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12, 1861, commanded the 2d brigade, Blenker's division, under Gen. John C. Frémont, and commanded the 2d division, 1st corps, Army of Virginia, at the 2d battle of Bull Run, August-September, 1862. He commanded the 2d division, 11th army corps, Army of the Potomac, in the Chancellorsville campaign and at Gettysburg. In 1865 he resigned his commission. He removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and engaged in the preparation of a series of school geographies, that had an extensive circulation. He also prepared A Topographical Map of the United States and The Centennial Gazetteer (1873). He died in Buffalo, N.Y., Feb. 25, 1877.

STEJNEGER, Leonhard, zoologist, was born in Bergen, Norway, Oct. 30, 1851; son of P. Stamer and Ingeborg Catharine (Hess) Stejneger. He was graduated from R. Frederic's university, Christiana, Norway, candidatus juris, 1875; came to the United States in 1881, and was engaged in a natural history expedition to Bering Island and Kamtchatka, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, 1882-83. He was assistant curator of birds in the U.S. National museum, Washington, D.C., 1884-89, and appointed curator of reptiles in 1889. He was married, March 22, 1892, to Marie Reiners, of Krefeld, Germany. He was sent by the U.S. fish commission to study the fur-seal question in Commander Islands, 1895, and again as a member of the commission, 1896-97. His publications include; Norsk Ornitologisk Ekskursjonsfauna (1873); Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtchatka (1885); the greater part of Birds, "Standard Natural History" (Vol. IV., 1885); Report of the Rookeries of the Commander Islands (1897); The Asiatic Fur-Seal Islands and Fur-Seal Industry (1898), and also many monographs and papers in the Proceedings of the U.S. National museum and in other scientific publications.

STEMBEL, Roger Nelson, naval officer, was born in Middleton, Md., Dec. 27, 1810. He was appointed midshipman in the U.S. navy, March 27, 1832; and was on board the Porpoise, West India squadron, when she was wrecked near Vera Cruz in 1833. He served on the Vandalia, 1833-37; attended the New York Naval school, 1837-38; and was promoted passed midshipman, June 23, 1838. He was assigned to the depot of charts and instruments at the U.S. navy department; promoted lieutenant, Oct. 26, 1843; was a member of the coast survey, 1843-47; and

where he commanded the flagship Cincinnati. He was seriously wounded when the Cincinnati was sunk by Confederate rams at Fort Pillow. He was on special duty at Philadelphia and Pittsburg, Pa., until 1855; was promoted captain U.S.N., July 25, 1866; commanded the steam sloop Canandaigua, European squadron, 1865-67; was stationed at the naval rendezvous, Boston, Mass., 1869-71, and was promoted commodore, July 3, 1870. He commanded the north squadron, of the Pacific fleet, 1870-72; and commanded the entire fleet, 1872-74. He was retired, Dec. 27, 1872, on attaining the age of sixty-two years, and was promoted rear-admiral on the retired list, June 5, 1874. He resided in Washington, D.C., and died in New York city, Nov. 20, 1900.

STEPHEN, Adam, soldier, was born in Virginia, about 1730. He joined a company of troops, and took part in the expedition against the French posts on the Ohio in 1754. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and commanded the forces at Winchester, Va., during the absence of George Washington. He commanded an expedition against the Creeks in 1758; relieved the South Carolina colonists from their invasions, and was put in command of the entire frontier defences of Virginia in 1763. In 1775 he joined the Continental army, and was given command of a regiment; was promoted brigadier-general, Sept. 4, 1776, and major-general, Feb. 19, 1777. He took part in the battles of Trenton, Brandywine and Germantown, where on account of a dense fog his division fired on the right wing under General Anthony Wayne. He was accused of intoxication, and in the winter of 1777 was cashiered. He died in Virginia in November, 1791.

