipzig correspond to individual banks, who do certain business, buying, selling, forwarding, etc., for the dealers throughout all Germany. These commission houses keep no stock, except for their correspondents, and do not ordinarily buy or sell on their own account: they are thus an entirely distinct class from our jobber, who is unknown in the German system, but who has an important function in the American trade. The functions of the commission house are therefore principally those of a forwarder, to whom the publisher sends hundreds of parcels addressed to members of the trade, which the agent sorts and divides around among the other commission houses, receiving in turn and massing those for his principals. Each of the small packages is simply tied up in papers, with the invoice on the outside showing the names of sender and addressee. Those addressed to cash dealers are marked "cash," or "C.O.D." as the American phrase is, and receipted on the billhead. The delivery of these is by porters of the commission, and a loss is almost an unheard-of thing.

The correspondence which causes this immense movement of parcels, or grows out of errors in the invoices accompanying them, is something entirely peculiar to the German book trade and deserves special mention. It is almost entirely open, carried on on little slips of paper, 2 by 21⁄2 inches in size, having a printed heading saying, "A. B. demands of on which the blank is filled up with the addressee's name, and under it is simply written, say, "I Bunsen's Hymns." This constitutes the order, which is not signed. If the book is sent on account, the slip is kept as a voucher. If for any reason the book is not sent, the slip travels back, and on it is written the reason, say, Out of print," or Please mark order

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cash." If the remark thus sent back calls for a rejoinder, that also is written on the same little slip, say, "Why cash? you owe me money ;" and thus the little slip often travels backward and forward half a dozen times, till it is hard to tell in what direction it is going, but nevertheless never misses the address; such is the clerical accuracy. These little slips, be they many or few, are sent by mail to the commission house by all its constituents, and are by it deposited in the Booksellers' Exchange post-office, where they are sorted and redelivered to the commission houses, four times daily, at the charge of the association only. On lively days, from 50,000 to 60,000 slips, letters, circulars, or other written or printed communications pass through this department of the Booksellers' Exchange, and the annual delivery exceeds ten millions of documents.

The commission house acts also in the capacity of a banker. Payments on account are made between the commission houses once a week in the Exchange building, pay lists being sent around the day before. Thus only balances have to be provided for, and but little money changes hands, each commission house deducting all it has to receive from all it has to pay. The pay lists are then mutually receipted, and constitute a voucher for all payments made.

In very nearly the same manner proceeds the settlement of the annual accounts, which takes place in the Easter Fair. The fiscal year closes with the calendar year. Accounts are regulated by correspondence through the Exchange post-office between January and Easter. At Easter, such books as may have been received "for sale or return," and remained unsold, are returned to Leipzig and charged back. These return invoices are then deducted from the figures established by previous correspondence, and the balance is entered upon the pay-lists.

A great many booksellers from all parts of Germany come personally to the Leipzig Easter Fair, to make

or renew acquaintance, to confer about new enterprises, to attend to the common business of the general meeting of the Exchange Association, or to regulate disputes. Many of these attend to their own payments in the Exchange building; but of late years it has become more and more the practice to make out pay-lists for the commission house, which groups all the pay lists of its constituents in one, and settles balances with the other commission houses just as on weekly clearing days.

In order to avoid arbitrary delays in payment, the rule has been established that accounts which do not

entirely agree are paid two thirds during the Easter Fair, and the last third is settled after discrepancies have been smoothed out by further correspondence.

This rule has been abused so that the creditor almost

invariably received only two thirds of his claim when due, and the balance from one to six months later. To remedy this, a practice has gradually grown up

forbidding the carrying forward to new account, or to dispute account, any but specified items by special agreement. Since then nearly all accounts are fully paid at Easter.

As a forwarder, the commission house receives an

annual (very moderate) fixed salary, gauged by the probable extent of services to be performed, and the share these would represent of the expense account

for rent, clerk hire, porterage, etc. This salary ranges all the way from $5 to $1000.

The profit of the commission house accrues, however, mainly from the specific charges. The principal source of profit is the item of packing. Constituents are not allowed any price for the embaling material of packages sent to the commission house, whilst the latter charges at the rate of $1 per hundredweight for packing the bales it forwards. For boxes the same charge is made by weight, and the price of the box added. There is also a small additional charge for handling the packages between the office and the railroad.

The organization we have sketched has its counterparts in several minor business centres, such as Berlin, Vienna, Stuttgardt, etc. But by far the greatest part of the German booksellers' business intercourse is through Leipzig, which is at once the emporium of all leading publishers, the centre of the forwarding business, the seat of all bibliographical and official trade information, and, in its Booksellers' Exchange, the universal clearing-house of all financial obligations of the fraternity.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN, by A. De Quatrefages, translated from the French by Eliza A. Youmans. (D. Appleton & Co.) Prof. Quatrefages is one of the most successful and popular teachers of anthropological science in France. The contents of this volume were first given in the form of lectures to audiences of working-men; the language, therefore, is very clear, and the facts stated easy of comprehension. The author disclaims all the popular theories of the origin of man, but offers no new ones in the place of them. His lectures simply aim to embody the facts already proved relative to the quity of man," and to define the physical, intel"unity of the human species" and "the antilectual, and moral characteristics of the human The volume contains a number of plates. 12mo, cloth, $1.

race.