STEPHENS, Alexander Hamilton, statesman, was born in Taliaferro county, near Crawfordville, Ga., Feb. 11, 1812; son of Andrew B. and Margaret (Grier) Stephens, and grandson of Alexander Stephens, a native of England, who immigrated to Pennsylvania about 1746; served in the Colonial army under Braddock, and in the Continental army during the Rev. olution; removed to Georgia in 1789-90, and settled on а


served on the steam frigate Mississippi in the plantation in what Alexander Mattephens

East Indies, 1857-60. He was promoted commander, July 1, 1861, and served in the western gun-boat flotilla at the engagements of Lucas's Bend and Belmont in 1861, and at Fort Henry, Island No. 10, and Craigheads Bend in 1861,


county, and died in

1813. His maternal grandfather, Aaron Grier, was the father of Robert Grier, the maker of "Grier's Almanac," popular in Georgia for many

years. Andrew B. Stephens died in 1826, and Alexander was left an orphan, his mother having died some years before. He inherited about $444, and this with a small legacy from his grandfather was spent upon his education. He lived with his uncle, Charles C. Mills, of Washington, Wilkes county, a man of wealth and influence. He was sent to the high school at that place, taught by the Rev. Alexander Hamilton Webster, pastor of the Presbyterian church, through whose influence Alexander (who then first made use of the middle name Hamilton in respect for his teacher and friend) received an offer from the Presbyterian Educational society to loan him the money for a college course, and he matriculated at Franklin college (University of Georgia) in 1828, and was graduated in 1832, but refused to pay two dollars for a diploma. He taught school to repay his indebtedness to his benefactors, 183234, and determining to adopt the profession of law, he was admitted to the bar, July 22, 1834, having given but two months' time to prepare for his examination. W. H. Crawford and J. H. Lumpkin, his examiners, both declared it to be the best examination they had ever witnessed. He lived frugally, and soon earned sufficient money to purchase his father's plantation in 1839, and the estate which became Liberty Hall, his future home in Crawfordville. He was a states rights Whig, but opposed to nullification, and he was elected a representative to the Georgia legislature in 1836, against a determined opposition, and after a heated canvass of the district. He took a front rank in the house, and his presentation to the state of the earning capacity of a railroad from Atlanta to Chattanooga secured the appropriation for the Western and Atlantic railroad, which became known as the state road. He also secured the first charter ever granted in the United States for a college for the regular graduation of women in classics and the sciences, the Georgia Female college at Macon, chartered in 1836, and opened, Jan. 7, 1839, with six professors and as many assistants. He was re-elected to the legislature in 1837, and each following year until 1841, when he declined a re-election, but was sent to the state senate in 1842-43. He was a delegate to the Charleston commercial convention in 1839, and in 1843 was elected a representative from Georgia to the 28th congress (to complete the term of Mark A. Cooper, who resigned to run for governor of the state) by 3000 majority. At this time Georgia had not formed congressional districts, and after he had taken his seat he addressed the house on the question of his right to be seated when Georgia had not conformed to the Federal act requiring the state to divide into districts instead of electing representa tives from the state at large on the general ticket.

His right to a seat was sanctioned by the committee on elections, and Georgia thereafter complied with the law. He was re-elected from the seventh district to the 29th-32d congresses, and from the eighth district to the 33d-35th congresses, serving continuously, 1839-59, when he declined further office, and announced his retirement from public life in a speech at Augusta, Ga., July 2, 1859. He had supported Harrison in 1840, Clay in 1844, and Taylor in 1848. He urged the admission of Texas, and in February, 1847, introduced in the house resolutions opposing the prosecution of the war against Mexico, as a violation of the constitution and carried on for conquest, but the house refused to consider the resolutions. In 1848 he opposed the Clayton compromise against the opinions of his constituents, and the protests of the citizens of the whole state. When he appeared in Atlanta he was attacked and nearly killed in the public street by Judge Francis Cone, a prominent citizen of his own district, who sought to force him to retract his words spoken in opposition to the measure. He also sought to settle a dispute with Herschel V. Johnson and with Benjamin H. Hill by challenging them to meet him on the field of honor, but neither would accept the call. He opposed the policy of President Taylor; supported the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854; opposed Knownothingism in 1855; advocated the doctrine of Senator Douglas, and in 1856 supported James Buchanan. During the presidential canvass of 1860 he supported the candidacy of Stephen A. Douglas for President, and was an elector-atlarge for Georgia on the Douglas and Johnson ticket. On Nov. 30, 1860, a letter passed from Abraham Lincoln of Springfield, Ill., to Mr. Stephens at Crawfordville, which led to a correspondence in which the views of both statesmen were fully expressed, but as Mr. Lincoln had marked his second letter "For your own eye only," this correspondence was not made public until after the close of the war. Mr. Stephens opposed secession, but proposed the state convention of Jan. 16, 1861, that a full voice of the people might be obtained, and he voted against secession with 88 other delegates, 208 voting for the measure. He was appointed by this convention a member of the proposed Provisional congress to assemble at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 4, 1861, and was then chosen provisional Vice-President of the proposed Confederacy, with Jefferson Davis as President. On March 21, he spoke in Savannah in favor of the upholding of the new Confederate States constitution, declaring that its chief corner stone was slavery; and in April he urged upon the Virginia state convention assembled at Richmond the adoption of the ordinance of secession. The regular election for President and Vice

President of the Confederate States under the constitution was held, Nov. 6, 1861, and Davis and Stephens were unanimously re-elected for a term of six years. Mr. Stephens differed with President Davis on the question of conscription in 1862, and formed a peace party in Georgia in 1864, Gov. Joseph E. Brown and Gen. Robert Toombs supporting it, and through their influence the Lincoln-Stephens resolutions on the suppression of the writ of habeas corpus by the Confederate government were passed by the Georgia legislature, March 4, 1864. He headed the unsuccessful peace commission composed of Mr. Stephens, J. A. Campbell and R. M. T. Hunter, appointed by the Confederate government, and they met President Lincoln and Secretary Seward at Hampton Roads, Feb. 3, 1865. The committee reported to President Davis that there could be no peace short of unconditional submission, and when the President refused to consider any such terms, Mr. Stephens left Richmond for his home in Crawfordville, Ga., Feb. 9, 1865, and reached there on the 20th. He was arrested, May 11, at his home, and confined in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, until Oct. 13, 1865, when he was discharged on parole. In February, 1866, he was elected U.S. senator, but when he reached Washington he was not permitted to take his seat, Georgia not having complied with the requirement necessary to secure a place in the councils of the nation. While in Washington he testified before the reconstruction committee of congress, and he taught a class of law students, at his quiet home at Crawfordville, at least 100 young men being instructed by him during his residence there. In 1872, he became editor and part owner of the Atlanta Sun, in which he opposed the candidacy of Horace Greeley, but the paper did not prove financially successful. He was a candidate for U.S. senator before the legislature of Georgia, November, 1871, but was defeated by Joshua Hill, and again in 1873, when he was defeated by Gen. John B. Gordon. He was a representative in the 43d-47th congresses, 187382; supported the Tilden and Hendricks ticket in 1876, and in the Hayes-Tilden controversy advocated a disregard of the alleged returns, but did not favor the seating of Tilden by force. He resigned his seat in congress in 1882, having been elected governor of Georgia by 60,000 majority. His health soon failed so as to incapacitate him for official work. He was a trustee of the University of Georgia, 1875-83, and declined the chair of political science and history of that institution in 1868. During his last term as representative in congress he was an intense sufferer, and appeared each day on the floor of the house either on crutches or seated in a wheel chair from which he was unable to rise unaided. He de

livered a notable oration on the occasion of the unveiling of Carpenter's painting "The First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation" at the head of the stairway in the hall of representatives in the National capitol, Feb. 12, 1878. He is the author of: The War Between the States (2 vols., 1867-1870); School History of the United States (1871), and History of the United States (1883). In October, 1900, his name in " Class M, Rulers and Statesmen," received 7 votes for a place in the Hall of Fame, New York University. His greatest speech was delivered on the occasion of the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the landing of the first colonists under Oglethorpe, the founding of Savannah and the birth of the state of Georgia, celebrated in Savannah, Feb. 13, 1883. He died from the exposure incident to this journey, in Atlanta, Ga., March 4, 1883.