KATERFELTO: A STORY OF EXMOOR, by G. J. Whyte-Melville. (Porter & Coates.) Katerfelto," the hero of this romance, is a gallant steed, who carries his young Jacobite master, reckless John Garnet, through many a midnight ride, and safely over many a dangerous path. The events of the story occur toward the close of the last century, and are of the wildest and most romantic nature. Gipsies and gipsy life pal heroine, Tyra Lovel, belonging to this nooccupy a large portion of the book, the princimadic tribe, and being a rare example of heroism and devotion. There is something very fresh and fascinating about the book; it deviates widely from the ordinary novel, and is marked by a strong individuality and originality of conception, which sets it apart as one of the very best novels of this author. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. THE GLOBE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. (Estes & Lauriat.) A new etymological dictionary for the use of students. It is designed to take the place of the small school dictionaries long in use, and of course is fuller and more comprehensive, though in a very compact form. It is illustrated by over five hundred engravings on wood. In the appendix

we find a list of words and phrases from the Greek, Latin, and modern foreign languages, a glossary of Scottish words and phrases, a concise mythology, a list of the proper names in the Old and New Testament, etc., etc., making the work altogether a most valuable one for young students. 12mo, cloth, $1.50.

THE LITTLE MAID AND LIVING JEWELS, by A L. O. E. (Robert Carter & Brothers.) The principal characteristics which pertain to a true Christian are illustrated in the life of this "little maid." She is shown us in "meekness," in "faith," in “submission," in "truth," in "endurance," in "courage," and so on. 16mo, cloth, 75 cents.

THE TYPOGRAPHICAL HAND-BOOK, compiled by a Practical Printer. (Detroit, Mich.) This little publication gives in a handy, pocket-book form, sufficient practical information to render it a guide to the many intricacies connected with the printing trade. 50 cents.

ALICE NEVILLE AND RIVERSDALE, by C. E. Bowen. (Robert Carter & Brothers.) The two stories contained in this volume are simple narratives of home life illustrating the homely virtues of love, patience, and gratitude. They are very suitable for a young girl's reading. 12mo, cloth, $1.25.

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THE POOR CLERK AND HIS CROOKED SIXPENCE, by George E. Sargent. (Henry Hoyt.) A quaint and pathetic story of a poor clerk, who finds a well-filled pocket-book in the street, and runs for a mile almost to restore it to its owner, and is rewarded for his honesty by a present of a crooked sixpence." In the loneliness of his poor room, this sixpence relates to him all the scenes of misery and poverty it has witnessed, recalling many incidents of his own sad life, upon which it had several times been an-intruder. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. ELEANOR'S VISIT, by Joanna H. Mathews. (Robert Carter & Brothers.) Eleanor Hammersley's visit to the Middleton family with her "Grandmamma Hammersley" brings the young reader again into communication with some of Miss Ashton's girls." Eleanor acts as peacemaker and mediator among the girls, winning their love and esteem. 16mo, cloth, $1.25.

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JAMES MILLER sends us a number of books, all pretty well known in the trade; they appear in new and fresh cloth bindings, but are printed from the old plates. They are Schmucker's Four Georges," 12mo, $1.75; Moore's " Epicurean," 12mo, $1.25; Feuillet's" Romance of a Poor Young Man," 12mo, $1.25; I To Myself," 16mo, $1.25; and "Drawing for Young Children," sq. 12mo, $1.25.

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Subjects,' A Frail Leaf," The Hemlet," "One Trophy for Two Exploits," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.25.

THE PARTING WORDS OF ADOLPHE MONOD. (E. P. Dutton & Co.) Adolphe Monod, a French Protestant pastor, died in Paris, 1856; but the remembrance of his wonderful eloquence still remains in the memory of those who were fortunate enough to listen to his preaching. During the year preceding his death, he was confined by a painful illness to his bed; but, in all this time, he did not omit receiving a few of his parishioners each Sunday, sending them away with words of comfort and consolation. These words are contained in

this volume, and are among the most persuasive and winning that we have from him, A remarkably good and artistic photograph of Monod embellishes the book. 12mo, cloth, $1.50.

MODEL SECOND READER. Sentence Method, by J. Russell Webb. (Geo. Sherwood & Co.) The subjects for reading in this book, and the method of presenting them, are specially designed to attract the attention of young students. The book is printed in large type on good paper, and contains a number of wood-cuts and colored plates. 16mo, bds., 50 cents.

THE DISCARDED WIFE, by Miss Eliza A. Dupuy. (T. B. Peterson & Bros.) 12mo, cloth, $1.75.

OAKRIDGE, by J. Emerson Smith. (James R. Osgood & Co.) Both the time in which the story is laid, and the manner of telling it, carries us back a hundred years. It is so decidedly old-fashioned in tone as to stand altogether apart from the novel of to-day. It will attract notice from its various peculiarities of style, and from a sombre, supernatural hue pervading it, which recalls the horrors of Mrs. Radcliffe's novels, and the good old days of trap-doors, sliding panels, ghosts, subterranean passages, underground caves, and inopportune appearances of the wrong person in the nick of time. The scene of the story is a village in NewEngland, almost a century ago. 12mo, cloth,

$2.

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THE GOSPEL SINGER, by Philip Phillips. (Lee & Walker.) Another collection of hymns and tunes to add to those already in the market. We can not judge of the worth of the little "Singer," as the airs are all new, but great care seems to have been taken to supply pieces for every occasion needed in Sunday-school work. 35 cents.

NEW PHYSIOGNOMY, edited by S. R. Wells. (S. R. Wells.) New edition of a work that has been a long time in the market, and is well TYPES AND EMBLEMS, by C. H. Spurgeon. known for its completeness and the thorough(Sheldon & Co.) A collection of Mr. Spur-ness with which it treats of this special subject. geon's sermons preached by him, on Sunday It contains over a thousand illustrations. 12mo, and Thursday evenings, at the "Metropolitan cloth, $5. Tabernacle." The names of a few of them are, "The Star of Jacob," "The Broad Wall," "The Only Door," Royal Emblems for Loyal

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A WAYSIDE FLOWER, and other Poems, by Charlotte Lennox. (Kelly, Piet & Co.) These poems are gracefully expressed and full of

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