STEPHENS, Alice Barber, illustrator, was born in Salem county, N.J., July 1, 1858; daughter of Samuel C. and Mary (Owen) Barber. She studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and in Paris, and became one of the most prominent of American illustrators. She was married, June 23, 1890, to Charles H. Stephens, son of Louis H. and Susannah (Menns) Stephens of Philadelphia, Pa. She became wood-engraver for Scribner's Magazine, illustrator for Harper's, the Century and The Ladies' Home Journal, and instructor in portrait and life classes in the Philadelphia School of Design for Women.

STEPHENS, Ann Sophia, author, was born in Derby, Conn., in 1813; daughter of John Winterbotham. She was liberally educated, and in 1831 was married to Edward Stephens, a publisher and merchant of Portland, Maine. She was the founder of the Portland Magazine, which her husband published and at first edited, and was herself its editor, 1835-37, contributing to its columns her best-known poem, Polish Boy, and published a compilation of sketches called "The Portland Sketch Book" in 1836. In 1837 she removed to New York city, where her husband had received an appointment in the customhouse; edited The Ladies' Companion and The Ladies' National Magazine; contributed to The Columbia Magazine, Graham's Magazine, and Peterson's Magazine, becoming associate editor of the two last publications in 1842 and 1844 respectively; established The Ladies World in 1843, and The Illustrated New Monthly in 1846. She traveled extensively through Europe and the Orient in 1850, for the purpose of collecting literary material. Her husband died in 1862. She is the author of numerous popular short stories; of contributions to The Brother Jonathan, a weekly published by her husband; Fashion and Famine, a novel (1854), translated into French; Zana, or the Heiress of Clare Hall (London, 1854), republished

as The Heiress of Greenhurst (New York, 1857) ; The Old Homestead (1855; 2d ed., 1860; 3d ed., 1889); Sybil Chase (1862); Ahmo's Plot (1863); Pictorial History of the War for the Union (1863); Phemie Frost's Experiences (1874), and many other novels. T. B. Peterson & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for whom she wrote under contract several years, published a uniform edition of her works in 1869, and a second edition in 1886. She died in Newport, R.I., Aug. 20, 1886.

STEPHENS, Charles Asbury, author, was born in Norway, Maine, Oct. 21, 1845; son of Simeon and Harriet N. (Upton) Stephens; grandson of Joseph and Ruth (Bradbury) Stephens, and of Micah and Mary (Cordwell) Upton, and a descendant of Jonas and Elizabeth (Sherman) Stephens. He was graduated from Bowdoin college, A.B., 1869, and from the Boston university, M.D., 1887. He was married in May, 1871, to Christine, daughter of Otis and Christine (Young) Stevens of Maine. He is the author of regular contributions of boys' stories to the Youth's Companion after 1870, and of: Camping Out (1872); Left on Labrador (1872); Off to the Geysers (1872); Lynx Hunting (1874); Fox Hunting (1874); On the Amazon (1874); The Moose Hunters (1875); and The Knockabout Club (3 vols.). He also published the biological works: Living Matter (1888); Pluricellular Man (1892); Long Life (1896).

STEPHENS, John Hall, representative, was born in Shelby county, Texas, Dec. 22, 1847; son of Lemuel Henderson (born in Perry county, Tenn.) and Sarah Caroline (Truitt) Stephens ; grandson of John (born in South Carolina) and Mary (Truitt) Stephens, and of James and Sarah (Hall) Truitt, and a descendant of Josiah Stephens, who emigrated from England early in the seventeenth century and settled in Virginia. He was educated in Mansfield, Tarrant county, Tex.; graduated LL.B. from Cumberland university, Lebanon, Tex., in 1872; and was married, May 8, 1873, to Annie, daughter of G. F. and Mary (Hightower) Chrisman of Mansfield, Texas. He practised law in Montague and Vernon, Texas, and served as state senator, 1889-92, and was a Democratic representative from Texas in the 55th, 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1897-1905, serving in the 57th congress as a member of the committee on Indian affairs.

STEPHENS, John Lloyd, author and archæologist, was born in Shrewsbury, N.J., Nov. 28, 1805. He was graduated from Columbia, A.B., 1822, A.M., 1827; practised law in New York city, 1825-34. He traveled in Europe, Palestine and Egypt, 1834-36, and in 1839 was appointed by President Van Buren, U.S. special agent to Central America; but as the chaotic condition of

that country was not favorable to his object, in company with Frederick Catherwood, an English artist, he visited many of the ruined Indian cities of that region, and supplemented these explorations by a second expedition in 1841. He was a member of the New York state constitutional convention in 1846; assisted in the organization of the first line of ocean steamships between New York city and Bremen; was an officer of the company and a passenger to Bremen on the Washington, the first vessel to make the voyage from that port; was vice-president and subsequently president of the Panama Railway company, and served in 1849 as surveyor of the route and to make negotiations with the government of New Granada. He died from the results of exposure while personally superintending the work. A monument was placed to his memory on the highest point of the Panama railroad. He is the author of: Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia, Petræa, and the Holy Land (2 vols. 1837); Incidents of Travel in Greece, Turkey, Russia and Poland (2 vols., 1838); Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan (2 vols., 1841); and Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (2 vols., 1843), both illustrated by Frederick Catherwood. He died in New York city, Oct. 10, 1852.

STEPHENS, Lawrence Vest, governor of Missouri, was born in Boonville, Mo., Dec. 21, 1858; son of Joseph L. and Martha G. Stephens. He attended the public schools and an academy, and was graduated from Washington and Lee university, Lexington, Va., LL.B., 1878. He learned the printer's trade; edited and became proprietor of the Boonville Advertiser, 1879, and was successively bank clerk, telegraph operator and lawyer. He was married, Oct. 5, 1880, to Margaret, daughter of James M. and Margaret J. Nelson of Boonville. He became connected with the Central National bank of Boonville as bookkeeper in 1880; and as vice-president in the same year. He was state treasurer of Missouri for seven years, and governor, 1897-1901. On Feb. 3, 1902, he organized and was elected president of the Jefferson City Central Missouri Trust company.

STEPHENS, Robert Neilson, novelist and playwright, was born in New Bloomfield, Pa., July 22, 1867; son of James Andrew and Rebecca (Neilson) Stephens; grandson of Robert Garrett and Martha (Jones) Stephens, and of John and Catharine (Painter) Neilson, and a descendant of Alexander Stephens, said to have come to Pennsylvania from England, in 1746. He attended his father's academy, and was graduated at the high school, both at Huntingdon, Pa.; was employed successively in a printing office, book-store, and railroad office until December, 1886, when he became secretary to the managing editor of the Philadelphia Press. He was dra

matic editor of the Press, 1887-93, and also did general newspaper work. He was married, Nov. 6, 1889, to Maud, daughter of Charles and Annie (Cleland) Helfenstein of Brooklyn, N.Y.; was a theatrical agent in New York city and on the road, 1893, and subsequently, in 1899, went to England, where, after traveling about Europe, he was residing in 1903. His plays include: On the Bowery, The White Rat, An Enemy to the King and The Ragged Regiment, produced in 1894, 1895, 1896 and 1898, respectively. He is author of the novels: An Enemy to the King (1897); The Continental Dragoon (1898); The Road to Paris (1898); A Gentleman Player (1899); Philip Winwood (1900); Captain Ravenshaw (1901), and The Mystery of Murray Davenport (1903).

STEPHENSON, James, representative, was born at Gettysburg, Pa., March 20, 1764. He removed at an early age to Martinsburg, Va.; served with General St. Clair in his Indian expedition, as captain of the volunteer riflemen; was present at the quelling of the whisky insurrection in western Pennsylvania, under General Lee, in October, 1794, and was subsequently promoted brigade-inspector. He was a member of the state legislature for several years, and was a Federalist representative from Virginia in the 8th, 11th, and 17th congresses, serving, 1803-05, 1809-11, and Dec. 2, 1822, to March 3, 1825, being elected to the 17th congress in place of Thomas Van Swearingen, deceased. He was re-elected to the 18th congress, serving, 1823-25. He died at Martinsburg, Va., Aug. 7, 1833.

STEPHENSON, John, manufacturer, was born in county Armagh, Ireland, July 4, 1809, of Scotch-Irish parentage. In 1811 his parents immigrated to New York city, where he was educated in the Wesleyan seminary. Allowed to follow his mechanical turn of mind he was apprenticed to Andrew Wade, a coachmaker. He equipped a workshop at home, where he utilized his leisure in constructing ingenious wagons and sleighs, and through the suggestion of Abram Brower, the pioneer of the Broadway omnibus lines, then known as 66 'accommodation vehicles," began business on his own account in May, 1831, designing the first "omnibus,” so called, in New York city. His shop was destroyed by fire in March, 1832, but he was soon re-established at 264 Elizabeth street, where he constructed the first street car for the newly chartered New York and Harlem railroad. The car, for which he received a patent signed by President Andrew Jackson and by members of his cabinet, and which was named "John Mason," in honor of the president of the road, made its first trip, Nov. 26, 1832. Mr. Stephenson was engaged in building cars for the street railway lines of Paterson, N.J., Brooklyn

and Jamaica, N. Y., Mantanzas, Cuba, and Florida, 1832-35. He was married, Jan. 9, 1833, to Julia A., daughter of Anthony and Mary (Newell) Tieman of New York city. His sons, Stuart A. (in 1869) and Joseph B. (about 1877) became actively interested in the John Stephenson company. In 1843, having met meanwhile with serious financial reverses, he established a large factory, furnishing street-cars for other countries as well as for America, and acquiring a large fortune. He was a performing member of New York Sacred Music society; a member of the Harmonic society, and was a school trustee for the city of New York. He died at his summer home in New Rochelle, N.Y., July 31, 1893. STERNBERG, George Miller, surgeon-general, was born at Hartwick seminary, Otsego county, N.Y., June 8, 1838; son of the Rev. Dr. Levi and Margaret Laverny (Miller) Sternberg; grandson of John and Anna (Schafer) Sternberg and of the Rev. Dr. George B. (principal of Hartwick seminary, 1832-43) and Delia Bray (Snyder) Miller, and a descendant of Nicholas Sternberg, a member of the committee of safety of Schoharie county, N.Y., during the Revolutionary war. His father was principal of Hartwick seminary, 1851-64, and first introduced coeducation in that institution. George Miller Sternberg was graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York city, M.D., 1860; appointed assistant surgeon, U.S. army, May 28, 1861, and assigned to the Army of the Potomac, Gen. George Sykes; was taken prisoner at the first battle of Bull Run, but soon effected his escape; served on hospital duty in Rhode Island, August to November, 1861; as assistant to the medical director in the expedition to New Orleans under Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks (q.v.) in 1862; was assistant medical director, department of the Gulf, August, 1862, to January, 1864, and was on duty in charge of the U.S. General hospital at Cleveland, Ohio, until April, 1866. He was married in 1866, to Maria Louisa, daughter of Robert Russell of Cooperstown, N.Y., who died of cholera at Fort Harker, Kansas, in 1867; and secondly in 1869, to Martha L., daughter of Thomas Thurston Nelson Pattison of Indianapolis. He was commissioned captain and assistant surgeon, May 28, 1866; served at Fort Harker, Kan., during the cholera epidemic of 1867, and at Fort Barrancas, Fla., during the yellow fever epidemics of 1873 and 1875, and was attending surgeon at headquarters, department of the Columbia, May to September, 1876. He was promoted major and surgeon, Dec. 1, 1876; brevetted lieutenant-colonol "for gallant service in the performance of his professional duty under fire in the action against the Indians at Clearwater, Idaho," July 12, 1877, and was post sur

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